Capreolus

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Capreolus
Capreolus capreolus 2 Jojo.jpg
A male and a female European roe deer
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Genus: Capreolus
Gray, 1821
Type species
Capreolus capreolus
Species
Young roe deer Young roe deer.jpg
Young roe deer
Range of Capreolus Leefgebied ree.JPG
Range of Capreolus

Capreolus is a genus of deer, the roe deer.

Etymology

English roe is from Old English ra or , from raha, from Proto-Germanic *raikhaz, cognate to Old Norse ra, Old Saxon reho, Middle Dutch and Dutch ree, Old High German reh, German Reh. It is perhaps ultimately derived from a PIE root *rei-, meaning "streaked, spotted or striped". [1] [2]

Contents

The word is attested on the 5th-century Caistor-by-Norwich astragalus -a roe deer talus bone, written in Elder Futhark as ᚱᚨᛇᚺᚨᚾ, transliterated as raïhan. [3] [4]

In the English language this animal was originally simply called a 'roe', but over time the word 'roe' has become a qualifier and the creature is now usually call a 'roe deer'. [5]

The Koiné Greek name πύγαργος, transliterated 'pygargos', mentioned in the Septuagint and the works of various writers such as Hesychius, Herodotus and later Pliny, [6] was originally thought to refer to this species (in many European traslations of the Bible), although it is now more often believed to refer to the Addax. It is derived from the words pyge 'buttocks' and argo 'white'.

The taxonomic name Capreolus is derived from capra or caprea, meaning 'billy goat', with the diminutive suffix -olus. The meaning of word in Latin is not entirely clear: it may have meant 'ibex' or 'chamois'. [7] The roe was also known as capraginus or capruginus in Latin. [8]

Systematics

Roe deer are most closely related to the water deer, and, counterintuitively, the three species in this group, called the Capreolini, are most closely related to moose. [9]

Although roe deer were once classified as belonging to the Cervinae subfamily, they are now classified as part of the Odocoileinae, which includes the deer from the New World. [10]

Palaeontology

Roe deer are thought to have evolved from a species in the Eurasian genus Procapreolus , [9] [11] with some 10 species occurring from the Late Miocene to the Early Pleistocene, which moved from the east to Central Europe over the millennia, where Procapreolus cusanus occurred, [11] also classified as Capreolus cusanus . It may not have evolved from C. cusanus, however, because the two extant species split from each other 1.375 and 2.75 Myr ago, [12] and the western species first appeared in Europe 600 thousand years ago. [13]

The Siberian roe deer had split into two subspecies, C. pygargus pygargus and C. pygargus tianschanicus in the interval between 229 and 462.3 thousand years ago. [12]

The distribution of the European species has fluctuated often since entering Europe. During the some periods during the last Ice Age it was present in central Europe, but during the Last Glacial Maximum it retreated to refugia in the Iberian Peninsula (two refugia here), southern France, Italy (likely two), the Balkans and the Carpathians. When last ice age ended the species initially abruptly expanded north of the Alps to Germany during the Greenland Interstadial, 12.5–10.8 thousand years ago, but during the cooling of the Younger Dryas, 10.8–10 thousand years ago, it appears to have disappeared again from this region. It reappeared 9.7–9.5 thousand years ago, reaching northern central Europe. The modern population in this area appears to have recolonised it from the Carpathians and/or further east, but not the Balkans or other refugia. This is opposite to the red deer, which recolonised Europe from Iberia. There has been much admixture of these populations where they meet, also possibly due to human intervention in some cases. [13] It had become a very common species by the Late Neolithic, as farming by humans spread across the continent, which modified the environment so that more open habitat was created from the woodland, which advantaged the creatures. [14]

Species

There are at least two extant species:

ImageScientific nameCommon NameDistribution
Capreolus (js)11.jpg Capreolus capreolus European roe deerScotland south to the Mediterranean and east to Iran and the Caucasus.
Paozikun530.jpg Capreolus pygargus Siberian roe deerUrals south to the Caucasus and east to Manchuria.

