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Temporal range: Pliocene–Recent
Cervus elaphus
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Cervinae
Tribe: Cervini
Genus: Cervus
Linnaeus, 1758
Type species
Cervus elaphus
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Cervus is a genus of deer that primarily are native to Eurasia, although one species occurs in northern Africa and another in North America. In addition to the species presently placed in this genus, it has included a whole range of other species now commonly placed in other genera. Additionally, the species-level taxonomy is in a state of flux.




Until the 1970s, Cervus also included the members of the genera Axis , Dama , and Elaphurus , and until the late 1980s, it included members of Rucervus and Rusa . [1]


In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World from 2005, only the red deer (C. elaphus) and sika deer (C. nippon) were recognized as species in the genus Cervus. [1] Genetic and morphological evidence suggest more species should be recognized. [2] [3] For example, the species Cervus canadensis (elk/wapiti) is considered a separate species. [4]

Red deer species group

Within the red deer species group, some sources have recommended the Central Asian red deer (Cervus hanglu) should be treated as a species. [2] [4] [5] If the Central Asian red deer (from the Caspian Sea to western China) is recognized as a species, it includes the Yarkand deer and Bactrian deer (the two may be synonymous), but it could possibly also include the Kashmir stag, which has not been sampled in recent studies. [2] [4] If it is included in the Central Asian red deer, the scientific name of that species is C. hanglu. If it is not included, the scientific name of that species is C. yarkandensis, and the Kashmir stag (C. hanglu) may represent a separate monotypic species. [2] [4] The Central Asian red deer was considered its own species (including the Yarkand deer, Kashmir stag and Bactrian deer as subspecies) by the IUCN in 2017, [6] and by the American Society of Mammalogists in 2021. [7]

Others members of the red deer group, which may represent separate species, are C. corsicanus , C. wallichi and C. xanthopygus . [2] [3] If so, C. corsicanus includes the subspecies C. c. barbarus (perhaps a synonym of corsicanus), and is restricted to Maghreb in North Africa, Corsica and Sardinia. [2] [4] C. wallichi would probably include the subspecies C. w. kansuensis and C. w. macneilli (both are perhaps synonyms of C. w. wallichi), and would be found from Tibet to central China. [2] [4] [8] C. xanthopygus would probably include the subspecies C. x. alashanicus (perhaps a synonym of C. x. xanthopygus), and would be found from the Russian Far East to northeastern China. [2] [4] [8] This would restrict the "true" red deer (C. elaphus) to Europe, Anatolia, the Caucasus and northwestern Iran, and the elk/wapiti (C. canadensis) to North America and the Asian regions of the Tian Shan, Altai, and Great Khingan. [2] Alternatively, the barbarus group species are subspecies of the "true" red deer, while the C. wallichii and C. xanthopygus groups are subspecies of the elk/wapiti. [4]

Sika deer species group

It has been proposed that the sika deer should be split into four species based on genetics, morphology and voice, [3] although this may be premature based on the presently available evidence. [9] If split, the potential species are C. yesoensis from northern and central Japan (Hokkaido and northern and central Honshu), C. nippon of southern Japan (southern Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Okinawa, Tsushima and other small islands), C. hortulorum of mainland Asia (the Russian Far East, Korea, central and eastern China and northern Vietnam), and C. taiouanus of Taiwan. [3]


A 2014 mitochondrial DNA study showed the internal phylogeny of Cervus to be as follows: [10]

West Eurasian clade

C. elaphus (Red deer)

C. hanglu (Central Asian red deer)

East Eurasian clade

C. albirostris (Thorold's deer)

C. nippon (Sika deer)

C. canadensis (Elk)


Fossil species

The remains of Cervus are known from the early-mid Pliocene of China. [11]

Mating system

Members of the genus Cervus have polygynous mating systems within harems. [12] These harems consist of several males, numerous females and their young offspring 1–3 years in age [13] Members of this genus have a yearly breeding season where they display sensory exploitation, intrasexual competition, and weaponry. Females will fight for optimal mating opportunities and sexually selection for males with larger antler size and/or greater roar quality. [14] The degree of polygyny and female aggregation is dependent on the level of food distribution. Females aggregating in areas with more food leading to larger harems [15] Female distribution influences the level of polygyny.

