Kashmir musk deer

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Kashmir musk deer
CITES Appendix I (CITES) [1] [note 1]
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Moschidae
Genus: Moschus
M. cupreus
Binomial name
Moschus cupreus
Grubb, 1982 [1]

The Kashmir musk deer (Moschus cupreus) is an endangered species of musk deer native to Afghanistan, India, and Pakistan. Recent studies have shown that the species is also native to western Nepal. [2] This species was originally described as a subspecies to the alpine musk deer, but is now classified as a separate species. The deer stand at 60 cm (24 in) tall, and only males have tusks and they use them during mating season to compete for females.

The Kashmir musk deer, which is one of seven similar species found throughout Asia, is endangered due to habitat loss and also because of poachers hunting the animal for its prized scent glands. [3]

In Afghanistan no musk deer sighting had been scientifically reported from 1948 until 2009. A survey conducted in June 2009 by WCS in the province of Nuristan, Afghanistan found at least three specimens, confirming that the species still persists in this country despite unregulated hunting, extensive deforestation, habitat degradation, and the absence of the rule of law. [4] In summer, musk deer inhabit remote alpine scrub on scattered rock outcrops and in upper fringes of closed coniferous forests at an elevation of 3,000–3,500 m (9,800–11,500 ft) using invariably use steep slopes (≥ 20°). A data-driven geographical model predicted that suitable habitat for musk deer in Afghanistan extends over about 1,300 km2 (500 sq mi) in the contiguous Nuristan (75.5%), Kunar (14.4%) and Laghman Provinces (10.1%). Although relatively vast, the area of habitat potentially available to musk deer in Afghanistan appears to be highly fragmented. [4]

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Moschidae</span> Family of mammals belonging to even-toed ungulates

Moschidae is a family of pecoran even-toed ungulates, containing the musk deer (Moschus) and its extinct relatives. They are characterized by long 'saber teeth' instead of horns, antlers or ossicones, modest size and a lack of facial glands. The fossil record of the family extends back to the late Oligocene, around 28 million years ago. The group was abundant across Eurasia and North America during the Miocene, but afterwards declined to only the extant genus Moschus by the early Pleistocene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Musk deer</span> Genus of mammals

Musk deer can refer to any one, or all seven, of the species that make up Moschus, the only extant genus of the family Moschidae. Despite being commonly called deer, they are not true deer belonging to the family Cervidae, but rather their family is closely related to Bovidae, the group that contains antelopes, bovines, sheep, and goats. The musk deer family differs from cervids, or true deer, by lacking antlers and preorbital glands also, possessing only a single pair of teats, a gallbladder, a caudal gland, a pair of canine tusks and—of particular economic importance to humans—a musk gland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Markhor</span> Species of mammal

The markhor is a large Capra species native to Central Asia, the Karakoram, and the Himalayas. It is listed on the IUCN Red List as Near Threatened since 2015.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Himalayan monal</span> Species of bird

The Himalayan monal, also called Impeyan monal and Impeyan pheasant, is a pheasant native to Himalayan forests and shrublands at elevations of 2,100–4,500 m (6,900–14,800 ft). It is part of the family Phasianidae and is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. It is the national bird of Nepal, where it is known as the danphe or danfe, and state bird of Uttarakhand, India, where it is known as monal. The scientific name commemorates Lady Mary Impey, the wife of the British chief justice of Bengal, Sir Elijah Impey.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Siberian musk deer</span> Species of mammal

The Siberian musk deer is a musk deer found in the mountain forests of Northeast Asia. It is most common in the taiga of southern Siberia, but is also found in parts of Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria and the Korean peninsula.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">White-bellied musk deer</span> Species of mammal

The white-bellied musk deer or Himalayan musk deer is a musk deer species occurring in the Himalayas of Nepal, Bhutan, India, Pakistan and China. It is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List because of overexploitation resulting in a probable serious population decline.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dwarf musk deer</span> Species of mammal

The dwarf musk deer or Chinese forest musk deer is an artiodactyl native to southern and central China and northernmost Vietnam. The species name is after the collector Mikhail Mikhailovich Berezovsky. On June 14, 1976, China entered the dwarf musk deer onto its endangered species list. Four subspecies are recognized:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Black musk deer</span> Species of mammal

The black musk deer or dusky musk deer is a species of even-toed ungulate in the family Moschidae. It is found in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Snow leopard</span> Species of large felid (Panthera uncia)

