Capreolinae

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Capreolinae
Temporal range: Middle Miocene to present
Mule deer in Bryce NP.jpg
Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Brookes, 1828
Genera
Synonyms

Odocoileinae

The Capreolinae, Odocoileinae, or the New World deer are a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the telemetacarpal deer, due to their bone structure being different from the plesiometacarpal deer subfamily Cervinae. The telemetacarpal deer maintain their distal lateral metacarpals, while the plesiometacarpal deer maintain only their proximal lateral metacarpals. [1] The Capreolinae are believed to have originated in the Middle Miocene, between 7.7 and 11.5 million years ago, in central Asia. [2]

Contents

Although this subfamily is called New World deer in English, it includes reindeer, moose, and roe deer, all of which live in Eurasia in the Old World.

Classification

The following extant genera and species are recognized: [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Extinct genera

Related Research Articles

Deer Family of mammals belonging to even-toed ungulates

Deer or true deer are hoofed ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk (wapiti), the red deer, and the fallow deer; and the Capreolinae, including the reindeer (caribou), white-tailed deer, the roe deer, and the moose. Male deer of all species as well as female reindeer, grow and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family (Bovidae) within the same order of even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla).

Roe deer Species of deer

The roe deer, also known as the roe, western roe deer or European roe, is a species of deer. The male of the species is sometimes referred to as a roebuck. The roe is a small deer, reddish and grey-brown, and well-adapted to cold environments. The species is widespread in Europe, from the Mediterranean to Scandinavia, from Scotland to the Caucasus, and east to northern Iran and Iraq.

<i>Megaloceros</i> Extinct genus of mammals in the family Cervidae

Megaloceros is an extinct genus of deer whose members lived throughout Eurasia from the early Pleistocene to the beginning of the Holocene and were important herbivores during the Ice Ages. The largest species, Megaloceros giganteus, vernacularly known as the "Irish elk" or "Giant elk", is also the best known. Fallow deer are thought to be their closest living relatives. Megaloceros is part of the deer family which includes moose, elk, reindeer, and other cervids.

<i>Capreolus</i> Genus of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

Capreolus is a genus of deer, the roe deer.

Brocket deer Genus of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

Brockets or brocket deer are the species of deer in the genus Mazama. They are medium to small in size, and are found in the Yucatán Peninsula, Central and South America, and the island of Trinidad. Most species are primarily found in forests. They are superficially similar to the African duikers and the Asian muntjacs, but unrelated. About 10 species of brocket deer are described.

Red brocket Species of deer

The red brocket is a species of brocket deer from forests in South America, ranging from northern Argentina to Colombia and the Guianas. It also occurs on the Caribbean island of Trinidad.

Siberian roe deer Species of deer

The Siberian roe deer or eastern roe deer is a species of roe deer found in northeastern Asia. In addition to Siberia and Mongolia, it is found in Kazakhstan, the Tian Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan, eastern Tibet, the Korean Peninsula, and northeastern China (Manchuria).

Gray brocket Species of deer

The gray brocket, also known as the brown brocket, is a species of brocket deer from northern Argentina, Bolivia, southern Peru, eastern and southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It formerly included the Amazonian brown brocket and sometimes also the Yucatan brown brocket as subspecies. Unlike other species of brocket deer in its range, the gray brocket has a gray-brown fur without reddish tones.

Cervinae Subfamily of deer

The Cervinae or the Old World deer, are a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the plesiometacarpal deer, due to their ankle structure being different from the telemetacarpal deer of the Capreolinae.

Central Asian red deer Deer species

The Central Asian red deer is a deer species with a sparse distribution in Central Asia. It is considered possibly extirpated from Pakistan. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. It was first described in the mid-19th century.

Yucatan brown brocket Species of deer

The Yucatan brown brocket is a small species of deer native to the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, Belize and Guatemala. While it is found in humid tropical forest like most other brocket deer, the Yucatan brown brocket also ranges across arid, relatively open habitats.

Small red brocket Species of deer

The small red brocket is a small species of deer in the family Cervidae. It is endemic to Atlantic Forest in Paraná, Santa Catarina and São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. This species, which only was scientifically described in 1996, is threatened by habitat loss. Though its size and structure most resemble that of the pygmy brocket, its coloration is very similar to that of the red brocket. It resembles hybrids between these two species even more closely, but differs from both, and their hybrids, in karyotype.

American mountain deer Extinct species of deer

Odocoileus lucasi, known commonly as the American mountain deer, is an extinct species of North American deer.

Central American red brocket Species of deer

The Central American red brocket is a species of brocket deer ranging from southern Mexico, through Central America, to northwestern Colombia. In 1792 Robert Kerr originally described it as a unique separate species as opposed to a subspecies. It was treated as a subspecies of the red brocket from South America, but its karyotype has 2n = 50, while the latter's was initially described as having 2n = 68–70. However, a more recent description gives the red brocket a variable karyotype with 2n ranging from 48 to 54, suggesting it represents several species. It is sympatric with the Yucatan brown brocket over part of its range. Additionally, it was estimated that Mazama temama diverged from other red brocket deer about 2 MYA. This was estimated through analysis of concatenated sequences from the mitochondrial gene ND2, Cytb, and tRNA-Pro-Control region. The species is found in primary and secondary tropical forest at altitudes from sea level to 2800 m. In Mexico, it is regarded as an agricultural pest by bean farmers. It is probably threatened by hunting and deforestation.

Amazonian brown brocket Species of deer

The Amazonian brown brocket, also known as the small brown brocket, is a small species of deer that is almost entirely restricted to South America.

References

  1. Azanza, B.; Rossner, G. & Ortiz-Jaureguizar E. (2013). "The early Turolian (late Miocene) Cervidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the fossil site of Dron-Durkheim 1 (German) and implications on the origin of crown cervids". Paleobiodiversity and Paleoenvironments. 93 (1): 217–258. doi:10.1007/s12549-013-0118-8. S2CID   129071065.
  2. Gilbert, C.; Ropiquet, A.; Hassanin A. (July 2006). "Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): Systematics, morphology, and biogeography". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 40 (1): 101–117. doi:10.1016/J.Ympev.2006.02.017. PMID   16584894.[ permanent dead link ]
  3. Randi, E.; Mucci, N.; et al. (February 2001). "A mitochondrial DNA control region phylogeny of the Cervinae: speciation in Cervus and implications for conservation". Animal Conservation. 4 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1017/S1367943001001019.
  4. Pitraa, C.; Fickel, J.; et al. (December 2004). "Evolution and phylogeny of old world deer". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 33 (3): 880–895. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.07.013.
  5. Alvarez D. (2007)[ full citation needed ]
  6. 1 2 Duarte, J.M.B.; González, S.; Maldonado, J.E. (October 2008). "The surprising evolutionary history of South American deer". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 49 (1): 17–22. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.07.009.
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-12-01. Retrieved 2013-01-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)