Central Asian red deer

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Central Asian red deer
Bukhara Deer stag at Speyside Wildlife Park - geograph.org.uk - 1002574.jpg
Captive stag in Speyside Wildlife Park, United Kingdom
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Cervinae
Genus: Cervus
Species:
C. hanglu
Binomial name
Cervus hanglu
Wagner, 1844
Subspecies

The Central Asian red deer (Cervus hanglu) is a deer species with a sparse distribution in Central Asia. It is considered possibly extirpated from Pakistan. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. [1] It was first described in the mid-19th century. [2]

Contents

Characteristics

The Central Asian red deer's fur is light ginger in colour. [2]

Taxonomy

The scientific name Cervus hanglu was proposed by Johann Andreas Wagner in 1844 for a deer specimen from Kashmir that differed from the red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the shape and points of the antlers. [2] In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the following red deer specimens from Central Asia were described:

In 1951, John Ellerman and Terence Morrison-Scott recognised all these specimens as subspecies of the red deer. [8] In 2005, Peter Grubb also considered the proposed taxa as subspecies of the red deer. [9]

IUCN Red List assessors provisionally recognised its status as a distinct species in 2017; [1] this decision was supported by the American Society of Mammalogists in 2021. [10] The Central Asian red deer is thought to comprise three subspecies:

Phylogeny

An analysis of mitochondrial DNA of 125 tissue samples from 50 populations of the genus Cervus included two samples from Tajikistan and three from western China. The results supported the classification of the red deer populations in Central Asia as two distinct red deer subspecies. [11] Results of a subsequent phylogenetic analysis of Cervinae tissue samples indicated that deer samples from Central Asia form a distinct clade and warrant to be raised to species level. [12] The Central Asian red deer group appears to have genetically diverged from the European red deer group during the Chibanian period between 770,000 and 126,000 years ago. [13]

The first phylogenetic analysis using hair samples of the deer population in Dachigam National Park in Jammu and Kashmir was published in 2015. Results showed that these samples form a subcluster within the Central Asian red deer group; they are genetically closer to this group than to the European red deer. [14]

Related Research Articles

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The sika deer, also known as the spotted deer or the Japanese deer, is a species of deer native to much of East Asia and introduced to other parts of the world. Previously found from northern Vietnam in the south to the Russian Far East in the north, it is now uncommon except in Japan, where the species is overabundant.

Elds deer Asia ruminant mammal species

Eld's deer, also known as the thamin or brow-antlered deer, is an endangered species of deer endemic to South Asia.

Red deer Species of mammal

The red deer is one of the largest deer species. A male red deer is called a stag or hart, and a female is called a hind. The red deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains region, Anatolia, Iran, and parts of western Asia. It also inhabits the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and Tunisia, being the only species of deer to inhabit Africa. Red deer have been introduced to other areas, including Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, Peru, Uruguay, Chile and Argentina. In many parts of the world, the meat (venison) from red deer is used as a food source.

<i>Cervus</i> Genus of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

Cervus is a genus of deer that primarily are native to Eurasia, although one species occurs in northern Africa and another in North America. In addition to the species presently placed in this genus, it has included a whole range of other species now commonly placed in other genera. Additionally, the species-level taxonomy is in a state of flux.

Barbary stag Subspecies of deer

The Barbary stag or Atlas deer or African elk is a subspecies of the red deer that is native to North Africa. It is the only deer known to be native to Africa, aside from Megaceroides algericus, which went extinct approximately 6,000 years ago.

The Yarkand deer, or the Theenivs deer, is a subspecies of the Central Asian red deer that is native to the province of Xinjiang, China. It is similar in ecology to the related Bactrian deer in occupying lowland riparian corridors surrounded by deserts. Both populations are isolated from one another by the Tian Shan Mountains and probably form a primordial subgroup of the Central Asian red deer.

Kashmir stag The only elk subspecies in India

The Kashmir stag, also called hangul, is a subspecies of Central Asian red deer endemic to Kashmir, India. It is found in dense riverine forests in the high valleys and mountains of the Kashmir Valley and northern Chamba district in Himachal Pradesh. In Kashmir, it is found in the Dachigam National Park where it receives protection but elsewhere it is more at risk. In the 1941s, the population was between 3000 and 5000 individuals, but since then habitat destruction, over-grazing by domestic livestock and poaching have reduced population dramatically. Earlier believed to be a subspecies of red deer, a number of mitochondrial DNA genetic studies later had the hangul as a part of the Asian clade of the elk. The IUCN and American Society of Mammalogists, however, includes it in the new grouping of Central Asian red deer, with the Kashmir stag being the type subspecies. According to the census in 2019, there were only 237 hanguls.

