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Royal antelope (Neotragus pygmaeus)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Antilopinae
Tribe: Neotragini
Genus: Neotragus
Hamilton Smith, 1827

Neotragus pygmaeus

Neotragus is a genus of dwarf antelope, native to Africa. The genus includes only a single species without any dispute, namely Neotragus pygmaeus . Neotragus pygmaeus is the smallest antelope in the world, they usually weigh around 5 to 7 pounds. [1] This animal lives in conditions that are warm and moist, they are found in the tropical forests of Western Africa. [2] The Neotragus pygmaeus diet consists of high nutrients food sources, such as leaves, flowers, plants, fruits, and the growing tips of shoots. [3] Recent nucleic acid studies now suggest that the other two species formerly included in the genus are not closely related, and should be assigned to the genus Nesotragus . Members of the Nesotragus genus are the only surviving members of the subfamily Nesotraginae or tribe Nesotragini and are more closely related to the impala, while the royal antelope is still a member of the subfamily Antilopinae or tribe Antilopini. [4] [5] [6]

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Feathertail glider Species of mammal (Acrobates pygmaeus; marsupial)

The feathertail glider, also known as the pygmy gliding possum, pygmy glider, pygmy phalanger, flying phalanger and flying mouse, is a species of marsupial native to eastern Australia. It is the world's smallest gliding mammal and is named for its long feather-shaped tail.

Nyala Species of antelope

The lowland nyala or simply nyala, is a spiral-horned antelope native to southern Africa. It is a species of the family Bovidae and genus Nyala, also considered to be in the genus Tragelaphus. It was first described in 1849 by George French Angas. The body length is 135–195 cm (53–77 in), and it weighs 55–140 kg (121–309 lb). The coat is maroon or rufous brown in females and juveniles, but grows a dark brown or slate grey, often tinged with blue, in adult males. Females and young males have ten or more white stripes on their sides. Only males have horns, 60–83 cm (24–33 in) long and yellow-tipped. It exhibits the highest sexual dimorphism among the spiral-horned antelopes.

Impala Medium-sized antelope found in Africa

The impala is a medium-sized antelope found in eastern and southern Africa. The only extant member of the genus Aepyceros and tribe Aepycerotini, it was first described to European audiences by German zoologist Hinrich Lichtenstein in 1812. Two subspecies are recognised—the common impala, and the larger and darker black-faced impala. The impala reaches 70–92 cm (28–36 in) at the shoulder and weighs 40–76 kg (88–168 lb). It features a glossy, reddish brown coat. The male's slender, lyre-shaped horns are 45–92 cm (18–36 in) long.

European hare Large species of hare native to Europe and parts of Asia

The European hare, also known as the brown hare, is a species of hare native to Europe and parts of Asia. It is among the largest hare species and is adapted to temperate, open country. Hares are herbivorous and feed mainly on grasses and herbs, supplementing these with twigs, buds, bark and field crops, particularly in winter. Their natural predators include large birds of prey, canids and felids. They rely on high-speed endurance running to escape predation, having long, powerful limbs and large nostrils.

Klipspringer Species of mammal

The klipspringer is a small antelope found in eastern and southern Africa. The sole member of its genus and subfamily/tribe, the klipspringer was first described by German zoologist Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann in 1783. The klipspringer is a small, sturdy antelope; it reaches 43–60 centimetres at the shoulder and weighs from 8 to 18 kilograms. The coat of the klipspringer, yellowish gray to reddish brown, acts as an efficient camouflage in its rocky habitat. Unlike most other antelopes, the klipspringer has a thick and coarse coat with hollow, brittle hairs. The horns, short and spiky, typically measure 7.5–9 cm.

Four-horned antelope Small antelope from Asia (Tetracerus quadricornis)

The four-horned antelope, or chousingha, is a small antelope found in India and Nepal. Its four horns distinguish it from most other bovids, which have two horns. The sole member of the genus Tetracerus, the species was first described by French zoologist Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville in 1816. Three subspecies are recognised. The four-horned antelope stands nearly 55–64 centimetres (22–25 in) at the shoulder and weighs nearly 17–22 kilograms (37–49 lb). Slender with thin legs and a short tail, the four-horned antelope has a yellowish brown to reddish coat. One pair of horns is located between the ears, and the other on the forehead. The posterior horns are always longer than the anterior horns, which might be mere fur-covered studs. While the posterior horns measure 8–12 centimetres (3.1–4.7 in), the anterior ones are 2–5 centimetres (0.79–1.97 in) long.

