Four-horned antelope

Last updated

Four-horned antelope
Tetracerus quadricornis I.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Bovinae
Tribe: Boselaphini
Genus: Tetracerus
Leach, 1825
Species:
T. quadricornis
Binomial name
Tetracerus quadricornis
(Blainville, 1816)
Subspecies

T. q. iodes(Hodgson, 1847)
T. q. quadricornis(Blainville, 1816)
T. q. subquadricornutus(Elliot, 1839)

Contents

Tetracerus quadricornis map.png
Range map of the four-horned antelope
Synonyms [2]
List
    • Antilope chickara(J. B. Fischer, 1829)
    • A. quadricornis(Desmarest, 1816)
    • Cerophorus quadricornis(J. B. Fischer, 1829)
    • Cervicapra chickara(Hardwicke, 1825)
    • C. quadricornis(de Blainville, 1816)
    • Cervus labipes(Saint-Hillaire and Cuvier, 1832)
    • Grimmia quadricornis(Laurillard, 1839)
    • Tetraceros chickera(Blyth, 1842)
    • Tetracerus chickara(Jardine, 1836)
    • T. paccerois(Houghton, 1847)
    • T. quadricornes(Jardine, 1836)
    • T. striaticornis(Saint-Hillaire and Cuvier, 1832)
    • T. undicornis(Saint-Hillaire and Cuvier, 1832)

The four-horned antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis), or chousingha, is a small antelope found in India and Nepal. Its four horns distinguish it from most other bovids, which have two horns (with a few exceptions, such as the Jacob sheep). The sole member of the genus Tetracerus, the species was first described by French zoologist Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville in 1816. Three subspecies are recognised. The four-horned antelope stands nearly 55–64 centimetres (22–25 in) at the shoulder and weighs nearly 17–22 kilograms (37–49 lb). Slender with thin legs and a short tail, the four-horned antelope has a yellowish brown to reddish coat. One pair of horns is located between the ears, and the other on the forehead. The posterior horns are always longer than the anterior horns, which might be mere fur-covered studs. While the posterior horns measure 8–12 centimetres (3.1–4.7 in), the anterior ones are 2–5 centimetres (0.79–1.97 in) long.

The four-horned antelope is diurnal (active mainly during the day). Though solitary by nature, four-horned antelopes may form loose groups of three to five –with one or more adults, sometimes accompanied by juveniles. This elusive antelope feeds on grasses, herbs, shrubs, foliage, flowers and fruits. It needs to drink water frequently; as such it stays in places near water sources. The breeding behaviour of the four-horned antelope has not been well studied. The age at which they reach sexual maturity and the season when mating occurs have not been understood well. Gestation lasts about eight months, following which one or two calves are born. They are kept concealed for the first few weeks of their birth. The young remain with the mother for about a year.

Four-horned antelopes tend to inhabit areas with significant grass cover or heavy undergrowth, and avoid human settlements. Earlier common throughout deciduous forests in India, the antelope now occurs in widely disjunct, small populations. Most of the populations are in India, and lower numbers can be found in adjoining Nepal. The four-horned antelope is threatened by the loss of its natural habitat due to agricultural expansion. Moreover, the unusual four-horned skull and the horns have been a popular target for trophy hunters. The four-horned antelope is classified as Vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN).

Etymology

The scientific name of the four-horned antelope is Tetracerus quadricornis. The generic name Tetracerus is the combination of two Greek words: tetra meaning "four" [3] :351 and keras meaning "horn". [3] :422 The specific name quadricornis is derived from two Latin words: quattuor meaning "four" [3] :351 and cornu "horn". [3] :421 The four-horned antelope is known by several vernacular names: chausingha, chowsingha, chousingha (Hindi for "four horns"), doda, ghutri (mainly in central India) (Hindi); kondu kuri (Kannada); chauka (Nepalese); nari komboo marn (Tamil). [2]

