Xeno-canto

Last updated
xeno-canto
Type of site
Audio clip sharing
Available in
  • English
  • Dutch
  • Polish
URL www.xeno-canto.org
CommercialNo
RegistrationOptional
LaunchedMay 30, 2005;15 years ago (2005-05-30) [1]
Current statusActive

xeno-canto is a citizen science project and repository in which volunteers record, upload and annotate recordings of birdsong and bird calls. Since it began in 2005, it has collected over 575,000 sound recordings from more than 10,000 species worldwide, and has become one of the biggest collections of bird sounds in the world. [1] All the recordings are published under one of the Creative Commons licenses, [2] including some with open licences. Each recording on the website is accompanied by a spectrogram and location data on a map displaying geographical variation.

Contents

Data from xeno-canto has been re-used in many (a few thousand) scientific papers. [3] [4] [5] [6] It has also been the source of data for an annual challenge on automatic birdsong recognition ("BirdCLEF") since 2014, conducted as part of the Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum. [7]

The website is supported by a number of academic and birdwatching institutions worldwide, with its primary support being in the Netherlands. [8]

History

xeno-canto, which translates to “strange sound”, is a sounds-only project seeking to highlight sounds of birds, rather than images or videos. xeno-canto was launched on May 30, 2005 by Bob Planqué, a mathematical biologist at VU University Amsterdam, and Willem-Pier Vellinga, a physicist who now consults for a global materials technology company. [9] At the time of the launch, the site held recordings of only about 160 species and originally aimed to collect recordings of birds from Central and South America. [1]

Growth

xeno-canto has now become global, expanding its coverage to North America, Africa and Asia, and finally to Europe and Australasia. By 2017, the data collection showed significant growth, containing about 360,000 recordings of about 9,750 bird species (which is nearly 90 percent of all bird species). [9] [10] Nevertheless, the collection is still far from complete. There are about 1,000 missing species, and for many species, there are only a few recordings, meaning they lack the variation in repertoire and dialect that the species display. [9]

Goals

xeno-canto aims to utilize the capabilities of the internet to improve the general popularity, accessibility, and knowledge of bird sounds. [1]  So far, the recordings on xeno-canto have seen use in a variety of different ways including being featured on the Aviation Information System of India, [11] contributing to the STERNA project, [12] and being included in a Norwegian University’s database. [13]

Since its founding, the website has set a number of set principles in order to keep the service community-driven. [1]   These principles include:

Related Research Articles

Long-tailed jaeger Species of bird

The long-tailed skua or long-tailed jaeger is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae.

Red-crested pochard Species of bird

The red-crested pochard is a large diving duck. The scientific name is derived from Greek Netta "duck", and Latin rufina, "golden-red". Its breeding habitat is lowland marshes and lakes in southern Europe and it extends from the steppe and semi-desert areas on the Black Sea to Central Asia and Mongolia, wintering in the Indian Subcontinent and Africa. It is somewhat migratory, and northern birds winter further south into north Africa.

Common snipe Species of bird

The common snipe is a small, stocky wader native to the Old World. The scientific name gallinago is New Latin for a woodcock or snipe from Latin gallina, "hen" and the suffix -ago, "resembling".

Eurasian stone-curlew Species of bird

The Eurasian stone-curlew, Eurasian thick-knee, or simply stone-curlew is a northern species of the Burhinidae (stone-curlew) bird family.

Little bustard Species of bird

The little bustard is a large bird in the bustard family, the only member of the genus Tetrax. The genus name is from Ancient Greek and refers to a gamebird mentioned by Aristophanes and others.

Twite Species of bird

The twite is a small brown passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.

Common linnet Species of bird

The common linnet is a small passerine bird of the finch family, Fringillidae. It derives its common name and the scientific name, Linaria, from its fondness for hemp seeds and flax seeds—flax being the English name of the plant from which linen is made.

Bird vocalization Sounds birds use to communicate

Bird vocalization includes both bird calls and bird songs. In non-technical use, bird songs are the bird sounds that are melodious to the human ear. In ornithology and birding, songs are distinguished by function from calls.

Pine warbler Species of bird

The pine warbler is a small songbird of the New World warbler family.

Bioacoustics

Bioacoustics is a cross-disciplinary science that combines biology and acoustics. Usually it refers to the investigation of sound production, dispersion and reception in animals. This involves neurophysiological and anatomical basis of sound production and detection, and relation of acoustic signals to the medium they disperse through. The findings provide clues about the evolution of acoustic mechanisms, and from that, the evolution of animals that employ them.

