Siberian roe deer

Last updated

Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer.jpg
A stag (male) at the Daursky Nature Reserve in Zabaykalsky Krai, Siberia
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Genus: Capreolus
C. pygargus
Binomial name
Capreolus pygargus
(Pallas, 1771)  [2]
  • C. p. pygargus
  • C. p. tianschanicus
Leefgebied ree.JPG
Range of genus Capreolus

The Siberian roe deer, eastern roe deer, or Asian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus), is a species of roe deer found in northeastern Asia. In addition to Siberia and Mongolia, it is found in Kazakhstan, the Tian Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan, eastern Tibet, the Korean Peninsula, and northern China.


Its specific name pygargus , literally "white-rumped", is shared by the pygarg, an antelope known in antiquity. The name was chosen by the German biologist Peter Simon Pallas in the late 18th century. [3] The Siberian roe deer has long antlers.


The Siberian roe deer was once considered to be the same species as the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), but it is now considered to be a separate species.

The two subspecies of the Siberian roe deer are C. p. pygargus and C. p. tianschanicus (the latter is named for the Tian Shan mountains). [4]


The Siberian roe deer is a moderately-sized metacarpalian deer, with a long neck and large ears. It is typically up to 146 cm (4.8 ft) in body length and 59 kg (130 lb) in weight, making it larger than C. capreolus where populations from Ural and Northern Kazakhstan are the largest on average, followed by those from Transbaikal, Amur, and Primolskil regions. [5] It has larger antlers with more branches than those of European roe deer. Siberian roe deer generally live about 8–12 years, with a maximum of about 18 years. In winter the northern populations exhibit light gray coloring, but their southern counterparts are grayish brown and ochraceous. [6] The belly is creamy and the caudal patch is white. In the summer, their coloring is reddish. Young have a spotted coat. [7] Males are larger and have three-tined antlers, widely spaced and slanting upward, which are shed in the autumn or early winter and begin to regrow shortly thereafter. [8]

Distribution and habitat

Siberian roe deer are found within the temperate zone of Eastern Europe and Central and East Asia. Fossil records show their territory once stretched to the northern Caucasus Mountains, as well as eastern Ukraine. [1] [9] In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, their range was diminished by overhunting in Eastern Europe, northern Kazakhstan, western Siberia, and the northern regions of eastern Siberia. Due to a division in their range, two morphologically different subspecies resulted (Tian Shan and Siberian). [7] The Siberian and European roe deer meet at the Caucasus Mountains with the Siberian roe deer occupying the northern flank, and the European roe deer occupying the southern flank, Asia Minor, and parts of northwestern Iran.

The Siberian roe deer has a light, slender build adapted for tall, dense grass. [6] They live in forest and steppe habitats and develop high densities in tall-grass meadows and floodplains. [10] They are adapted to severe weather extremes. [11]

It may have become naturalized in England for a short period in the early 20th century as an escapee from Woburn, but it was extirpated by 1945. [12] [13]



The diet of the Siberian roe deer consists of over 600 species of plants – mostly herbaceous dicotyledons (58%), monocotyledons (16%), and woody species (22%). [14] In winter, without proper sustenance, they have a lowered metabolic rate. [15] In summer, their dietary need for sodium necessitates visits to natural salt licks. [16] Water is usually obtained through moisture-rich foods as opposed to directly from the source. [17]


Female Kosulia 1.JPG

Siberian roe deer can jump distances up to 15 m (49 ft)[ citation needed ], and mating occurs in August and September. Female Siberian roe deer are the only ungulates to undergo embryonic diapause. [18] [19] Embryonic implantation takes place in January and gestation lasts 280–300 days. [20] [21] [22] Females usually have two young at a time, which are weaned after 4–5 months. [22] [23] Females reach sexual maturity in their first year of age but usually do not breed until their second. Males usually mate in their third year of life. [18] [20] [22] The life-span of the Siberian roe deer does not usually exceed 10 years. [24]

Males mark their territory with olfactory marks, using secretion glands on the head skin, which they rub against trees, shrubs, and high grasses, or with visual marks, by fraying trees with their antlers. Vocal signals are also a form of communication in Siberian roe deer. They have six signals: squeaking or whistling, rasping, barking, whining, screaming, and nonvocal sounds. [25]

Some Siberian roe deer perform mass migrations. [26]


The Siberian roe deer is preyed upon by the Amur leopard, Siberian lynx, snow leopard, [27] Himalayan wolf, [28] and Siberian tiger. [29]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Siberia</span> Geographical region in Russia

Siberia is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of Russia since the latter half of the 16th century, after the Russians conquered lands east of the Ural Mountains. Siberia is vast and sparsely populated, covering an area of over 13.1 million square kilometres (5,100,000 sq mi), but home to merely one-fifth of Russia's population. Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk and Omsk are the largest cities in the region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deer</span> Family of mammals