Taxonomy and phylogeny

The four-horned antelope is the sole member of the genus Tetracerus, and is placed under the family Bovidae. The species was first described by French zoologist Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville in 1816. [4] The four-horned antelope has only one other relative in the tribe Boselaphini, the nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus). [2] The Boselaphini have horns with a keel on the front and lack rings as found in other antelope groups. [5]

The authority for Tetracerus is variously indicated according to interpretations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The name was first published in an 1825 publication by English naturalist Thomas Hardwicke but cited the English zoologist William Elford Leach – probably by an editor – as the authority in a footnote at the end of the publication. [6] Philip Sclater and Oldfield Thomas listed Hardwicke as the genus authority by virtue of his being the author of the publication. However, Leach is now identified as the appropriate authority based on Article 50.1.1 of the Zoological Code. [2]

A 1992 phylogenetic study showed a strong possibility of a clade consisting of Boselaphini, Bovini and Tragelaphini. Bovini consists of the genera Bubalus , Bos , Pseudoryx (saola), Syncerus (African buffalo), Bison and the extinct Pelorovis . Tragelaphini consists of two genera: Taurotragus (eland) and Tragelaphus . Boselaphini and Tragelaphini were predicted to be close; [7] this was seconded by a similar study in 1999. [8] The following cladogram is based on the 1992 study: [7]

Bovini

Tragelaphini

Boselaphini

Colin Groves (2003) recognizes three subspecies of the four-horned antelope on the basis of distribution and physical characteristics such as coat colour, body size and the number of horns: [4] [9]

Evolution

Skull of the four-horned antelope ChausinghaSkullLyd2.png
Skull of the four-horned antelope

Though Boselaphini has no African representation today, [12] fossil evidence supports its presence in the continent during as early as the late Miocene – the two living antelopes of this tribe, in fact, have been found to have a closer relationship with the earliest bovids (like Eotragus species) than do the other bovids. [13] [14] This tribe originated at least 8.9 Mya, in much the same area where the four-horned antelope occurs today, and may represent the most "primitive" of all living bovids, having changed the least since the origins of the family. [15] The extant and extinct boselaphine forms show similar development of the horn cores (the central bony part of the horn). [16] It is thought that ancestral bovids had a diploid chromosome number of 58 which has reduced in Tetracerus to 38 through a process of concatenation of some chromosomes. [17]

Fossils of Protragoceros labidotus and Sivoreas eremita dating back to the late Miocene have been discovered in the Ngorora formation (Kenya). [18] fossils from the same period have also been excavated in the eastern Mediterranean region. [19] Other Miocene fossils of boselaphines discovered are of Miotragocerus , Tragocerus and Tragoportax . Fossils of Miotragoceros are not apparent in Africa (only M. cyrenaicus has been reported from the continent), but have significant presence in the Shiwalik Hills in India and Pakistan, as do several Tragoportax species. A 2005 study suggested the migration of Miotragoceros to eastern Asia around 8 Mya. [20] Alan W. Gentry of the Natural History Museum reported the presence of another boselaphine, Mesembriportax , from Langebaanweg (South Africa). [21]

Evidence of early humans hunting four-horned antelope during the Mesolithic period (5,000 to 8,000 years ago) have been found in the Kurnool caves of southern India [22] and similar evidence has been found from the Chalcolithic period (3,000 years ago) in Orissa, eastern India. [23]

Description

Vierhornantilope.jpg
Doe
Tetracerus quadricornis III.jpg
Buck

The four-horned antelope is one of the smallest Asian bovids. The number of its horns distinguishes it from most of the other bovids, that have two horns [24] The four-horned antelope stands 55–64 centimetres (22–25 in) at the shoulder and weighs 17–22 kilograms (37–49 lb); the head-and-body length is typically between 80 and 110 centimetres (31 and 43 in). [25] Sexual dimorphism is not very notable, though only males possess horns. [2]

