Togian babirusa

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Togian Babirusa
CITES Appendix I (CITES)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Suidae
Genus: Babyrousa
Species:
B. togeanensis
Binomial name
Babyrousa togeanensis
(Sody, 1949)
Babyrousa togeanensis map.svg
Range (in brown)

The Togian babirusa (Babyrousa togeanensis), also known as the Malenge babirusa, [2] [3] is the largest species of babirusa. It is endemic to the Togian Islands of Indonesia, but was considered a subspecies of Babyrousa babyrussa until 2002. [1] Compared to the better-known north Sulawesi babirusa, the Togian babirusa is larger, has a well-developed tail-tuft, and the upper canines of the male are relatively "short, slender, rotated forwards, and always converge". [4] [5] The Togian babirusa is omnivorous, feeding mainly on roots and fallen fruit but also worms and invertebrates. [6] Unlike other pig species, the Togian babirusa does not root at the ground with its snout when foraging, but instead can be seen pawing at the ground to uproot plants. [7]

Related Research Articles

North Sulawesi babirusa Species of mammal

The North Sulawesi babirusa is a pig-like animal native to Sulawesi and some nearby islands in Indonesia. It has two pairs of large tusks composed of enlarged canine teeth. The upper canines penetrate the top of the snout, curving back toward the forehead. The North Sulawesi babirusa is threatened from hunting and deforestation.

Suina Lineage of omnivorous, non-ruminant artiodactyl mammals that includes the pigs and peccaries

Suina is a suborder of omnivorous, non-ruminant artiodactyl mammals that includes the pigs and peccaries. A member of this clade is known as a suine. Suina includes the family Suidae, termed suids, known in English as pigs or swine, as well as the family Tayassuidae, termed tayassuids or peccaries. Suines are largely native to Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia, with the exception of the wild boar, which is additionally native to Europe and Asia and introduced to North America and Australasia, including widespread use in farming of the domestic pig subspecies. Suines range in size from the 55 cm (22 in) long pygmy hog to the 210 cm (83 in) long giant forest hog, and are primarily found in forest, shrubland, and grassland biomes, though some can be found in deserts, wetlands, or coastal regions. Most species do not have population estimates, though approximately two billion domestic pigs are used in farming, while several species are considered endangered or critically endangered with populations as low as 100. One species, Heude's pig, is considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature to have gone extinct in the 20th century.

Babirusa Genus of mammals in the swine family

The babirusas, also called deer-pigs, are a genus, Babyrousa, in the swine family found in the Indonesian islands of Sulawesi, Togian, Sula and Buru. All members of this genus were considered part of a single species until 2002, the babirusa, B. babyrussa, but following that was split into several species. This scientific name is restricted to the Buru babirusa from Buru and Sula, whereas the best-known species, the north Sulawesi babirusa, is named B. celebensis. The remarkable "prehistoric" appearance of these mammals is largely due to the prominent upwards incurving canine tusks of the males, which actually pierce the flesh in the snout.

Pygmy hog Species of mammal

The pygmy hog is a suid native to alluvial grasslands in the foothills of the Himalayas at elevations of up to 300 m (980 ft). Today, the only known population lives in Assam, India and possibly southern Bhutan. As the population is estimated at less than 250 mature individuals, it is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Bornean bearded pig Species of mammal

The Bornean bearded pig, also known ambiguously as the bearded pig, is a species in the pig genus, Sus.

Javan mongoose Species of mongoose from Asia

The Javan mongoose is a mongoose species native to Southeast Asia.

Philippine warty pig Species of mammal

The Philippine warty pig is one of four known species in the pig genus (Sus) endemic to the Philippines. The other three endemic species are the Visayan warty pig, Mindoro warty pig and the Palawan bearded pig, also being rare members of the family Suidae. Philippine warty pigs have two pairs of warts, with a tuft of hair extending outwards from the warts closest to the jaw. It has multiple native common names, but it is most widely known as baboy damo in Tagalog.

Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park

Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park is a 2,871 km2 (1,108 mi2) National Park on Minahassa Peninsula on Sulawesi island, Indonesia. Formerly known as Dumoga Bone National Park, it was established in 1991 and was renamed in honour of Nani Wartabone, a local resistance fighter who drove the Japanese from Gorontalo during World War II. The park has been identified by Wildlife Conservation Society as the single most important site for the conservation of Sulawesi wildlife and is home to many species endemic to Sulawesi.

Javan warty pig Species of mammal

The Javan warty pig, also called Javan pig, is an even-toed ungulate in the family Suidae. It is endemic to the Indonesian islands Java and Bawean, and is considered extinct on Madura. It is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1996.

Suinae Subfamily of mammals

Suinae is a subfamily of artiodactyl mammals that includes several of the extant members of Suidae and their closest relatives – the domestic pig and related species, such as babirusas. Several extinct species within the Suidae are classified in subfamilies other than Suinae. However, the classification of the extinct members of the Suoidea – the larger group that includes the Suidae, the peccary family (Tayassuidae), and related extinct species – is controversial, and different classifications vary in the number of subfamilies within Suidae and their contents. Some classifications, such as the one proposed by paleontologist Jan van der Made in 2010, even exclude from Suinae some extant taxa of Suidae, placing these excluded taxa in other subfamilies.