Red deer Red deer portrait.jpg
Red deer

Female-female competition

Female-female competition has been observed within harems in the red deer species (Cervus elaphus) prior to and during the mating season. Aggression is displayed through nose threats, kicking, and displacements. Elevated aggression has only been observed during the breeding season. Competition can be for access to mates or reproductive resources such as food, or nesting areas. [14] Female-female aggression in ungulates is often overlooked because it is not as extravagant as male antler combat. Female conflicts occur so the winner has first access to the harem male at the start of the mating season before he is exhausted or low on sperm storage. [14]

Secondary sexual traits

While an emphasis in observations of sexual selection is placed on combat using antlers, males with higher roaring rates are also being selected for. During the breeding season males will make calls to attract mates and compete with other males. Like antler size, mating call quality is an indicator of mate potential. Red deer can distinguish the calls of the males in their harem, others and their offspring. [16]

Indirect benefits

Females select for males with larger antlers which indirectly benefits them. Large antler size in males is a sign of health and strength. The visual display is a reliable indicator of mate quality, providing indirect benefits. The females are not directly affected by these characteristics, but they will produce more viable and fit offspring. Males with large antlers mate and sire more offspring than smaller, younger males. Large antler size is correlated with overall health, fitness and an increase in sperm production and quality. [12]

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The sika deer, also known as the Northernspotted deer or the Japanese deer, is a species of deer native to much of East Asia and introduced to other parts of the world. Previously found from northern Vietnam in the south to the Russian Far East in the north, it is an uncommon species that has been extirpated in most areas of its native range, except in Japan, where it is overabundant and present in very large numbers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eld's deer</span> Asia ruminant mammal species

Eld's deer, also known as the thamin or brow-antlered deer, is an endangered species of deer endemic to South and Southeast Asia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Red deer</span> Species of hoofed mammal

The red deer is one of the largest deer species. A male red deer is called a stag or hart, and a female is called a hind. The red deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains region, Anatolia, Iran, and parts of western Asia. It also inhabits the Atlas Mountains of Northern Africa; being the only living species of deer to inhabit Africa. Red deer have been introduced to other areas, including Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, Peru, Uruguay, Chile and Argentina. In many parts of the world, the meat (venison) from red deer is used as a food source.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Irish elk</span> Extinct species of deer

The Irish elk, also called the giant deer or Irish deer, is an extinct species of deer in the genus Megaloceros and is one of the largest deer that ever lived. Its range extended across Eurasia during the Pleistocene, from Ireland to Lake Baikal in Siberia. The most recent remains of the species have been radiocarbon dated to about 7,700 years ago in western Russia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Harem (zoology)</span> Animal group consisting of one or two males, a number of females and their offspring

A harem is an animal group consisting of one or two males, a number of females, and their offspring. The dominant male drives off other males and maintains the unity of the group. If present, the second male is subservient to the dominant male. As juvenile males grow, they leave the group and roam as solitary individuals or join bachelor herds. Females in the group may be inter-related. The dominant male mates with the females as they become sexually active and drives off competitors, until he is displaced by another male. In some species, incoming males that achieve dominant status may commit infanticide.

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The Barbary stag, also known as the Atlas deer or African elk, is a subspecies of the red deer that is native to North Africa. It is the only deer known to be native to Africa, aside from Megaceroides algericus, which went extinct approximately 6,000 years ago.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kashmir stag</span> Deer subspecies

The Kashmir stag, also called hangul, is a subspecies of Central Asian red deer endemic to Kashmir and surrounding areas. It is found in dense riverine forests in the high valleys and mountains of Jammu and Kashmir and northern Himachal Pradesh. In Kashmir, it is found primarily in the Dachigam National Park where it receives protection, and elsewhere it is more at risk. In the 1941s, the population was between 3000 and 5000 individuals, but since then habitat destruction, over-grazing by domestic livestock and poaching have reduced population dramatically. Earlier believed to be a subspecies of red deer, a number of mitochondrial DNA genetic studies later had the hangul as a part of the Asian clade of the elk. The IUCN and American Society of Mammalogists, however, include it in the new grouping of Central Asian red deer, with the Kashmir stag being the type subspecies. The 2008 census counted 160 mature individuals in the Kashmir valley and northern Chamba in Himachal Pradesh. According to the census in 2019, there were only 237 hanguls. According to 2023 census, the numbers have improved to 289.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bactrian deer</span> Subspecies of deer

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