Slender with thin legs and a short tail, the four-horned antelope has a yellowish brown to reddish coat. The underparts and the insides of the legs are white. Facial features include black markings on the muzzle and behind the ears. A black stripe marks the outer surface of each leg. Females have four teats far back on the abdomen. [2] The hair feels coarse, more like that of a deer than the glossy hair typical of antelopes. [26] The fetlocks are marked with white patches. [26]

One pair of horns is located between the ears, and the other on the forehead. The posterior horns are always longer than the anterior horns, which might be mere fur-covered studs. While the posterior horns each measures 8–12 centimetres (3.1–4.7 in), the anterior ones measure 2–5 centimetres (0.79–1.97 in). [26] [27] [28] Horns emerge at 10 to 14 months. [2] According to Groves, anterior horns show the poorest development in the subspecies T. q. subquadricornutus. These horns measure nearly 4.5–5 centimetres (1.8–2.0 in) in T. q. quadricornis, and nearly 1.5–2.5 centimetres (0.59–0.98 in) in T. q. iodes. The posterior horn lengths for the subspecies recorded by him were: 8–10 centimetres (3.1–3.9 in) for T. q. quadricornis, 6.5–7.5 centimetres (2.6–3.0 in) in T. q. iodes and 1.8–2 centimetres (0.71–0.79 in) in T. q. subquadricornutus. [9]

The four-horned antelope differs greatly from the nilgai in colour, is much smaller and has an extra pair of horns. The nilgai is nearly nine times heavier and two times taller than the four-horned antelope. Two deer species, the Indian muntjac and the hog deer, can be confused with this antelope. The four-horned antelope, however, lacks their antlers. [2] The chinkara, a gazelle, can be told apart by its light brown coat and larger, ringed horns. [29]

Ecology and behaviour

The four-horned antelope is diurnal (active mainly during the day), though it mainly rests or ruminates in dense undergrowth at noon. [30] Though solitary by nature, the four-horned antelope may form loose groups of three to five. Groups consist of one or more adults, sometimes accompanied by juveniles. Males and females hardly interact, except in the mating season. [31]

The antelope is shy and elusive. When alarmed, it stands motionless and may nervously leap away from the danger or even sprint. It often conceals itself in tall grasses to escape predators. [26] The use of alarm calls to alert others is not common because the antelope tries to avoid the attention of predators. However, in extreme cases, these calls may be used to warn predators that they have been identified. Adults mark vegetation in their territories with a colourless secretion of preorbital glands, that soon condenses to form a white film. They maintain multiple latrine sites where piles of their pellet droppings are formed by regular use. [30] Latrine sites can be confused with those of the barking deer but the pellets are longer and larger in four-horned antelopes. [32] Submissive display consists of shrinking the body, lowering the head and pulling the ears back. [30] Predators of four-horned antelopes include tigers, [33] leopards, and dholes. [34]

Diet

Four-horned antelope prefer habitats with dense undergrowth and tall grasses. Four-horned Antelope.jpg
Four-horned antelope prefer habitats with dense undergrowth and tall grasses.

The four-horned antelope feeds on grasses, herbs, shrubs, foliage, flowers and fruits. A study in Mudumalai National Park (Tamil Nadu, India) showed that the antelope prefers grass species of the family Cyperaceae; genera Axonopus , Cynodon , Digitaria , Echinochloa , Panicum , Sehima and Sporobolus ; and the species Imperata cylindrica , Ottochloa nodosa , Pseudanthistria umbellata and Themeda cymbaria . The shrub Grewia hirsuta is frequently eaten. Preferred herbs include Helichrysum , Indigofera and Tinospora species and Leucas aspera . The four-horned antelope feeds on the leaves of trees such as Cordia wallichii , Emblica officinalis , Randia dumetorum and Zizyphus xylopyrus . Grasses comprise nearly 29 percent of the diet, followed by foliage from trees (nearly nine percent). Grass and browse were consumed in nearly equal proportions. [31] A study in the Panna National Park (Madhya Pradesh, India) showed preference for Zizyphus mauritiana , Acacia nilotica , A. leucophloea and A. catechu . Babool flowers were frequently eaten. The antelope often associates with langurs under fruiting trees, just as chital frequently do. Interaction with chital, a sympatric species, was infrequent. [30] The antelope is wary when feeding, often raising its head and looking about its vicinity. [30] The four-horned antelope needs to drink water frequently; as such it stays in places near water sources. [26]

Reproduction

illustration of the head from 1903. ChousinghaHead.jpg
illustration of the head from 1903.