Oliver's warty pig or Mindoro warty pig is a small species in the pig genus (Sus) which can only be found on the island of Mindoro in the central Philippines. This species previously treated to be a subspecies of S. philippensis, was shown to be morphologically and genetically different.

Buru babirusa Species of mammal

The Buru babirusa is a wild pig-like animal native to the Indonesian islands of Buru, the two Sula Islands of Mangole and Taliabu. It is also known as the Moluccan babirusa, golden babirusa or hairy babirusa. Traditionally, this relatively small species included the other babirusas as subspecies, but it has been recommended treating them as separate species based on differences in their morphology. As also suggested by its alternative common names, the Buru babirusa has relatively long thick, gold-brown body-hair – a feature not shared by the other extant babirusas.

Palawan bearded pig Species of mammal

The Palawan bearded pig is a pig species in the genus Sus endemic to the Philippines, where it occurs on the archipelago of islands formed by Balabac, Palawan, and the Calamian Islands. It is 1 to 1.6 m in length, about 1 m (3.3 ft) tall and weigh up to 150 kg (330 lb).

Babyrousa bolabatuensis, the Bola Batu babirusa, is a species of babirusa from the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. It was first described in 1950 as a subspecies of Babyrousa babyrussa, then the only recognized species of babirusa, and raised to species rank by Colin Groves and Erik Meijaard in 2002. At present the Bola Batu babirusa is only known for certain from subfossil remains from the southern arm of Sulawesi. Based on a single skull from central Sulawesi it has been suggested that babirusas from this part of Sulawesi represent an extant population of the Bola Batu babirusa, and this was followed in the third edition of Mammal Species of the World. However, the most recent major review also found similarities between the central Sulawesi specimen and the Togian babirusa, leading them to conclude that it represents an undescribed taxon and that the taxonomic position of central Sulawesi babirusas only can be determined through additional specimens. Subfossil remains from the south-western arm of Sulawesi, where now likely extinct, have been classified as Bola Batu babirusas, but these were considered unclassifiable in 2002, as were extant populations from the eastern arm of Sulawesi and Buton due to the lack of specimens. Due to these uncertainties, the IUCN Red List provisionally synonymized B. bolabatuensis under the northern Sulawesi species, B. celebensis, pending clarification of the taxonomy of Sulawesi babirusas.

Banded pig

The banded pig also known as the Indonesian wild boar is a subspecies of wild boar native to the Thai-Malay Peninsula and many Indonesian islands, including Sumatra, Java, and the Lesser Sundas as far east as Komodo. It is known as the wild boar in Singapore. It is the most basal subspecies, having the smallest relative brain size, more primitive dentition, and unspecialised cranial structure. It is a short-faced subspecies with a white band on the muzzle, as well as sparse body hair, no underwool, a fairly long mane, and a broad reddish band extending from the muzzle to the sides of the neck. It is much smaller than the mainland S. s. cristatus subspecies, with the largest specimens on Komodo weighing only 48 kg.

Sulawesi lowland rain forests Ecoregion in Sulawesi, Indonesia

The Sulawesi lowland rain forests is a tropical moist forest ecoregion in Indonesia. The ecoregion includes the lowlands of Sulawesi and neighboring islands.

Sulawesi montane rain forests Ecoregion in Sulawesi, Indonesia

The Sulawesi montane rain forests is a tropical moist forest ecoregion in Indonesia. It includes the highlands of Sulawesi.

References

  1. 1 2 Macdonald, A.; Leus, K.; Masaaki, I.; Burton, J. (2016). "Babyrousa togeanensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T136472A44143172. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T136472A44143172.en . Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  2. "ADW: Babyrousa: CLASSIFICATION". animaldiversity.org.
  3. "COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 407/2009 of 14 May 2009 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 338/97 on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating trade therein". Official Journal of the European Union. 2009-05-19. p. L 123/3.
  4. Meijaard, E. and Groves, C. P. (2002). Upgrading three subspecies of Babirusa (Babyrousa sp.) to full species level. IUCN/SSC Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Specialist Group (PPHSG) Newsletter 2(2): 33-39.
  5. Meijaard, E., J. P. d'Huart, and W. L. R. Oliver (2011). Babirusa (Babyrousa). Pp. 274–276 in: Wilson, D. E., and R. A. Mittermeier, eds. (2011). Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 2, Hoofed Mammals. ISBN   978-84-96553-77-4
  6. Ito, Masaaki; Melletti, Mario (2017), "Togian Babirusa Babyrousa togeanensis (Sody, 1949)", Ecology, Conservation and Management of Wild Pigs and Peccaries, Cambridge University Press, pp. 76–84, doi:10.1017/9781316941232.010, ISBN   978-1-316-94123-2 , retrieved 2021-03-26
  7. Ito, Masaaki; Melletti, Mario (2017), "Togian Babirusa Babyrousa togeanensis (Sody, 1949)", Ecology, Conservation and Management of Wild Pigs and Peccaries, Cambridge University Press, pp. 76–84, doi:10.1017/9781316941232.010, ISBN   978-1-316-94123-2 , retrieved 2021-03-26