Nilgai Largest living Asian antelope

The nilgai is the largest Asian antelope and is ubiquitous across the northern Indian subcontinent. It is the sole member of the genus Boselaphus and was described by Peter Simon Pallas in 1766. The nilgai stands 1–1.5 m (3.3–4.9 ft) at the shoulder; males weigh 109–288 kg (240–635 lb), and the lighter females 100–213 kg (220–470 lb). A sturdy thin-legged antelope, the nilgai is characterised by a sloping back, a deep neck with a white patch on the throat, a short crest of hair along the neck terminating in a tuft, and white facial spots. A column of pendant coarse hair hangs from the dewlap ridge below the white patch. Sexual dimorphism is prominent – while females and juveniles are orange to tawny, adult males have a bluish-grey coat. Only males possess horns, 15–24 cm (5.9–9.4 in) long.

Arabian oryx Species of antelope

The Arabian oryx or white oryx is a medium-sized antelope with a distinct shoulder bump, long, straight horns, and a tufted tail. It is a bovid, and the smallest member of the genus Oryx, native to desert and steppe areas of the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabian oryx was extinct in the wild by the early 1970s, but was saved in zoos and private reserves, and was reintroduced into the wild starting in 1980.

Royal antelope Species of mammal

The royal antelope is a West African antelope, recognized as the world's smallest antelope. It was first described by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in 1758. It stands up to merely 25 centimetres (10 in) at the shoulder and weighs 2.5–3 kilograms (5.5–6.6 lb). A characteristic feature is the long and slender legs, with the hindlegs twice as long as the forelegs. Horns are possessed only by males; the short, smooth, spiky horns measure 2.5–3 centimetres (1.0–1.2 in) and bend backward. The soft coat is reddish to golden brown, in sharp contrast with the white ventral parts. In comparison to Bates's pygmy antelope, the royal antelope has a longer muzzle, broader lips, a smaller mouth and smaller cheek muscles.

Blackbuck Antelope native to India and Nepal

The blackbuck, also known as the Indian antelope, is an antelope native to India and Nepal. It inhabits grassy plains and lightly forested areas with perennial water sources. It stands up to 74 to 84 cm high at the shoulder. Males weigh 20–57 kg (44–126 lb), with an average of 38 kg (84 lb). Females are lighter, weighing 20–33 kg (44–73 lb) or 27 kg (60 lb) on average. Males have 35–75 cm (14–30 in) long, ringed horns, though females may develop horns as well. The white fur on the chin and around the eyes is in sharp contrast with the black stripes on the face. The coats of males show a two-tone colouration; while the upper parts and outsides of the legs are dark brown to black, the underparts and the insides of the legs are white. Females and juveniles are yellowish fawn to tan. The blackbuck is the sole living member of the genus Antilope and was scientifically described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. Two subspecies are recognized.

Thomsons gazelle Species of gazelle

Thomson's gazelle is one of the best-known gazelles. It is named after explorer Joseph Thomson and is sometimes referred to as a "tommie". It is considered by some to be a subspecies of the red-fronted gazelle and was formerly considered a member of the genus Gazella within the subgenus Eudorcas, before Eudorcas was elevated to genus status. Thomson's gazelles can be found in numbers exceeding 200,000 in Africa and are recognized as the most common type of gazelle in East Africa. The Thomson's gazelle can reach speeds of 80–90 km/h (50–55 mph). It is the fourth-fastest land animal, after the cheetah, pronghorn, and springbok.

Saiga antelope Species of antelope

The saiga antelope, or saiga, is a critically endangered antelope which during antiquity inhabited a vast area of the Eurasian steppe spanning the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains in the northwest and Caucasus in the southwest into Mongolia in the northeast and Dzungaria in the southeast. During the Pleistocene, they also occurred in Beringian North America and the British Isles. Today, the dominant subspecies is only found in one region in Russia and three areas in Kazakhstan. A portion of the Ustiurt population migrates south to Uzbekistan and occasionally Turkmenistan in winter. It is extirpated from China, Ukraine, and southwestern Mongolia. The Mongolian subspecies is found only in western Mongolia.

Suni Species of antelope

The Suni is a small antelope. It occurs in dense underbrush from central Kenya to KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa.

