Gray brocket

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Gray brocket
Brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira Santa fe do Sul 1.jpg
Male
Grey brocket (Mazama gouazoubira) young female.JPG
Young female
The Pantanal, Brazil
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Genus: Mazama
Species:
M. gouazoubira
Binomial name
Mazama gouazoubira
(Fischer, 1814)
Mazama gouazoubira distribution.png
Synonyms

Mazama gouazoupira(lapsus)

The gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira), also known as the brown brocket, is a species of brocket deer [2] from northern Argentina, Bolivia, southern Peru, eastern and southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It formerly included the Amazonian brown brocket (M. nemorivaga) [3] and sometimes also the Yucatan brown brocket (M. pandora) as subspecies. [4] Unlike other species of brocket deer in its range, the gray brocket has a gray-brown fur without reddish tones. [5]

Contents

Name

The scientific name of the gray brocket deer comes from Félix de Azara's gouazoubira. Azara was the first to provide a quality description of the small deer in the Americas, and he referred to the red brocket as gouazoupita, while he referred to the gray brocket as gouazoubira, which has been maintained in the current species name, Mazama gouazoubira. Though sometimes it is seen as Mazama gouazoupira, this is incorrect, perhaps mistakenly replacing a "b" with a "p" from Azara's name for the red brocket, Gouazoupita. [6]

Physical description

The coat of a gray brocket can range from gray-brown to dark brown. Lighter, browner coats are seen in those that live in grasslands, whereas grayer, darker colors are more prevalent in forest regions. Significant variation can be seen between individuals of the same population, as well. [1] Their tails are white on the bottom, and on their flanks the hair is of a lighter color than that of the rest of the body. The body length of a gray brocket deer can range from 85 to 105 cm (33 to 41 in) and the weight from 11 to 25 kg (24 to 55 lb). [5]

In addition to the obvious differences in color, the gray brocket is generally smaller than the red brocket. [5] Separation of the gray brocket and the Amazonian brown brocket using external features is far harder, but the former has a more orange rump, bigger, more rounded ears, wider auditory bullae, and smaller eyes. [1]

Distribution and habitat

The gray brocket is found in northern Argentina, Bolivia, southern Peru, eastern and southern Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay. [1] They range from the western part of South America, in the East Andes foothills in Bolivia, Peru, and Argentina. From there, it extends eastward, through semiopen regions such as the Gran Chaco, Cerrado, and Caatinga, to the Atlantic Ocean. It does not live in the Amazon Rainforest region (where it is replaced by the Amazonian brown brocket), and its distribution runs south to the mouth of the Paraná River in Argentina. [1]

It is found in brushy vegetation and forest edge, but typically avoids both open habitats without cover and dense forest. [5]

Behavior

Diet

The gray brocket is a herbivore that chooses what it eats selectively, though it does eat a wide variety of plants. During some periods, the grays brocket may become primarily fruit-eating, but this depends on the season, area, and availability of fruits. Many of the fruits are in dense forests, which it for the most part avoids, but it does find other sources of fruits and also other sources of food. [1] In the dry season, they eat the fruit from trees such Caesalpinia paraguariensis , which produce dry, tough fruits. [7] Periodically and locally, they also eat cacti, bromeliad fruits, and leaves and roots from succulents to satisfy their water requirements. [7]

Reproduction

The gray brocket reaches sexual maturity around 18 months old. [8] No distinct breeding season is seen. The gestation periods lasts around 7 months, and post partum estrus occurs. [1] Thus, a gray brocket can produce two offspring in a year. [9] After birth, the doe takes care of the fawn until it is weaned, though the time until it is weaned is unknown. During this time, the fawn remains hidden and is fed by the doe.

Scent-marking

Four types of scent marking have been observed as a means of communication, due to their performance of these behaviors in concurrence with certain postures. These scent-marking behaviors include urination, defecation, thrashing, and forehead rubbing. Such scent-marking tactics can be part of a claim on territory if a number of markings are placed within a concentrated area by a single gray brocket. [1]

Other habits

Gray brockets are active during the day, but generally only appear in the open at night. [5] They are solitary and territorial, with the male defending a larger territory and the female a smaller core area. [5]

Unless under cover, they are very shy and nervous when held captive.

