|Pygmy brocket distribution.|
Extant Possibly extant
The pygmy brocket (Mazama nana) is a brocket deer species from South America.  It is found in southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay.  It is a small deer with short legs, weighing 15 to 20 kilograms (33 to 44 lb). It is reddish-brown in color.
This species is sometimes considered a subspecies of Mazama rufina .
Deer or true deer are hoofed ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk (wapiti), the red deer, and the fallow deer; and the Capreolinae, including the reindeer (caribou), white-tailed deer, the roe deer, and the moose. Male deer of all species as well as female reindeer, grow and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family (Bovidae) within the same order of even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla).
Chevrotains, or mouse-deer, are small even-toed ungulates that make up the family Tragulidae, the only extant members of the infraorder Tragulina. The 10 extant species are placed in three genera, but several species also are known only from fossils. The extant species are found in forests in South and Southeast Asia, with a single species, the water chevrotain, in the rainforests of Central and West Africa. They are solitary or live in pairs, and feed almost exclusively on plant material. Chevrotains are the smallest hoofed mammals in the world. The Asian species weigh between 0.7 and 8.0 kg, while the African chevrotain is considerably larger at 7–16 kg (15–35 lb). With an average length of 45 cm (18 in) and an average height of 30 cm (12 in), the Java mouse-deer is the smallest extant (living) ungulate or hoofed mammal, as well as the smallest extant even-toed ungulate.
Brockets or brocket deer are the species of deer in the genus Mazama. They are medium to small in size, and are found in the Yucatán Peninsula, Central and South America, and the island of Trinidad. Most species are primarily found in forests. They are superficially similar to the African duikers and the Asian muntjacs, but unrelated. About 10 species of brocket deer are described.
The red brocket is a species of brocket deer from forests in South America, ranging from northern Argentina to Colombia and the Guianas. It also occurs on the Caribbean island of Trinidad.
The gray brocket, also known as the brown brocket, is a species of brocket deer from northern Argentina, Bolivia, southern Peru, eastern and southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It formerly included the Amazonian brown brocket and sometimes also the Yucatan brown brocket as subspecies. Unlike other species of brocket deer in its range, the gray brocket has a gray-brown fur without reddish tones.
The dwarf brocket, or chunyi, is a small species of deer native to the Andean highlands in western Bolivia and southeastern Peru, where it is found in forest and páramo. Its pelage is reddish-brown with dark grey foreparts and neck. The underparts are lighter brown, and the muzzle short and thick. It weighs around 11 kg.
The little red brocket or swamp brocket, also known as the Ecuador red brocket, is a small, little-studied deer native to the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru, where found in forest and páramo at altitudes between 1,400 and 3,600 metres. It is one of the smallest brocket deer. The coat is reddish, and the legs and crown are blackish. As recently as 1999, some authorities included both the pygmy brocket and Merida brocket as subspecies of the little red brocket.
The Yucatan brown brocket is a small species of deer native to the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, Belize and Guatemala. While it is found in humid tropical forest like most other brocket deer, the Yucatan brown brocket also ranges across arid, relatively open habitats.
The small red brocket is a small species of deer in the family Cervidae. It is endemic to Atlantic Forest in Paraná, Santa Catarina and São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. This species, which only was scientifically described in 1996, is threatened by habitat loss. Though its size and structure most resemble that of the pygmy brocket, its coloration is very similar to that of the red brocket. It resembles hybrids between these two species even more closely, but differs from both, and their hybrids, in karyotype.
The Mérida brocket, also known as the Meroia brocket or rufous brocket, is a small species of deer. It is found in forest and páramo at altitudes of 1,000–3,500 metres (3,300–11,500 ft) in the Andes of northern Colombia and western Venezuela. It was once treated as a subspecies of the similar little red brocket, but has been considered a distinct species since 1987, though as recent as 1999 some maintained it as a subspecies.
The Capreolinae, Odocoileinae, or the New World deer are a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the telemetacarpal deer, due to their bone structure being different from the plesiometacarpal deer subfamily Cervinae. The telemetacarpal deer maintain their distal lateral metacarpals, while the plesiometacarpal deer maintain only their proximal lateral metacarpals. The Capreolinae are believed to have originated in the Middle Miocene, between 7.7 and 11.5 million years ago, in Central Asia.
The Central American red brocket is a species of brocket deer ranging from southern Mexico, through Central America, to northwestern Colombia. In 1792 Robert Kerr originally described it as a unique separate species as opposed to a subspecies. It was treated as a subspecies of the red brocket from South America, but its karyotype has 2n = 50, while the latter's was initially described as having 2n = 68–70. However, a more recent description gives the red brocket a variable karyotype with 2n ranging from 48 to 54, suggesting it represents several species. It is sympatric with the Yucatan brown brocket over part of its range. Additionally, it was estimated that Mazama temama diverged from other red brocket deer about 2 MYA. This was estimated through analysis of concatenated sequences from the mitochondrial gene ND2, Cytb, and tRNA-Pro-Control region. The species is found in primary and secondary tropical forest at altitudes from sea level to 2800 m. In Mexico, it is regarded as an agricultural pest by bean farmers. It is probably threatened by hunting and deforestation.
Cerradomys scotti, also known as Lindbergh's oryzomys, is a rodent species from South America in the genus Cerradomys. It is terrestrial and is found in the cerrado (savanna) ecozone of south central Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. The species is common and appears to tolerate a degree of agricultural habitat modification.
A unique and diverse albeit phylogenetically restricted mammal fauna is known from the Caribbean region. The region—specifically, all islands in the Caribbean Sea and the Bahamas, Turks and Caicos Islands, and Barbados, which are not in the Caribbean Sea but biogeographically belong to the same Caribbean bioregion—has been home to several families found nowhere else, but much of this diversity is now extinct.
The Amazonian brown brocket, also known as the small brown brocket, is a small species of deer that is almost entirely restricted to South America.
Dama is a genus of deer in the subfamily Cervinae, commonly referred to as fallow deer.