Breeding behaviour of the four-horned antelope has not been well studied. The age at which sexual maturity is gained is doubted; two captive females had their first parturition at less than two years. [2] The breeding season in Panna National Park probably lasts from May to July, [30] and from June to August in Mudumalai National Park. [31] The male approaches the female in a relaxed gait, giving out low coughs. The two may kneel and push against each other with the necks intertwined. The male makes a few short mounting attempts; the female may be foraging all the while without any reaction. [30] Gestation lasts about eight months, followed by the birth of one or two calves. The newborn has a head-and-body length of 42 to 46 centimetres (17 to 18 in), and weighs 0.7 to 1.1 kg (1.5 to 2.4 lb). Juveniles are kept concealed for the first few weeks of birth. Births in Mudumalai National Park peak from February to April. Juveniles remain with their mothers for about a year. [2]

Distribution and habitat

Male four-horned antelope in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Four-horned Antelope.JPG
Male four-horned antelope in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

The four-horned antelope is confined to the Indian subcontinent, occurring widely in disjunct and small populations. The range in India covers a vast expanse, from the foothills of the Himalayas in the north to the Deccan Plateau in the south. Most of the existing populations live in India, and lower numbers in adjoining Nepal. [1] The four-horned antelope inhabits open, dry, deciduous forests in hilly terrain. [35] [36] It prefers areas close to water bodies that are covered with grasses or heavy undergrowth. It generally keeps away from settlements.[ citation needed ]

It was earlier common throughout deciduous forests in India, but the population declined to an estimated at slightly above 10,000 mature individuals in 2001, with a decreasing trend. [1] [35] In Mudumalai National Park, the population is scattered.[ citation needed ] Numbers in Gir National Park were estimated at 256 individuals in 1974; later estimates at waterholes in the same location put them a little above 1,000. Densities of above 0.7 individuals per km2 have been considered as being healthy. [37]

Threats and conservation

The four-horned antelope is threatened by the loss of its natural habitat due to agricultural expansion. [1] Moreover, the unusual four-horned skull and the horns have been a popular target for trophy hunters. [38] In India, the species is protected under Schedule I the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 [39] and the Nepalese population is listed in CITES Appendix III. [1] The four-horned antelope is classified as Vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). [1]

Major protected areas across India where four-horned antelopes occur include: Gir National Park (Gujarat); Bandhavgarh National Park, Bori Wildlife Sanctuary, Kanha National Park, Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve, Panna Tiger Reserve, Pench Tiger Reserve, Sanjay National Park, Satpura National Park (Madhya Pradesh); Tadoba Andhari Reserve (Maharashtra); Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Ranthambore National Park, Rangayyanadurga wildlife sanctuary (Karnataka), and Sariska Tiger Reserve (Rajasthan). [40]

Related Research Articles

Bovinae subfamily of mammals

The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of 10 genera of medium to large-sized ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, African buffalo, the water buffalo, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. The evolutionary relationship between the members of the group is still debated, and their classification into loose tribes rather than formal subgroups reflects this uncertainty. General characteristics include cloven hooves and usually at least one of the sexes of a species having true horns. The largest extant bovine is the gaur.

Bovidae Family of mammals belonging to even-toed ungulates

The Bovidae comprise the biological family of cloven-hoofed, ruminant mammals that includes bison, African buffalo, water buffalo, antelopes, sheep, goats, muskoxen, and domestic cattle. A member of this family is called a bovid. With 143 extant species and 300 known extinct species, the family Bovidae consists of eight major subfamilies apart from the disputed Peleinae and Pantholopinae. The family evolved 20 million years ago, in the early Miocene.