Deer or true deer are hoofed ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk (wapiti), the red deer, and the fallow deer; and the Capreolinae, including the reindeer (caribou), white-tailed deer, the roe deer, and the moose. Male deer of all species, as well as female reindeer, grow and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family (Bovidae) within the same order of even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Altai Mountains</span> Mountains in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and Mongolia

The Altai Mountains, also spelled Altay Mountains, are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan converge, and where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters. The massif merges with the Sayan Mountains in the northeast, and gradually becomes lower in the southeast, where it merges into the high plateau of the Gobi Desert. It spans from about 45° to 52° N and from about 84° to 99° E.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Roe deer</span> Species of deer

The roe deer, also known as the roe, western roe deer, or European roe deer, is a species of deer. The male of the species is sometimes referred to as a roebuck. The roe is a small deer, reddish and grey-brown, and well-adapted to cold environments. The species is widespread in Europe, from the Mediterranean to Scandinavia, from Scotland to the Caucasus, and east to northern Iran and Iraq.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yakuts</span> Turkic ethnic group

Yakuts or Sakha are a Turkic ethnic group who mainly live in the Republic of Sakha in the Russian Federation, with some extending to the Amur, Magadan, Sakhalin regions, and the Taymyr and Evenk Districts of the Krasnoyarsk region. The Yakut language belongs to the Siberian branch of the Turkic languages. The Russian word yakut was taken from Evenk yokō. The Yakuts call themselves Sakha, or Urangai Sakha in some old chronicles.

<i>Capreolus</i> Genus of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

Capreolus is a genus of deer, the roe deer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Steppe polecat</span> Species of carnivore

The steppe polecat, also known as the white or masked polecat, is a species of mustelid native to Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List because of its wide distribution, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and tolerance to some degree of habitat modification. It is generally of a very light yellowish colour, with dark limbs and a dark mask across the face. Compared to its relative, the European polecat, the steppe polecat is larger in size and has a more powerfully built skull.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Siberian weasel</span> Species of carnivore

The Siberian weasel or kolonok, is a medium-sized weasel native to Asia, where it is widely distributed and inhabits various forest habitats and open areas. It is therefore listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Siberian musk deer</span> Species of mammal

The Siberian musk deer is a musk deer found in the mountain forests of Northeast Asia. It is most common in the taiga of southern Siberia, but is also found in parts of Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria and the Korean peninsula.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Asian badger</span> Species of carnivore

The Asian badger, also known as the sand badger, is a species of badger native to Mongolia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Korean Peninsula and Russia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Animals of Wales</span> Country fauna

Animals of Wales includes marine and land animals, birds and reptiles that are resident, visitors or have been introduced to Wales.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Naurzum Nature Reserve</span>

Naurzum State Nature Reserve is a nature reserve in Kostanay Region, Kazakhstan. It is part of the UNESCO heritage site Saryarka — Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan. It protects about 3,081 square kilometres (1,190 sq mi) of steppes, semi desert and forests. The administrative office of the protected area is located in Karamendy village.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Golestan National Park</span>

Golestan National Park, commonly known as the Golestan Jungle, is an Iranian National Park in Golestan Province, northeastern Iran.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tien Shan dhole</span> Subspecies of carnivore

The Tian Shan dhole, also known as the Siberian dhole, Western Asiatic dhole, or northern dhole is a subspecies of dhole native to the Altai and Tian Shan mountain ranges, and possibly Pamir and Kashmir.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ussuri dhole</span> Subspecies of carnivore

The Ussuri dhole, also known as the Indian dhole, Eastern Asiatic dhole, Chinese dhole or southern dhole, is the nominate subspecies of the dhole native to East Asia. The Ussuri dhole is also native to China, however it is probably extinct in most of its ranges in China, as well as in Mongolia and the Russian Far East.

Wild Field is a 300 ha nature reserve near the city of Tula in Tula Oblast in the European part of Russia, approximately 250 km (150 mi) south of Moscow. It was established in 2012 by Russian scientists Sergey Zimov and Nikita Zimov as a companion to Pleistocene Park in Siberia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Khangai Mountains conifer forests</span>

The Khangai Mountains conifer forests ecoregion covers the northern slopes of the Khangai Mountains in central Mongolia. The cool, temperate forest supports a populations of elk, deer, wild boar, wolves, and brown bear. The diversity of plants and animals has benefited from the relative isolation and low human population of the area.