Both species have seen their populations increase, both around the 1930s. In recent times, since the 1960s, [10] the two species have become sympatric where their distributions meet, and there is now a broad 'hybridization zone' running from right side of the Volga River up to eastern Poland. It is extremely difficult for hunters to know which species they have bagged. [15] In line with Haldane's rule, female hybrids of the two taxa are fertile while male hybrids are not. [13] [16] Hybrids are much larger than normal and a cesarean section was sometimes needed to birth the fawns, becoming larger than their mothers at the age of 4–5 months. F1 hybrid males may be sterile, but backcrosses with the females is possible. [16]

22% of the animals around Moscow carry the mtDNA of the European roe deer and 78% of the Siberian. In the Volgograd region the European deer predominates. [15] In Stavropol and Dnepropetrovsk regions of Ukraine most of the roe are Siberian. [15] [17] In northeastern Poland there is also evidence of introgression with the Siberian deer, which was likely introduced. [18] In some cases, such as around Moscow, former introductions of European stock is likely responsible. [15] It is thought that during the Middle Ages the two species were kept apart due to hunting pressure and an abundance of predators, the different populations may have met in the period before that, but during the Ice Age they were also kept apart. [10]

Related Research Articles

Roe deer Species of deer

The roe deer, also known as the roe, western roe deer or European roe, is a species of deer. The male of the species is sometimes referred to as a roebuck. The roe is a small deer, reddish and grey-brown, and well-adapted to cold environments. The species is widespread in Europe, from the Mediterranean to Scandinavia, from Scotland to the Caucasus, and east to northern Iran and Iraq.

Eastern wolf Subspecies of carnivore

The eastern wolf also known as the timber wolf, Algonquin wolf or eastern timber wolf, is a canine of debated taxonomy native to the Great Lakes region and southeastern Canada. It is considered to be either a unique subspecies of gray wolf or a separate species from the gray wolf. Many studies have found the eastern wolf to be the product of ancient and recent genetic admixture between the gray wolf and the coyote, while other studies have found some or all populations of the eastern wolf, as well as coyotes, originally separated from a common ancestor with the wolf over 1 million years ago and that these populations of the eastern wolf may be the same species as or a closely related species to the red wolf of the Southeastern United States. Regardless of its status, it is regarded as unique and therefore worthy of conservation with Canada citing the population in eastern Canada as being the eastern wolf population subject to protection.

Siberian roe deer Species of deer

The Siberian roe deer or eastern roe deer is a species of roe deer found in northeastern Asia. In addition to Siberia and Mongolia, it is found in Kazakhstan, the Tian Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan, eastern Tibet, the Korean Peninsula, and northeastern China (Manchuria).

Boreal (age)

In paleoclimatology of the Holocene, the Boreal was the first of the Blytt–Sernander sequence of north European climatic phases that were originally based on the study of Danish peat bogs, named for Axel Blytt and Rutger Sernander, who first established the sequence. In peat bog sediments, the Boreal is also recognized by its characteristic pollen zone. It was preceded by the Younger Dryas, the last cold snap of the Pleistocene, and followed by the Atlantic, a warmer and moister period than our most recent climate. The Boreal, transitional between the two periods, varied a great deal, at times having within it climates like today's.

European wildcat Small wild cat

The European wildcat is a small wildcat species native to continental Europe, Scotland, Turkey and the Caucasus. It inhabits forests from the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, Central and Eastern Europe to the Caucasus. Its fur is brownish to grey with stripes on the forehead and on the sides and has a bushy tail with a black tip. It reaches a head-to-body length of up to 65 cm (26 in) with a 34.5 cm long tail, and weighs up to 7.5 kg (17 lb).

Capreolinae Subfamily of mammals

The Capreolinae, Odocoileinae, or the New World deer are a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the telemetacarpal deer, due to their bone structure being different from the plesiometacarpal deer subfamily Cervinae. The telemetacarpal deer maintain their distal lateral metacarpals, while the plesiometacarpal deer maintain only their proximal lateral metacarpals. The Capreolinae are believed to have originated in the Middle Miocene, between 7.7 and 11.5 million years ago, in central Asia.

Overpopulation or overabundance occurs when a species' population becomes so large that it is deemed exceeding the carrying capacity and must be actively intervened. It can result from an increase in births, a decline in the mortality rate, an increase in immigration, or a depletion of resources. When overpopulation occurs the available resources become too limited for the entire population to survive comfortably or at all in the long term.