Smooth-billed ani Species of bird

The smooth-billed ani is a large near passerine bird in the cuckoo family. It is a resident breeding species from southern Florida, the Caribbean, parts of Central America, south to western Ecuador, Brazil, northern Argentina and southern Chile. It was introduced to Galápagos around the 1960s and is potentially impacting native and endemic species across the archipelago.

California gnatcatcher Species of bird

The California gnatcatcher is a small 10.8 cm (4.3 in) long insectivorous bird which frequents dense coastal sage scrub growth. This species was recently split from the similar black-tailed gnatcatcher of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts. This bird is often solitary, but joins with other birds in winter flocks.

Green ibis Species of bird

The green ibis, also known as the Cayenne ibis, is a wading bird in the ibis family Threskiornithidae. It is the only member of the genus Mesembrinibis.

Semicollared hawk Species of bird

The semicollared hawk is a rare bird of prey species in the family Accipitridae. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It is potentially being affected by habitat loss.

Pheasant cuckoo Species of bird

The pheasant cuckoo is a species of neotropical cuckoo in the subfamily Neomorphinae of the family Cuculidae. It is native to Central and South America where it occurs in lowland tropical forest.

Yellow wattlebird Species of bird

The yellow wattlebird is a species of bird in the honeyeater family Meliphagidae. Other names include the long or Tasmanian wattlebird.

Screaming piha Species of bird

The screaming piha is a species of passerine bird in the family Cotingidae. It is found in humid forests in the Amazon and tropical parts of the Mata Atlântica in South America. It is a common bird in the middle and lower parts of the canopy at altitudes below about 500 m (1,600 ft), or up to 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in Venezuela and the Andean foothills. It is adapting well to human settlement areas like gardens and parks, and is considered to be of least concern by BirdLife International.

Yucatan vireo Species of bird

The Yucatan vireo is a species of bird in the family Vireonidae.

Wildlife Acoustics

Wildlife Acoustics, Inc. is a privately held United States company based in Maynard, Massachusetts. The company provides bioacoustics monitoring technology for scientists, researchers, and government agencies internationally. The company was founded by Ian Agranat in 2003. The company originally developed a product called the Song Sleuth, a device that would attempt to automatically identify birds from their songs in real time in the field. As this concept proved too expensive for the consumer market, the underlying technology was used to develop autonomous acoustic and ultrasonic recorders and analysis software for research scientists and other professional ecologists.

Birds in music

Birds have played a role in Western Classical music since at least the 14th century, when composers such as Jean Vaillant quoted birdsong in some of their compositions. Among the birds whose song is most often used in music are the nightingale and the cuckoo.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "About Xeno Canto". xeno-canto. Retrieved 2019-04-16.
  2. "Terms of Use". xeno-canto. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
  3. Brumm, H. & Naguib, M. (2009), "Environmental acoustics and the evolution of bird song", Advances in the Study of Behavior, 40: 1–33, doi:10.1016/S0065-3454(09)40001-9
  4. Weir, J.T. & Wheatcroft, D. (2011), "A latitudinal gradient in rates of evolution of avian syllable diversity and song length", Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278 (1712): 1713–1720, doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.2037, PMC   3081773 , PMID   21068034
  5. Stowell, D.F. & Plumbley, M. D. (2014), "Automatic large-scale classification of bird sounds is strongly improved by unsupervised feature learning", PeerJ , 2: e488, arXiv: 1405.6524 , Bibcode:2014arXiv1405.6524S, doi:10.7717/peerj.488, PMC   4106198 , PMID   25083350
  6. Stowell, D.F.; Musevic,S.; Bonada,J. & Plumbley, M. D. (2013), "Improved multiple birdsong tracking with distribution derivative method and Markov renewal process clustering", 2013 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing: 468–472, arXiv: 1302.3462 , Bibcode:2013arXiv1302.3462S, doi:10.1109/ICASSP.2013.6637691, hdl: 10230/41749 , ISBN   978-1-4799-0356-6, S2CID   3539066
  7. BirdCLEF 2019 webpage
  8. "Colophon and Credits". xeno-canto. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
  9. 1 2 3 "Science | The Guardian". the Guardian. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
  10. 1 2 "www.xeno-canto.org: a decade on".
  11. "About AVIS – IBIS - IBIS" . Retrieved 2021-03-15.
  12. "Members". www.sterna-net.eu. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
  13. "Linnet (Linaria cannabina) -> Crossbill (Linaria cannabina) - BirdID's Bird Guide - Nord University - Birdid". www.birdid.no. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
  14. "When we share, everyone wins". Creative Commons. Retrieved 2021-03-15.