Bactrian deer Subspecies of deer

The Bactrian deer, also called the Bukhara deer, Bokhara deer, or Bactrian wapiti, is a lowland subspecies of Central Asian red deer native to Central Asia. It is similar in ecology to the related Yarkand deer in occupying riparian corridors surrounded by deserts. The subspecies are separated from one another by the Tian Shan Mountains and probably form a primordial subgroup of the red deer.

Manchurian wapiti Subspecies of deer

The Manchurian wapiti is a subspecies of the wapiti native to East Asia.

Cervinae Subfamily of deer

The Cervinae or the Old World deer, are a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the plesiometacarpal deer, due to their ankle structure being different from the telemetacarpal deer of the Capreolinae.

Elk Large antlered species of deer from North America and East Asia

The elk, also known as the wapiti, is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, and one of the largest terrestrial mammals in North America, as well as Central and East Asia. It is often confused with the larger Alces alces, which is called moose in North America, but called elk in British English, and related names in other European languages. The name "wapiti" is used in Europe for Cervus canadensis. It originates from the Shawnee and Cree word waapiti, meaning 'white rump'.

Wildlife of Pakistan

The wildlife of Pakistan comprises a diverse flora and fauna in a wide range of habitats from sea level to high elevation areas in the mountains, including 177 mammal and 660 bird species. This diverse composition of the country's fauna is associated with its location in the transitional zone between two major zoogeographical regions, the Palearctic, and the Oriental.

Altai wapiti Subspecies of deer

The Altai wapiti is a subspecies of Cervus canadensis found in the forest hills of southern Siberia, northwestern Mongolia, and northern Xinjiang province of China. It is different from the Tian Shan wapiti in being smaller and paler in color.

Felis chaus chaus is the nominate subspecies of the jungle cat.

<i>Rucervus</i> Genus of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

Rucervus is a genus of deer from India, Nepal, Indochina, and the Chinese island of Hainan. The only extant representatives, the barasingha and Eld's deer, are threatened by habitat loss and hunting, and another species became extinct in 1938. The species of the genus Rucervus are characterized by a specific antler structure: its basal ramification is often supplemented with an additional small prong, the middle tine is never present, while the crown tines are inserted on the posterior side of the beam and may be bifurcated or fused into a small palmation.

Turkestan lynx Subspecies of carnivore

The Turkestan lynx is a subspecies of Eurasian lynx native to Central Asia. It is also known as Central Asian lynx, Tibetan lynx or Himalayan lynx. It is widespread from west in Central Asia, from South Asia to China and Mongolia. There are 27,000 mature individuals in China as of 2013. It is proposed for the Turkestan lynx to be listed as Vulnerable in Uzbekistan.

<i>Megaceroides algericus</i> Extinct species of deer

Megaceroides algericus is an extinct species of deer known from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene of North Africa. It is one of only two species of deer known to have been native to the African continent, alongside the Barbary stag, a subspecies of red deer. It is considered to be closely related to the giant deer species of Eurasia.

References

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  8. Ellerman, J.R. & Morrison-Scott, T.C.S. (1951). "Cervus elaphus, Linnaeus 1758". Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946 (First ed.). London: British Museum (Natural History). pp. 367–370.
  9. Grubb, P. (2005). "Cervus elaphus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 662–663. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
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  12. Pitra, C.; Fickel, J.; Meijaard, E. & Groves, C. (2004). "Evolution and phylogeny of old world deer" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 33 (3): 880–895. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.07.013. PMID   15522810.
  13. Lorenzini, R. & Garofalo, L. (2015). "Insights into the evolutionary history of (Cervidae, tribe Cervini) based on Bayesian analysis of mitochondrial marker sequences, with first indications for a new species". Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 53: 340–349. doi:10.1111/jzs.12104.
  14. Mukesh; Kumar, V.P.; Sharma, L.K.; Shukla, M. & Sathyakumar, S. (2015). "Pragmatic perspective on conservation genetics and demographic history of the last surviving population of Kashmir Red Deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in India". PLOS ONE. 10 (2): e0117069. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117069 . PMC   4324630 . PMID   25671567.