Population and conservation

Overall, the gray brocket remains widespread and common, but it has decreased or even disappeared from near human populations. [1] In Bolivia, the population appears to remain constant despite great hunting pressure, and it is the most common deer in Brazil, though it is declining in some regions. In Argentina, it is declining due to habitat loss and hunting, and in Paraguay, it has declined from regions with high human densities. [1] The primary motive for hunting gray brockets is not pest control, as they cause a minimal amount of crop damage. [7]

The gray brocket occurs in 14 national and provincial reserves in Argentina, as well as seven reserves in Bolivia, and numerous reserves in Paraguay and Brazil. Though hunting is illegal in many areas in the gray brocket's range, bans are generally not enforced. [1] To prevent further population declines, hunting laws need to be enforced, stray dogs from human populations should be controlled, and local village populations should be educated to preserve the gray brocket populations. [1] Additionally, population studies are needed to determine the status of the gray brocket, to be better equipped to help it. [10]

Related Research Articles

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The water deer is a small deer superficially more similar to a musk deer than a true deer. Native to China and Korea, there are two subspecies: the Chinese water deer and the Korean water deer. Despite certain anatomical peculiarities, including a pair of prominent tusks, and its lack of antlers, it is classified as a cervid. Yet, its unique anatomical characteristics have caused it to be classified in its own genus (Hydropotes) as well as its own subfamily (Hydropotinae). However, studies of mitochondrial control region and cytochrome b DNA sequences placed it near Capreolus within an Old World section of the subfamily Capreolinae. Its prominent tusks, similar to those of musk deer, have led to both subspecies being colloquially named vampire deer in English-speaking areas to which they have been imported. The species is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN. It was first described to the Western world by Robert Swinhoe in 1870.

Humid Chaco

The Humid Chaco is tropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregion in South America. It lies in the basin of the Paraná River, covering portions of central Paraguay and northern Argentina, and with a small portion of southwestern Brazil and northwestern Uruguay. The natural vegetation is a mosaic of grasslands, palm savanna, and forest.

Pygmy brocket Species of deer

The pygmy brocket is a brocket deer species from South America. It is found in southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. It is a small deer with short legs, weighing 15 to 20 kilograms. It is reddish-brown in color.

Brocket deer Genus of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

Brockets or brocket deer are the species of deer in the genus Mazama. They are medium to small in size, and are found in the Yucatán Peninsula, Central and South America, and the island of Trinidad. Most species are primarily found in forests. They are superficially similar to the African duikers and the Asian muntjacs, but unrelated. About 10 species of brocket deer are described.

Red brocket Species of deer

The red brocket is a species of brocket deer from forests in South America, ranging from northern Argentina to Colombia and the Guianas. It also occurs on the Caribbean island of Trinidad.

Thorolds deer Species of mammal

Thorold's deer is a threatened species of deer found in grassland, shrubland, and forest at high altitudes in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. It is also known as the white-lipped deer for the white patches around its muzzle.

White-lipped peccary Species of mammals belonging to the peccary family of even-toed ungulates

The white-lipped peccary is a peccary found in Central and South America. Most of its range is in rainforests, but it is also known from a wide range of other habitats such as dry forests, grasslands, mangrove, Cerrado, and dry xerophytic areas. It lives in herds of 20–300 individuals that typically take up about 120 km2 (46 sq mi) to fully function. Members of this species are omnivorous, feeding mostly on fruit, and are usually found traveling great distances to obtain it. If this resource is in demand and difficult to find, peccaries eat leaves, stems, or animal parts. White-lipped peccaries have several unique attributes that allow them to stay with and identify their herd, which is essential for their survival in the wild.

Uruguayan savanna terrestrial ecoregion in South America

The Uruguayan savanna, also known as the Brazilian-Uruguayan savanna, is a subtropical grassland and savanna ecoregion which includes all of Uruguay, some areas of northeastern Argentina and southernmost Brazil.

Dwarf brocket Species of deer

The dwarf brocket, or chunyi, is a small species of deer native to the Andean highlands in western Bolivia and southeastern Peru, where it is found in forest and páramo. Its pelage is reddish-brown with dark grey foreparts and neck. The underparts are lighter brown, and the muzzle short and thick. It weighs around 11 kg.

Yucatan brown brocket Species of deer

The Yucatan brown brocket is a small species of deer native to the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, Belize and Guatemala. While it is found in humid tropical forest like most other brocket deer, the Yucatan brown brocket also ranges across arid, relatively open habitats.