Nilgai Largest living Asian antelope

The nilgai is the largest Asian antelope and is ubiquitous across the northern Indian subcontinent. It is the sole member of the genus Boselaphus and was described by Peter Simon Pallas in 1766. The nilgai stands 1–1.5 m (3.3–4.9 ft) at the shoulder; males weigh 109–288 kg (240–635 lb), and the lighter females 100–213 kg (220–470 lb). A sturdy thin-legged antelope, the nilgai is characterised by a sloping back, a deep neck with a white patch on the throat, a short crest of hair along the neck terminating in a tuft, and white facial spots. A column of pendant coarse hair hangs from the dewlap ridge below the white patch. Sexual dimorphism is prominent – while females and juveniles are orange to tawny, adult males have a bluish-grey coat. Only males possess horns, 15–24 cm (5.9–9.4 in) long.

Saola Forest-dwelling bovine (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis)

The saola, also called siola, Vu Quang ox, spindlehorn, Asian unicorn, or, infrequently, the Vu Quang bovid, is one of the world's rarest large mammals, a forest-dwelling bovine found only in the Annamite Range of Vietnam and Laos. Related to cattle, goats, and antelopes, the species was described following a discovery of remains in 1992 in Vũ Quang Nature Reserve by a joint survey of the Vietnamese Ministry of Forestry and the World Wide Fund for Nature. Saolas have since been kept in captivity multiple times, although only for short periods. A living saola in the wild was first photographed in 1999 by a camera trap set by WWF and the Vietnamese government's Forest Protection Department (SFNC).

Common eland Second largest antelope in the world

The common eland, also known as the southern eland or eland antelope, is a savannah and plains antelope found in East and Southern Africa. It is a species of the family Bovidae and genus Taurotragus. An adult male is around 1.6 metres (5') tall at the shoulder and can weigh up to 942 kg (2,077 lb) with an average of 500–600 kg (1,100–1,300 lb), 340–445 kg (750–981 lb) for females). It is the second largest antelope in the world, being slightly smaller on average than the giant eland. It was scientifically described by Peter Simon Pallas in 1766.

The kting voar, also known as the khting vor, linh dương, or snake-eating cow is a bovid mammal reputed to exist in Cambodia and Vietnam. The kting voar's existence as a real species should be regarded as questionable.

Royal antelope Species of mammal

The royal antelope is a West African antelope, recognized as the world's smallest antelope. It was first described by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in 1758. It stands up to merely 25 centimetres (10 in) at the shoulder and weighs 2.5–3 kilograms (5.5–6.6 lb). A characteristic feature is the long and slender legs, with the hindlegs twice as long as the forelegs. Horns are possessed only by males; the short, smooth, spiky horns measure 2.5–3 centimetres (1.0–1.2 in) and bend backward. The soft coat is reddish to golden brown, in sharp contrast with the white ventral parts. In comparison to Bates's pygmy antelope, the royal antelope has a longer muzzle, broader lips, a smaller mouth and smaller cheek muscles.

<i>Boselaphus</i> Genus of mammals

Boselaphus is a genus of bovid. The nilgai is the sole living representative, although one other species is known from the fossil record.

<i>Antilope</i> Genus of mammals

Antilope is a genus of bovid that contains a single living species, the blackbuck of South Asia. Two extinct species are also known.

Bovini tribe of cattle

The tribe Bovini, or wild cattle are medium to massive bovines that are native to North America, Eurasia, and Africa. These include the enigmatic, antelope-like saola, the African and Asiatic buffalos, and a clade that consists of bison and the wild cattle of the genus Bos. Not only are they the largest members of the subfamily Bovinae, they are the largest species of their family Bovidae. The largest species is the gaur, weighing up to 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).