Altai wapiti Subspecies of deer

The Altai wapiti is a subspecies of Cervus canadensis found in the forest hills of southern Siberia, northwestern Mongolia, and northern Xinjiang province of China. It is different from the Tian Shan wapiti in being smaller and paler in color.

Persian fallow deer Species of deer

The Persian fallow deer is a rare deer once native to all of the Middle East, but currently only extant in Iran and Israel after reintroduction into the wild. It has been listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2008. After a captive breeding program, the population has rebounded from only a handful of deer in the 1960s to over a thousand individuals.

Pleistocene Park Ecological experiment to make an Ice Age-Like Reserve

Pleistocene Park is a nature reserve on the Kolyma River south of Chersky in the Sakha Republic, Russia, in northeastern Siberia, where an attempt is being made to re-create the northern subarctic steppe grassland ecosystem that flourished in the area during the last glacial period.

Red Deer Cave people Archaic humans from 12,500 BCE in southwest China

The Red Deer Cave people are a prehistoric archaic human population. Fossils dated to the Bølling-Allerød warming, between about 14,500 to c. 11,500 years ago, were found in Red Deer Cave and Longlin Cave, Yunnan Province, in Southwest China.

Eastern coyote Coywolf native to the northeastern United States and eastern Canada

The eastern coyote is a wild North American canine hybrid with both coyote and wolf parentage. The hybridization likely first occurred in the Great Lakes region, as western coyotes moved east. It was first noticed during the early 1930s to the late 1940s, and likely originated in the aftermath of the extirpation of the gray wolf in southeastern Ontario, Labrador and Quebec, thus allowing coyotes to colonize the former wolf ranges, and mix with the remnant wolf populations. This hybrid is smaller than the eastern wolf and holds smaller territories, but is larger and holds more extensive home ranges than the typical western coyote.

Wild Field (wilderness reserve)

Wild Field is a 300 ha nature reserve near the city of Tula in Tula Oblast in the European part of Russia, approximately 250 km (150 mi) south of Moscow. It was established in 2012 by Russian scientists Sergey Zimov and Nikita Zimov as a companion to Pleistocene Park in Siberia.

<i>Denny</i> (hybrid hominin) Hominin fossil

Denny is a fossil from a girl who was at least 13 years old and lived some 90,000 years ago, shown to be an archaic human hybrid that was half Neanderthal and half Denisovan. Denny was found in 2012 and she represents the first time an ancient individual was discovered whose parents belonged to two distinct species of humans. Her DNA allows for extensive comparative genetic studies between human species, and may inform the frequency of interspecies hominin breeding and its influence on the evolution of modern humans.

Khangai Mountains conifer forests

The Khangai Mountains conifer forests ecoregion covers the northern slopes of the Khangai Mountains in central Mongolia. The cool, temperate forest supports a populations of elk, deer, wild boar, wolves, and brown bear. The diversity of plants and animals has benefited from the relative isolation and low human population of the area.

Central Korean deciduous forests Ecoregion in Korea

The Central Korea deciduous forests is a temperate broadleaf and mixed forests ecoregion on the Korean Peninsula, covering portions of South Korea and North Korea.

Alps conifer and mixed forests Ecoregion in Central Europe

The Alps conifer and mixed forests is a temperate broadleaf and mixed forests ecoregion in central Europe. It extends along the Alps mountains through portions of France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Liechtenstein, Austria, and Slovenia. The ecoregion extends from the lower slopes of the Alps to its peaks, which include Mont Blanc, at 4,809 m (15,778 ft) the highest peak in the Alps.

