Bawean deer

Last updated

Bawean deer
Adult male Bawean deer Axis kuhlii.JPG
Adult male at the Ragunan Zoo, Jakarta
CITES Appendix I (CITES) [2]
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Cervinae
Genus: Axis
A. kuhlii
Binomial name
Axis kuhlii
(Temminck, 1836)
Axis kuhlii range map.png
Orange arrow points to Bawean Island.
Green on inserted map highlights approximate range of Bawean deer on the island.

The Bawean deer (Axis kuhlii), also known as Kuhl's hog deer or Bawean hog deer, is a highly threatened species of deer endemic to the island of Bawean in Indonesia. Due to ongoing habitat loss, small population size and limited range, the Bawean deer is evaluated as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [1] It is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It has few natural enemies except for birds of prey and large snakes such as pythons.



A typical height for males of 60–70 cm (24–28 in) has been reported. Males have three-tined antlers. Their fawns are spotted at birth, which separates them from the best known western population of the related Indian hog deer (Axis porcinus). Their pelage is short, smooth, and soft, and generally a light brown in color. There are few distinctive yellow markings which are limited to the head and neck. There is also a light throat patch or 'bib' and a whitish eye-ring. Infants have white spots on their backs when younger.


The Bawean deer was sometimes included in the same species as the Indian hog deer (Axis porcinus), but is now mostly considered a different species. The most recent analyses indicate that these two species, together with Axis calamianensis , may constitute a different genus distinct from Axis and Hyelaphus . [1] It is considered by some taxonomists to be in the genus Hyelaphus; however, in 2021, the American Society of Mammalogists placed it in the genus Axis, [3] which the IUCN has also done. [1]

Life history

They live in woodlands and upland forests with dense undergrowth which is used for shelter, providing a refuge in which the deer sleep and rest during the day. They live in small groups of four or five deer, usually one female, her infant, and two males. They are herbivores and consume grasses, herbs, leaves, twigs, corn crops, and leaves of the cassava plant. Females will have one offspring at a time per year. The gestation period is 225–230 days, and the majority of births occur in February to June.

Males can be very aggressive towards other males that approach their small families, and will spray other males and predators in the face with their glandular secretions. They also mark their territories with this as well. [4] When fleeing, the Bawean deer carries its head low and runs with a trotting gait. Their spine also curves high towards the rear when fleeing from predators. When fleeing from predators the males will run in front and the infant, if there is one, will be behind the males. The female will run in the back. This is effective in order to protect the infant from predators. [5]

Conservation efforts

The World Wildlife Fund has noted that some of the factors for the decline of this species and others in Indonesia include climate changes: warming ocean temperatures, rising sea levels, prolonged droughts, and increased flooding. [6] The Indonesian government passed a bill in 1977 protecting the endangered Bawean deer, and consequently their numbers have risen. With the help of this law their reproductive success has gone up over the years. [7] The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed the Kuhl's hog deer as being critically endangered, meaning that the species is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild. [1]

Related Research Articles

<i>Pudu</i> Genus of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

The pudus are two species of South American deer from the genus Pudu, and are the world's smallest deer. The chevrotains are smaller, but they are not true deer. The name is a loanword from Mapudungun, the language of the indigenous Mapuche people of central Chile and south-western Argentina. The two species of pudus are the northern pudu from Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, and the southern pudu from southern Chile and south-western Argentina. Pudus range in size from 32 to 44 centimeters tall, and up to 85 centimeters (33 in) long. The southern pudu is classified as near threatened, while the northern pudu is classified as Data Deficient in the IUCN Red List.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Heinrich Kuhl</span> German naturalist and zoologist (1797–1821)

Heinrich Kuhl was a German naturalist and zoologist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eld's deer</span> Asia ruminant mammal species

Eld's deer, also known as the thamin or brow-antlered deer, is an endangered species of deer endemic to South and Southeast Asia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chital</span> Species of deer

The chital or cheetal, also known as the spotted deer, chital deer and axis deer, is a deer species native to the Indian subcontinent. It was first described and given a binomial name by German naturalist Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben in 1777. A moderate-sized deer, male chital reach 90 cm (35 in) and females 70 cm (28 in) at the shoulder. While males weigh 70–90 kg (150–200 lb), females weigh around 40–60 kg (88–132 lb). It is sexually dimorphic; males are larger than females, and antlers are present only on males. The upper parts are golden to rufous, completely covered in white spots. The abdomen, rump, throat, insides of legs, ears, and tail are all white. The antlers, three-pronged, are nearly 1 m long.

Bawean is an island of Indonesia located approximately 150 kilometers north of Surabaya in the Java Sea, off the coast of Java. It is administered by Gresik Regency of East Java province. It is approximately 15 km (9.3 mi) in diameter and is circumnavigated by a single narrow road. Bawean is dominated by an extinct volcano at its center that rises to 655 meters above sea level. Its population as of the 2010 Census was about 70,000 people, but more than 26,000 of the total were temporarily living outside, working in other parts of Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia. As a result, females constituted about 77% of the actual population of the island, which is thus often referred to as "the Island of Women". The 2020 Census revealed a population of 80,289, while the official estimate as at mid 2023 was 83,455.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pampas deer</span> Species of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

The Pampas deer is a species of deer that live in the grasslands of South America at low elevations. They are known as veado-campeiro in Portuguese and as venado or gama in Spanish. It is the only species in the genus Ozotoceros.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pygmy hog</span> Species of mammal