Boselaphini Tribe of mammals

Boselaphini is a tribe of antelopes belonging to the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. It contains only two extant genera.

Tragelaphini Tribe of antelopes

The tribe Tragelaphini, or the spiral-horned antelopes, are bovines that are endemic to sub-Sahara Africa. These include the bushbuck, kudus, and the elands. The scientific name is in reference to the mythical creature the tragelaph, a Chimera with the body of a stag and the head of a goat. They are medium-to-large, tall, long-legged antelopes characterized by their iconic twisted horns and striking pelage coloration patterns.

Protragocerus is an extinct genus of antelope from the late Serravallian Age of the Miocene Epoch. Fossils of the genus have been found in France, India, and Saudi Arabia. It is classified under the tribe Boselaphini, subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. The genus was first established by the French paleontologist Charles Depéret in 1887.

<i>Duboisia santeng</i> Extinct Ice-Age antelope from Indonesia

Duboisia santeng or Dubois' antelope is an extinct antelope-like bovid that was endemic to Indonesia during the Pleistocene. It went extinct during the Ionian stage of the Pleistocene, about 750.000 years ago. Duboisia santeng was first described by the Dutch paleoanthropologist and geologist Eugène Dubois in 1891.

<i>Hemibos</i> Extinct genus of mammal

Hemibos is an extinct even-toed ungulate belonging to the family Bovidae. Its fossil remains were found across Asia and Europe such as from China, Italian Peninsula, Iberian Peninsula, and State of Palestine, Israel, Pakistan, India.

Bubalina subtribe of bovines consisting of the true buffalo

Bubalina is a subtribe of wild cattle that includes the various species of truebuffalo. Species include the African buffalo, the anoas, and the wild water buffalo. Currently, buffalos can be found naturally in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, and domestic and feral populations have been introduced to Europe, the Americas, and Australia. In addition to the living species, bubalinans have an extensive fossil record where remains have been found in much of Afro-Eurasia.

Bovina (subtribe) Subtribe of cattle

Bovina is a subtribe of the Bovini tribe that generally includes the two living genera, Bison and Bos. However, this dichotomy has been challenged recently by molecular work that suggests that Bison should be regarded as a junior synonym of Bos. Wild bovians can be found naturally in North America and Eurasia.

Evolution of domestic goats

Goat evolution is the process by which domestic goats came to exist through evolution by natural selection. Wild goats were one of the first species domesticated by modern humans, with the date of domestication generally considered to be 8,000 BCE. Domestic goats are medium-sized mammals which are found in noticeably harsh environments, particularly forest and mountains, in the Middle east and Central Asia, covering an area from Turkey to Turkmenistan. Goats are part of the family Bovidae, a broad and populous group which includes a variety of ruminants such as bison, cows and sheep. Bovids all share many traits, such as hooves and a herbivorous diet and all males, along with many females, have horns. Bovids began to diverge from deer and giraffids during the early Miocene epoch. The subfamily Caprinae, which includes goats, ibex and sheep, are considered to have diverged from the other bovidae as early as the late Miocene, with the group reaching its greatest diversity in the ice ages.

<i>Tragoportax</i> Extinct genus of bovid

Tragoportax is an extinct mammal genus belonging to the Bovidae. It lived in the upper Miocene and its fossil remains have been found in Europe, Asia and Africa.