References

  1. Harper, Douglas (2020). "Roe". Online Etymological Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  2. Johnson, Mary Lynch (1927). A Modern English - Old English Dictionary (PhD Dissertation). Meredith College. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  3. "Caistor-by-Norwich, astragalus" (in German). RUNES: Forshungsproject der Akadmeia der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  4. Waxenberger, Gaby (2006). "The Yew-Rune and the Runes Haglaz, Gyfu, Ior, and Is in the Old English Corpus". In Stoklund, Marie; Nielsen, Michael Lerche; et al. (eds.). Runes and their secrets: Studies in Runology. Museum Tusculanum Press. pp. 385–414. ISBN   87-635-0428-6. pp. 389-91.
  5. Lister, Adrian M.; Grubb, P.; Summer, S. R. M. (1998). "Taxonomy, morphology and evolution of European roe deer". In Andersen, Reidar; Duncan, P.; Linnell, John D. C. (eds.). The European roe deer: the biology of success. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press. pp. 23–46.
  6. Hofmann, Johann Jacob (1698). "Pygargus". Lexicon Universale . Leiden: Jacob Hackium et al.
  7. Lewis, Charlton Thomas; Short, Charles (1879). A Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  8. Gaffiot, Félix (1934). "Capraginus". Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français (in French). Paris: Hachette. p. 261.
  9. 1 2 Heckeberg, Nicola S. (18 February 2020). "The systematics of the Cervidae: a total evidence approach". PeerJ. 8: e8114. doi:10.7717/peerj.8114. PMC   7034380 . PMID   32110477.
  10. 1 2 3 Hewison, A. J. M.; Danilkin, A. A. (2001). "Evidence for separate specific status of European (Capreolus capreolus) and Siberian (C. pygargus) roe deer". Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Saugetierkunde. 66: 13–21. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  11. 1 2 Valli, Andrea M. F. (1 February 2010). "Dispersion of the genus Procapreolus and the relationships between Procapreolus cusanus and the roe deer (Capreolus)". Quaternary International. 212 (2): 80–85. Bibcode:2010QuInt.212...80V. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2008.11.002.
  12. 1 2 Petrosian, V. G.; Tokarskaia, O. N.; Danilkin, A. A.; Ryskov, A. P. (June 2002). "[Quantitative analysis of genetic parameters in populations of European (Capreolus capreolus L.) and Siberian (Capreolus pygargus Pall.) roe deer with RAPD markers]". Genetika (in Russian). 38 (6): 812–819. PMID   12138780.
  13. 1 2 3 Sommer, Robert S.; Fahlke, J. M.; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Benecke, N.; Zachos, F. E. (October 2008). "Quaternary history of the European roe deer Capreolus capreolus". Mammal Review. 39 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2008.00137.x . Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  14. Boyle, K. V. (2006). "The Roe Deer: Conservation of a Native Species". In Serjeantson, D.; Field, D. (eds.). Neolithic wild game animals in Western Europe: The question of hunting. Oxford: Oxbow Books. pp. 10–23. ISBN   978-1-84217-214-8.
  15. 1 2 3 4 Plakhina, Daria Aleksandrovna; Zvychainaya, E. Yu.; Kholodova, Marina Vladimirovna; Danilkin, Alexey (July 2014). "Identification of European (Capreolus capreolus L.) and Siberian (C. pygargus Pall.) roe deer hybrids by microsatellite marker analysis". Russian Journal of Genetics. 50 (7): 757–762. doi:10.1134/S1022795414070151. PMID   25720144. S2CID   7659420 . Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  16. 1 2 Stubbe, H.; Brukhgol'ts, Z. (1979). "[Experiments of hybridization of the roe and tartarian deer Capreolus capreolus capreolus x Capreolus capreolus pygargus]". Zoologicheskiĭ zhurnal (in Russian). 58 (9): 1398–1403. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  17. Danilkin, Alexey; Plakhina, Daria Aleksandrovna; Zvychaynaya, E. Y.; Domnich, A. V. (November 2017). "Siberian Roe Deer (Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771) in Ukraine: Analysis of the Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA". Biology Bulletin. 44 (6): 575–583. doi:10.1134/S106235901706005X. S2CID   3542209.
  18. Olano-Marin, Juanita; Plis, Kamila; Sönnichsen, Leif; Borowik, Tomasz; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła (1 October 2014). "Weak Population Structure in European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Evidence of Introgressive Hybridization with Siberian Roe Deer (C. pygargus) in Northeastern Poland". PLOS ONE. 9 (10): e109147. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9j9147O. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109147 . PMC   4182808 . PMID   25271423.