Raphinae Extinct subfamily of birds

The Raphinae are a clade of extinct flightless birds formerly called didines or didine birds. They inhabited the Mascarene Islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues, but became extinct through hunting by humans and predation by introduced non-native mammals following human colonisation in the 17th century. Historically, many different groups have been named for both the dodo and the Rodrigues solitaire, not all grouping them together. Most recently, it is considered that the two birds can be classified in Columbidae, often under the subfamily Raphinae. The first person to suggest a close affinity to the doves was Johannes Theodor Reinhardt, whose opinions were then supported by Hugh Edwin Strickland and Alexander Gordon Melville.

Arabian gazelle Species of mammal

The Arabian gazelle(Gazella arabica) is a species of gazelle from the Arabian Peninsula.

<i>Rhabdomys</i> Southern African genus of mammals belonging to the mouse and rat family of rodents

Rhabdomys is a largely Southern African genus of muroid rodents slightly larger than house mice. They are known variously as striped or four-striped mice or rats. Traditionally the genus has been seen as a single species, Rhabdomys pumilio, though modern evidence on the basis of karyotype and mtDNA analysis suggests that it comprises two or more species and subspecies. Dorsally Rhabdomys species display four characteristic black longitudinal stripes on a paler background.

Mountain ground squirrel Species of rodent

The mountain ground squirrel is a rodent that is native to southwestern Angola, western Namibia, and western South Africa. It is also known as the Kaoko ground squirrel or the Damara ground squirrel.

Dung midden

Dung middens, also known as dung hills, are piles of dung that mammals periodically return to and build up. They are used as a form of territorial marker. A range of animals are known to use them including steenbok, hyrax, and rhinoceros. Other animals are attracted to middens for a variety of purposes, including finding food and locating mates. Some species, such as the dung beetle genus Dicranocara of the Richtersveld in South western Africa spend their whole lifecycle in close association with dung middens. Dung middens are also used in the field of Paleobotany, which relies on the fact that each ecosystem is characterized by certain plants, which in turn act as a proxy for climate. Dung middens are useful as they often contain pollen which means fossilized dung middens can be used in Paleobotany to learn about past climates.

<i>Nesotragus</i> Genus of mammals

Nesotragus is a genus of dwarf antelope comprising two species, endemic to Africa, and formerly but incorrectly considered a synonym of the similarly named genus Neotragus. Recent nucleic acid studies demonstrate that the two species of Nesotragus are not closely related to the genus Neotragus. Members of the Nesotragus are the only members of the subfamily Nesotraginae or tribe Nesotragini and are more closely related to the impala, while the royal antelope remains a member of the subfamily Antilopinae or tribe Antilopini. The scientific name comes from Greek νῆσος (nêsos), "island", and τράγος (trágos), "he-goat", apparently in reference to the antelope species' habitat in wet rainforests.

Dietary biology of the Nile crocodile

Nile crocodiles are apex predators throughout their range. In the water, this species is an agile and rapid hunter relying on both movement and pressure sensors to catch any prey that presents itself inside or near the waterfront. Out of water, however, the Nile crocodile can only rely on its limbs, as it gallops on solid ground, to chase prey. No matter where they attack prey, this and other crocodilians take practically all of their food by ambush, needing to grab their prey in a matter of seconds to succeed. They have an ectothermic metabolism, so can survive for long periods between meals—though when they do eat, they can eat up to half their body weight at a time. However, for such large animals, their stomachs are relatively small, not much larger than a basketball in an average-sized adult, so as a rule, they are anything but voracious eaters.


  1. Schmidt, D., Schlegel, M., & Galyean, M. (2014). Fiber digestibility in royal antelope (Neotragus pygmaeus). Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 45(4), 744-748. NCBI. 10.1638/2013-0096.1
  2. Bärmann, Eva V. & Schikora Tim. The polyphyly of Neotragus – Results from genetic and morphometric analyses. MammalianBiology 79 (2014) 283–286
  3. Lawson, D. (1989). The food habits of suni antelopes. Journal of Zoology, 217(1), 441-448. ZSL. 10.1111/j.1469-7998.1989.tb02500.x
  4. Bärmann, Eva V. & Schikora Tim. The polyphyly of Neotragus – Results from genetic and morphometric analyses. MammalianBiology 79 (2014) 283–286
  5. Lawson, D (1989). "The food habits of suni antelopes". Journal of Zoology. 217 (1): 441–448. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1989.tb02500.x.
  6. Schmidt, D; Schlegal, M.; Galyean, M. (2014). "Fiber digestibility in royal antelope (Neotragus pygmaeus)". Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 45 (4): 744–748. doi:10.1638/2013-0096.1.