Ernest Melvin Shull was an American missionary with the Church of the Brethren and an amateur lepidopterist and naturalist who worked and lived for many years as a missionary in the Dangs, India. He wrote a book on the butterflies of Indiana and donated his collections to museums in the United States.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2017). "Tetracerus quadricornis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2017: e.T21661A50195368.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Leslie, D.M.; Sharma, K. (2009). "Tetracerus quadricornis (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)". Mammalian Species . 843: 1–11. doi: 10.1644/843.1 .
  3. 1 2 3 4 Brown, Roland Wilbur (1956). The Composition of Scientific Words. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  4. 1 2 Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 697. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  5. Prater, S.H. (1980). The book of Indian animals. Chennai: Oxford University Press. pp.  271–272. ISBN   978-0195621693.
  6. Hardwicke, T. (1825). "XXIII. Descriptions of two species of antelope from India". Transactions of the Linnean Society of London . 14 (3): 518–24. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1823.tb00099.x.
  7. 1 2 Allard, M.W.; Miyamoto, M.M.; Jarecki, L.; Kraus, F.; Tennant, M.R. (1992). "DNA systematics and evolution of the artiodactyl family Bovidae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America . 89 (9): 3972–6. Bibcode:1992PNAS...89.3972A. doi: 10.1073/pnas.89.9.3972 . PMC   525613 . PMID   1570322.
  8. Hassanin, A.; Douzery, E.J.P. (1999). "Evolutionary affinities of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) in the context of the molecular phylogeny of Bovidae". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences . 266 (1422): 893–900. doi:10.1098/rspb.1999.0720. JSTOR   51466. PMC   1689916 . PMID   10380679.
  9. 1 2 Groves, C. (2003). "Taxonomy of ungulates of the Indian subcontinent". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society . 100: 353–4.
  10. Hodgson, B.H. (1847). "On the four-horned antelopes of India". Calcutta Journal of Natural History. 8: 87–94.
  11. Elliot, Walter (1839). "A catalogue of the species of mammalia found in the Southern Mahratta Country; with their Synonymes in the Native Languages in use there". Madras Journal of Literature and Science. 10: 207–233.
  12. Brain, C.K. (1981). The Hunters or the Hunted?: An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press. p. 167. ISBN   978-0-226-07089-6.
  13. Pilgrim, G.E. (1939). "The fossil Bovidae of India". Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. New Series. 26: 1–356.
  14. Pitra, C.; Furbass, R.; Seyfert, H.M. (1997). "Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Bovini (Mammalia: Artiodactyla): alternative placement of the anoa". Journal of Evolutionary Biology . 10 (4): 589–600. doi: 10.1046/j.1420-9101.1997.10040589.x . S2CID   84545142.
  15. Bibi, F. (2007). "Origin, paleoecology, and paleobiogeography of early Bovini". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology . 248 (1): 60–72. Bibcode:2007PPP...248...60B. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.11.009.
  16. Solounias, N. (1990). "A new hypothesis uniting Boselaphus and Tetracerus with the Miocene Boselaphini (Mammalia, Bovidae) based on horn morphology". Annales Musei Goulandris. 8: 425–39.
  17. Ropiquet, A.; Hassanin, A.; Pagacova, E.; Gerbault-Seureau, M.; Cernohorska, H.; Kubickova, S.; Bonillo, C.; Rubes, J.; Robinson, T.J. (2010). "A paradox revealed: karyotype evolution in the four-horned antelope occurs by tandem fusion (Mammalia, Bovidae, Tetracerus quadricornis)". Chromosome Research. 18 (2): 277–86. doi:10.1007/s10577-010-9115-1. PMID   20204496. S2CID   8973690.
  18. Benefit, B.R.; Pickford, M. (April 1986). "Miocene fossil cercopithecoids from Kenya". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 69 (4): 441–64. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330690404.
  19. Kostopoulus, D.S. (2005). "The Bovidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from the late Miocene of Akkas¸dag˘i, Turkey". Geodiversitas. 27: 747–91.
  20. Zhang, Z. (2005). "Late Miocene Boselaphini (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from Fugu, Shaanxi Province, China". Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 43 (3): 208–18.