The pygmy hog is a very small and endangered species of pig and the only species in the genus Porcula. Endemic to India, the pygmy hog is a suid native of the alluvial grasslands in the foothills of the Himalayas, at elevations of up to 300 m (980 ft). Populations of pygmy hogs were once widespread in the tall, dense, wet grasslands in a narrow belt of the southern Himalayan foothills from north-western Uttar Pradesh to Assam, through southern Nepal and North Bengal, and possibly extending into contiguous habitats in southern Bhutan. Due to human encroachment and destruction of the pygmy hogs’ natural habitat, the species was thought to have gone extinct in the early 1960s. However, in 1971, a small pygmy hog population was rediscovered as they were fleeing a fire near the Barnadi Wildlife Sanctuary in Assam. Today, the only known population of pygmy hogs resides in Manas National Park in Assam, India. The population is threatened by livestock grazing, fires and poaching. With an estimated population of less than 250 mature individuals, the pygmy hog is listed as an Endangered species on the IUCN Red List, and conservation efforts such as captive breeding and re-release programs are currently being employed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">White-bellied musk deer</span> Species of mammal

The white-bellied musk deer or Himalayan musk deer is a musk deer species occurring in the Himalayas of Nepal, Bhutan, India, Pakistan and China. It is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List because of overexploitation resulting in a probable serious population decline.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cervinae</span> Subfamily of deer

The Cervinae or the Old World deer, are a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the plesiometacarpal deer, due to having lost the parts of the second and fifth metacarpal bones closest to the foot, distinct from the telemetacarpal deer of the Capreolinae.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Calamian deer</span> Species of deer

The Calamian deer, also known as Calamian hog deer, is an endangered species of deer found only in the Calamian Islands of Palawan province in the Philippines. It is one of three species of deer native to the Philippines, the other being the Philippine sambar and the Visayan spotted deer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kuhl's maskray</span> Species of cartilaginous fish

Kuhl's maskray, also known as the blue-spotted stingray, blue-spotted maskray, or Kuhl's stingray, is a species of stingray of the family Dasyatidae. It was recently changed from Dasyatis kuhlii in 2008 after morphological and molecular analyses showed that it is part of a distinct genus, Neotrygon. The body is rhomboidal and colored green with blue spots. Maximum disk width is estimated 46.5 cm (18.3 in). It is popular in aquaria, but usually not distinguished from the blue-spotted ribbontail ray. The ribbontail has a rounded body, is a brighter green with brighter blue and more vivid spots, but Kuhl's maskray is larger. The stingray's lifespan is estimated at 13 years for females and 10 years for males. The blue-spotted stingray preys on many fish and small mollusks. It is also generally found from Indonesia to Japan, and most of Australia. Kuhl's maskray also is targeted by many parasites, such as tapeworms, flatworms, and flukes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Black musk deer</span> Species of mammal

The black musk deer or dusky musk deer is a species of even-toed ungulate in the family Moschidae. It is found in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Javan warty pig</span> Species of mammal

The Javan warty pig, also called Javan wild pig, is an even-toed ungulate in the family Suidae. It is endemic to the Indonesian islands Java and Bawean, and is considered extinct on Madura. It is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1996.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Sanctuary</span>

Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Sanctuary is a biosphere reserve in Myanmar, covering 814.99 km2 (314.67 sq mi). It ranges in elevation from 105–1,400 m (344–4,593 ft) encompassing the surroundings of Indawgyi Lake in Mohnyin Township, Kachin State. It was gazetted in 2004, is recognized as an Important Bird Area and as one of the ASEAN Heritage Parks. An area of 478.84 km2 (184.88 sq mi) comprising the lake and the surrounding lowland is a Ramsar site since February 2016.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Indian hog deer</span> Species of deer

The Indian hog deer, or Indochinese hog deer, is a small cervid native to the region of the Indian subcontinent and Indo-Gangetic Plain. Introduced populations are established in Australia, as well as the United States and Sri Lanka.

Kahilu Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area in Myanmar's Kayin State. It was established in 1928 and covers 160.58 km2 (62.00 sq mi). It is mostly flat with elevation ranging from 20 to 260 m. Annual precipitation is about 3,800 mm (150 in).

Minwuntaung Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area in Myanmar, covering 205.88 km2 (79.49 sq mi). It was established in 1971. It ranges in elevation from 75 to 305 m in Sagaing Township, Sagaing Region. It provides habitat for Indian hog deer and Indian muntjac.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lawkananda Wildlife Sanctuary</span>

Lawkananda Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area in Myanmar's Mandalay Region, covering an area of 0.47 km2 (0.18 sq mi) and ranging in elevation from 45 to 70 m. It borders the Irrawaddy river close to Bagan and was established in 1995.

The Beas Conservation Reserve covers an 185 km stretch of the river Beas. The area of the Reserve lies primarily in north-west Punjab. It was declared a conservation reserve by the government of Punjab, India in 2017. The Beas flows down meandering from the Himalayan foothills to Harike Headworks, where it spreads into multiple channels. The braided channels form islands and sand bars creating a complex environment that supports rich biodiversity. In September 2019, the reserve was declared a Ramsar site under the aegis of the 1971 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Semiadi, G.; Duckworth, J.W.; Timmins, R. (2015). "Axis kuhlii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2015: e.T2447A73071875. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T2447A73071875.en . Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  2. "Appendices | CITES". Retrieved 2022-01-14.
  3. "Axis kuhlii (Temminck, 1836)".
  4. Regional Office of Endangered Species, Eastside Fed. Complex, 911 NE 11th Ave. Portland Oregon 97232, "U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Region 1". Archived from the original on 1999-11-27. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
  5. Edinburgh Zoo and Highland Wildlife Park, The Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom, EH12 6TES
  6. "Wildlife Conservation, Endangered Species Conservation". Archived from the original on 2011-12-08. Retrieved 2011-12-08.
  7. "Kuhl's hog deer". Archived from the original on 2012-03-30. Retrieved 2011-12-08.