Small red brocket Species of deer

The small red brocket is a small species of deer in the family Cervidae. It is endemic to Atlantic Forest in Paraná, Santa Catarina and São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. This species, which only was scientifically described in 1996, is threatened by habitat loss. Though its size and structure most resemble that of the pygmy brocket, its coloration is very similar to that of the red brocket. It resembles hybrids between these two species even more closely, but differs from both, and their hybrids, in karyotype.

Capreolinae Subfamily of mammals

The Capreolinae, Odocoileinae, or the New World deer are a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the telemetacarpal deer, due to their bone structure being different from the plesiometacarpal deer subfamily Cervinae. The telemetacarpal deer maintain their distal lateral metacarpals, while the plesiometacarpal deer maintain only their proximal lateral metacarpals. The Capreolinae are believed to have originated in the Middle Miocene, between 7.7 and 11.5 million years ago, in central Asia.

Serra da Cutia National Park

Serra da Cutia National Park is a national park in the state of Rondônia, Brazil.

Central American red brocket Species of deer

The Central American red brocket is a species of brocket deer ranging from southern Mexico, through Central America, to northwestern Colombia. In 1792 Robert Kerr originally described it as a unique separate species as opposed to a subspecies. It was treated as a subspecies of the red brocket from South America, but its karyotype has 2n = 50, while the latter's was initially described as having 2n = 68–70. However, a more recent description gives the red brocket a variable karyotype with 2n ranging from 48 to 54, suggesting it represents several species. It is sympatric with the Yucatan brown brocket over part of its range. Additionally, it was estimated that Mazama temama diverged from other red brocket deer about 2 MYA. This was estimated through analysis of concatenated sequences from the mitochondrial gene ND2, Cytb, and tRNA-Pro-Control region. The species is found in primary and secondary tropical forest at altitudes from sea level to 2800 m. In Mexico, it is regarded as an agricultural pest by bean farmers. It is probably threatened by hunting and deforestation.

Amazonian brown brocket Species of deer

The Amazonian brown brocket, also known as the small brown brocket, is a small species of deer that is almost entirely restricted to South America.

Mammals of Olympic National Park

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The fauna of Uruguay is a part of the wildlife of Uruguay.

Purus–Madeira moist forests

The Purus-Madeira moist forests (NT0157) is an ecoregion in the central Amazon basin. It is part of the Amazon biome. The ecoregion covers a stretch of flat and relatively infertile land between the Purus and Madeira rivers, extending to the Solimões River in the north. It is isolated from other regions by the seasonally flooded várzea forest along these rivers, and has a high degree of endemism among its flora and fauna. The natural environment is relatively intact. The BR-319 highway was built along the length of the ecoregion in the early 1970s, but rapidly deteriorated and is now closed.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Black-Decima, P.A.; Vogliotti, A. (2016). "Mazama gouazoubira". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T29620A22154584. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T29620A22154584.en . Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  2. Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 637–722. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  3. Rossi, R. V. (2000). Taxonomia de Mazama Rafinesque, 1817 do Brasil (Artiodactyla, Cervidae). M.Sc. Thesis, Universidade de São Paulo.
  4. Medellín, R. A., A. L. Gardner, J. M. Aranda (1998). The taxonomic status of the Yucatán brown brocket, Mazama pandora (Mammalia: Cervidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 111 (1): 1–14.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wilson, D. E., Mittermeier, R. A., editors (2011). Handbook of the Mammals of the World, vol. 2 (Hoofed Mammals), p. 441. ISBN   978-84-96553-77-4
  6. Allen, Joel Asaph. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 34. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1915. p. 522-523.
  7. 1 2 3 Haralson, C. 2004. Mazama gouazoubira (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Downloaded on 9 October 2011.
  8. Black-Dècima, P. 2000. Home range, social structure, and scent marking behavior in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) in a large enclosure. Mastozoologia Neotropical, 7(1): 5-14.
  9. McCarthy, Andrew, Raleigh Blouch, Donald Moore, and Christen M. Wemmer. Deer: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN, 1998 - Nature. P. 32-33.
  10. Periago, Maria E. and Gerardo C. Leynaud. Density estimates of Mazama gouazoubira (Cervidae) using the pellet count technique in the arid Chaco (Argentina). Ecología Austral 19:73-77. Abril 2009 Abril de 2009 Asociación Argentina de Ecología. Downloaded on 9 October 2009.