The snow leopard, also known as the ounce, is a felid in the genus Panthera native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because the global population is estimated to number fewer than 10,000 mature individuals and is expected to decline about 10% by 2040. It is threatened by poaching and habitat destruction following infrastructural developments. It inhabits alpine and subalpine zones at elevations of 3,000–4,500 m (9,800–14,800 ft), ranging from eastern Afghanistan, the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau to southern Siberia, Mongolia and western China. In the northern part of its range, it also lives at lower elevations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wildlife of Pakistan</span>

The wildlife of Pakistan comprises a diverse flora and fauna in a wide range of habitats from sea level to high elevation areas in the mountains, including 195 mammal, 668 bird species and more than 5000 species of Invertebrates. This diverse composition of the country's fauna is associated with its location in the transitional zone between two major zoogeographical regions, the Palearctic, and the Oriental. The northern regions of Pakistan, which include Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit Baltistan include portions of two biodiversity hotspot, Mountains of Central Asia and Himalayas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alpine musk deer</span> Species of musk deer

The Alpine musk deer is a musk deer species native to the eastern Himalayas in Nepal, Bhutan and India to the highlands of Tibet.

Kedarnath Wild Life Sanctuary, also called the Kedarnath Musk Deer Sanctuary, is a wildlife sanctuary declared under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and located in Uttarakhand, India. Its alternate name comes from its primary purpose of protecting the endangered Himalayan musk deer. Consisting of an area of 975 km2 (376 sq mi), it is the largest protected area in the western Himalayas.It is famous for alpine musk deer, Himalayan Thar, Himalayan Griffon, Himalayan Black bear, Snow Leopard and other flora park and fauna. It is internationally important for the diversity of its flora and fauna.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Western Himalayan broadleaf forests</span>

The Western Himalayan broadleaf forests is a temperate broadleaf and mixed forest ecoregion which is found in the middle elevations of the western Himalayas, including parts of Nepal, India, and Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests</span>

The Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests is a temperate coniferous forests ecoregion of the middle and upper elevations of the western Middle Himalayas of Nepal, India, and Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deer musk</span> Odorous substance from male musk deers caudal gland

Deer musk is a substance with a persistent odor, obtained from the caudal glands of the male musk deer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anhui musk deer</span> Species of mammal

The Anhui musk deer is an endangered species of musk deer that is endemic to the Dabie Mountains of western Anhui province, China. It was formerly described as a subspecies of Moschus berezovskii and Moschus moschiferus, but is now classified as a separate species.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Overa-Aru Wildlife Sanctuary</span> National park in Pahalgam.India

The Overa-Aru Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area in Aru Valley, Pahalgam near Anantnag city in Anantnag district of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It lies 46 km from Anantnag city, the district headquarter. It is on the periphery of the two villages of Overa and Aru. The sanctuary spreads over 511 square kilometres (197 sq mi), lies 76 kilometres (47 mi) east of Srinagar. It was declared a game reserve in 1945 under the Dogra Rule and later upgraded to a sanctuary in 1981.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gulmarg Wildlife Sanctuary</span> Wildlife Sanctuary in Gulmarg

The Gulmarg Wildlife Sanctuary spread over 180 square kilometres (69 sq mi) is a protected area in Gulmarg, Baramulla district of Jammu and Kashmir, India. The sanctuary lies on the north-eastern side of the Pir Panjal mountain range and falls under the northwest Biogeographic Zone 2A. It lies 50 kilometres (31 mi) south-west of Srinagar and 26 kilometres (16 mi) from Baramulla. The sanctuary was first declared as a game reserve in 1981 and later upgraded to a sanctuary in 1987.

The Gurez National Park, also known as Musk Deer National Park, is one of the protected areas of Pakistan. It is located in Neelum District in Azad kashmir, Pakistan, besides the Neelum River in the Gurez valley. It is located in the high Himalayas and Pir Panjal Range. It is a thirty-five minute drive from Gurez tehsil. It is also known as Gurez valley national park.


  1. 1 2 3 Timmins, R.J.; Duckworth, J.W. (2015). "Moschus cupreus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2015: e.T136750A61979453. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T136750A61979453.en . Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  2. Singh, P.B.; Khatiwada, J.R.; Saud, P.; Jiang, Z. (2019). "MtDNA analysis confirms the endangered Kashmir musk deer extends its range to Nepal". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 4895. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-41167-4. PMC   6426878 . PMID   30894581.
  3. "Elusive fanged deer spotted for 1st time in 66 years". Archived from the original on 2014-11-07.
  4. 1 2 Ostrowski, S.; Rahmani, H.; Ali, J.M.; Ali, R.; Zahler, P. (2014). "Musk deer Moschus cupreus persist in the eastern forests of Afghanistan". Oryx. 50 (2): 1–6. doi: 10.1017/S0030605314000611 .


  1. Only populations of Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan. All other populations are included in Appendix II.