  21. WoldeGabriel, G. (2009). Haile-Selassie, Y. (ed.). Ardipithecus Kadabba: Late Miocene Evidence from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia . Berkeley, USA: University of California Press. pp.  289–90. ISBN   978-0-520-25440-4.
  22. Murty, M.L.K. (2010). "Ethnoarchaeology of the Kurnool cave areas, South India". World Archaeology. 17 (2): 192–205. doi:10.1080/00438243.1985.9979962.
  23. Badam, G.L.; Behera, P.; Mishra, J. (2001). "Chalcolithic faunal economy at Khambeswarpally, middle Mahanadi Valley, Orissa: a bioarchaeological perspective". Current Science . 80 (7): 828–30.
  24. Vaughan, T.A.; Ryan, J.M.; Czaplewski, N.J. (2015). Mammalogy (6th ed.). Massachusetts, USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 353. ISBN   978-1-284-03209-3.
  25. Sharma, K.; Rahmani, A.R. (2004). "Four-horned antelope or chowsingha (Tetracerus quadricornis Blainville, 1816". ENVIS Bulletin (Wildlife and Protected Areas): Ungulates of India. 7.[ permanent dead link ]
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 Kinloch, A.A.A. (1885). "The four-horned antelope". Large Game Shooting in Tibet, the Himalayas, and Northern India. Calcutta (Kolkata), India: Thacker, Spink and Co. ISBN   978-1-295-81380-3.
  27. Carwardine, M. (2008). Animal Records. New York, USA: Sterling. pp. 10–1. ISBN   978-1-4027-5623-8.
  28. Bentham, T. (1908). An illustrated catalogue of the Asiatic horns and antlers in the collection of the Indian museum. Kolkata, India: Indian Museum. pp. 46–7.
  29. Castelló, J.R. (2016). Bovids of the World: Antelopes, Gazelles, Cattle, Goats, Sheep, and Relatives. Princeton, USA: Princeton University Press. pp. 118–9. ISBN   978-1-4008-8065-2.
  30. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sharma, K.; Rahmani, A.R.; Chundawat, R.S. (2009). "Natural history observations of the four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society . 106 (1): 72–82.
  31. 1 2 3 Baskaran, N.; Kannan, V.; Thiyagesan, K.; Desai, A.A. (2011). "Behavioural ecology of four-horned antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis de Blainville, 1816) in the tropical forests of southern India". Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 76 (6): 741–7. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2011.06.010.
  32. Pokharel, Krishna Prasad; Ludwig, Tobias; Storch, Ilse (2015-02-25). "Spatial Niche Partitioning in Sub-Tropical Solitary Ungulates: Four-Horned Antelope and Barking Deer in Nepal". PLOS ONE. 10 (2): e0117917. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1017917P. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117917 . ISSN   1932-6203. PMC   4340944 . PMID   25714092.
  33. Biswas, S.; Sankar, K. (2002). "Prey abundance and food habit of tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) in Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India". Journal of Zoology . 256 (3): 411–20. doi:10.1017/S0952836902000456.
  34. Karanth, K.U.; Sunquist, M.E. (1992). "Population structure, density and biomass of large herbivores in the tropical forests of Nagarhole, India". Journal of Tropical Ecology. 8 (1): 21–35. doi:10.1017/S0266467400006040.
  35. 1 2 Krishna, Y.C.; Krishnaswamy, J.; Kumar, N.S. (2008). "Habitat factors affecting site occupancy and relative abundance of four-horned antelope". Journal of Zoology . 276 (1): 63–70. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00470.x.
  36. Krishna, Y.C.; Clyne, P.J.; Krishnaswamy, J.; Kumar, N.S. (2009). "Distributional and ecological review of the four horned antelope, Tetracerus quadricornis". Mammalia. 73 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1515/MAMM.2009.003. S2CID   83806831.
  37. Rice, C.G. (1991). "The status of four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society . 88 (1): 63–66.
  38. Nowak, R.M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World (6th ed.). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. p.  1147. ISBN   978-0-8018-5789-8.
  39. "Schedule I – Wildlife Protection Act" (PDF). moef.nic.in. Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  40. Belsare, D.K. (2011). Vanishing Roar of Bengal Tigers. Pennsylvania (USA): RoseDog Books. pp. 17–29. ISBN   978-1-4349-8509-5.