  1. 1 2 Lovari, S.; Masseti, M.; Lorenzini, R. (2016). "Capreolus pygargus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T42396A22161884. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T42396A22161884.en . Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  2. "Capreolus pygargus (Pallas, 1771)". Integrated Taxonomic Information System . Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  3. Pallas, P.S. (1793). Voyages du professeur Pallas, dans plusieurs provinces de l'Empire de Russie et dans l'Asie septentrionale (in Latin and French). p. 25.
  4. Peter Grubb (2005). "Artiodactyla: Cervidae: Capreolinae". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 644–655. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  5. Consultants Bureau., 1988, Biology Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR., Vol.15, p.305, Akademii͡a nauk SSSR.
  6. 1 2 Flerov, K. K. (1952). "The genera Moschus and Cervus". Fauna of the USSR. Mammals. Moscow-Leningrad: USSR Academy of Science Publishers.
  7. 1 2 Heptner, V. G.; A. A. Nastmovich & A. G. Gannikov (1961). Mammals of the Soviet Union. Artiodactyles and Perissodactlyes (in Russian). Moscow: Vysshaja Shkola Publishers.
  8. M. N. Smirnov (1978). Roe Deer in western Trans-Baikal Area (in Russian). Novosibirsk: Nauka Publishers.
  9. Y. L. Korotkevich & A. A. Danilkin. Phylogeny, evolution and systematics. pp. 8–21 in Sokolov (1992).
  10. J. Zejda & A. A. Danilkin. Environment. pp. 86–100 in Sokolov (1992).
  11. A. A. Danilkin. Range. pp. 64–85 in Sokolov (1992).
  12. William Ling Taylor (1939). "The distribution of wild deer in England and Wales". Journal of Animal Ecology . 8 (1): 6–9. doi:10.2307/1249. JSTOR   1249.
  13. Long, John L. (2003). "Artiodactyla". Introduced Mammals of the World: their History, Distribution and Influence. CSIRO Publishing. pp. 361–534. ISBN   9780643099166.
  14. V. Holisova; R. Obrtel; I. Kozena & A. A. Danilkin. Feeding. pp. 124–139 in Sokolov (1992).
  15. Kholodova, M. V. (1986). Seasonal variations of food requirements in some ungulates. IV Congress of the All-Union Theriological Society (in Russian). Vol. 1. Moscow. pp. 367–368.
  16. Fetisov, A. S. (1953). Roe deer in East Siberia (in Russian). Irkutsk: Regional Publishing House.
  17. A. A. Danilkin & S. Dulamtseren (1981). "The roe deer in Mongolia". Okhota I Okhotnichie Khozyaistvo (in Russian). 3: 44–45.
  18. 1 2 V. B. Pole (1973). "Breeding of the roe deer in Kazakhstan". Proceedings of the Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences' Institute of Zoology (in Russian). 34: 135–144.
  19. R. J. Aitken (1981). "Aspects of delayed implantation in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)". Journal of Reproduction and Fertility . 29: 83–95. PMID   7014871.
  20. 1 2 O. E. Tsaplyuk (1977). "Age-related and seasonal peculiarities of the reproduction biology of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) of Kazakhstan". Zoologicheskii Zhurnal (in Russian and English). 56: 611–618.
  21. V. S. Gromov (1986). The morphological variability, behavior and systematics of the roe deer (Ph.D. thesis) (in Russian). Moscow.
  22. 1 2 3 C. Stubbe & A. A. Danilkin. Breeding. pp. 140–159 in Sokolov (1992).
  23. V. E. Sokolov; V. S. Gromov & A. A. Danilkin (1985). "The ontogeny of Siberian roe deer (Capreolus capreolus pygargus) behavior". Zoologicheskii Zhurnal (in Russian and English). 64: 915–926.
  24. A. A. Danilkin. Populations structure. pp. 160–184 in Sokolov (1992).
  25. Sokolov, V. E. & A. A. Danilkin (1981). The Siberian roe deer (in Russian). Moscow: Nauka Publishers.
  26. Grant Harris; et al. (Apr 2009). "Global decline in aggregated migrations of large terrestrial mammals" (PDF). Endangered Species Research. 7: 55–76. doi: 10.3354/esr00173 .
  27. Lyngdoh, S.; Shrotriya, S.; Goyal, S. P., Clements, H.; Hayward, M. W.; Habib, B. (2014). "Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia): regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation". PLOS ONE. 9 (2): e88349. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...988349L. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088349 . PMC   3922817 . PMID   24533080.
  28. S. Balajeid Lyngdoh; B. Habib; S. Shrotriya (2019). "Dietary spectrum in Himalayan wolves: comparative analysis of prey choice in conspecifics across high-elevation rangelands of Asia" (PDF). Journal of Zoology: 1–10. ISSN   0952-8369 . Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  29. Heptner, V. G.; Sludskij, A. A. (1992) [1972]. Mlekopitajuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Vysšaia Škola [Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 2. Carnivora (Hyaenas and Cats)]. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. pp. 1–732.

Works cited