Javan rusa

Last updated

Javan rusa
Javan Deer couple - Baluran NP - East Java (29505339513).jpg
Male and female at Baluran National Park, East Java, Indonesia
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Cervinae
Genus: Rusa
Species:
R. timorensis [2]
Binomial name
Rusa timorensis [2]
(Blainville, 1822)
Rusa timorensis natural range-map.png
Present distribution within the native range, including possible ancient introductions
Synonyms
List
  • Cervus celebensisRorig, 1896
  • Cervus hippelaphusG.Q. Cuvier, 1825 [preoccupied]
  • Cervus lepidusSundevall, 1846
  • Cervus moluccensisQuoy & Gaimard, 1830
  • Cervus peroniiCuvier, 1825
  • Cervus russaMuller & Schlegel, 1845
  • Cervus tavistockiLydekker, 1900
  • Cervus timorensisBlainville, 1822
  • Cervus timorensis ssp. rusaMuller & Schlegel, 1845
  • Cervus tunjucHorsfield, 1830 [nomen nudum]

The Javan rusa or Sunda sambar (Rusa timorensis) is a large deer species native to the islands of Java and Bali in Indonesia. Introduced populations exist in a wide variety of locations in the Southern Hemisphere.

Contents

Taxonomy

The Javan rusa is featured on a 1988 Indonesian rupiah banknote Indonesia 1988 500r o.jpg
The Javan rusa is featured on a 1988 Indonesian rupiah banknote

Seven subspecies of the Javan rusa are recognised: [2]

Characteristics

The Javan rusa is dark blackish brown and has a gray forehead. Its back is almost black, the underparts and inner thighs are yellowish brown. The abdomen is lighter brown, and the tail tuft is dark blackish brown. The hair is coarse and longer on the chest than on the remaining body. Its ears are wide and a little shorter than the head. The antlers are medium long and rather wide, the upper branch points forward. [3] Fawns are born without spots. Males are bigger than females; head-to-body length varies from 142 to 185 cm (4 ft 8 in to 6 ft 1 in), with a 20 cm (7.9 in) tail. Males weigh 152–160 kg (335–353 lb), female about 74 kg (163 lb). [4]

Distribution and habitat

Herd of rusa deer in Baluran National Park Kawanan Rusa.jpg
Herd of rusa deer in Baluran National Park

The Javan rusa natively occurs on the islands of Java and Bali in Indonesia. It has been introduced to Irian Jaya, Borneo, the Lesser Sunda Islands, Maluku, Sulawesi, Timor, Pohnpei, Mauritius, Réunion, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, the Christmas Island, the Cocos Islands, Nauru, Mainland Australia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, New Britain, and New Ireland. [1] [5] The Javan rusa was introduced by the Dutch to New Guinea in the early 1900s. [6]

Since its introduction to the West Papuan lowlands, the species has become widely dispersed and is common in much of its new range. However its population in its native range has declined markedly by approximately 10,000 individuals in the past two decades and likely faces further decline. As a result it has been listed as vulnerable in its native range and was declared as a protected species under Indonesian law in 2018. [7]

During the 1980s and 1990s, protected areas such as national parks were used to control poaching and the effects of land conversion that destroyed grazing areas. However large numbers of Javan rusa died in Baluran National Park in Indonesia due to the loss of grazing area as a result of the invasive thorny acacia. [8]

Ecology

Javan rusa are nocturnal, although they do graze during the day. [8] They are rarely seen in the open and are very difficult to approach due to their keen senses and cautious instincts.

The rusa deer is often found in small groups or pairs, although males are often seen alone. [7] When alarmed, a rusa stag lets out an extremely loud honk. This is an alarm call and alerts any other deer in the vicinity.[ citation needed ]

As with other deer species, Javan rusa mainly feed on grass, leaves, and fallen fruit. Most of their fluid requirements are met by the food they consume, so they hardly drink water. [8]

Predators

The main predators of the Javan rusa includes Javan leopard, Sunda clouded leopard, dhole, estuarine crocodile, reticulated python, and Komodo dragon on the islands of Rinca, Komodo, and Flores. [4] [9]

Reproduction

The Javan rusa mates around July and August, when stags contest by calling in a loud, shrill bark and dueling with the antlers. The doe gives birth to one or two calves after a gestation period of 8 months, at the start of spring. Calves are weaned at 6–8 months, and sexual maturity is attained at 3–5 years, depending on habitat conditions. Javan rusas live 15–20 years both in the wild and in captivity. [9] [4]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Geography of Indonesia</span>

Indonesia is an archipelagic country located in Southeast Asia and Oceania, lying between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. It is located in a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes connecting East Asia, South Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world. Indonesia's various regional cultures have been shaped—although not specifically determined—by centuries of complex interactions with its physical environment.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Java</span> Island in Indonesia

Java is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 156.4 million people, Java is the world's most populous island, home to approximately 56% of the Indonesian population. Indonesia's capital city, Jakarta, is on Java's northwestern coast.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sunda Islands</span> Island group in the Malay Archipelago

The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the Malay Archipelago. They consist of the Greater Sunda Islands and the Lesser Sunda Islands.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wallacea</span> Biogeographical region

Wallacea is a biogeographical designation for a group of mainly Indonesian islands separated by deep-water straits from the Asian and Australian continental shelves. Wallacea includes Sulawesi, the largest island in the group, as well as Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba, Timor, Halmahera, Buru, Seram, and many smaller islands. The islands of Wallacea lie between the Sunda Shelf to the west, and the Sahul Shelf including Australia and New Guinea to the south and east. The total land area of Wallacea is 347,000 km2 (134,000 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Komodo (island)</span> Island in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

Komodo is one of the 17,508 islands that comprise the Republic of Indonesia. It is particularly notable as the habitat of the Komodo dragon, the largest lizard on Earth, which is named after the island. Komodo Island has a surface area of 291 square kilometres, and had a human population of about 1,800 in 2020.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sambar deer</span> Species of deer

The sambar is a large deer native to the Indian subcontinent, South China and Southeast Asia that is listed as a vulnerable species on the IUCN Red List since 2008. Populations have declined substantially due to severe hunting, local insurgency, and industrial exploitation of habitat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Javan tiger</span> Extinct tiger population in Sunda Island Java

The Javan tiger was a Panthera tigris sondaica population native to the Indonesian island of Java. It was one of the three tiger populations that colonized the Sunda Islands during the last glacial period 110,000–12,000 years ago. It used to inhabit most of Java, but its natural habitat decreased continuously due to conversion for agricultural land use and infrastructure. By 1940, it had retreated to remote montane and forested areas. Since no evidence of a Javan tiger was found during several studies in the 1980s and 1990s, it was assessed as being extinct in 2008.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bali tiger</span> Extinct tiger subpopulation in Sunda Island Bali

The Bali tiger was a Panthera tigris sondaica population on the Indonesian island of Bali which has been extinct since the 1950s. It was formerly regarded as a distinct tiger subspecies with the scientific name Panthera tigris balica, which had been assessed as extinct on the IUCN Red List in 2008. In 2017, felid taxonomy was revised, and it was subordinated to P. t. sondaica, which also includes the still surviving Sumatran tiger.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fauna of Indonesia</span> Native animals of Indonesia

The fauna of Indonesia is characterised by high levels of biodiversity and endemicity due to its distribution over a vast tropical archipelago. Indonesia divides into two ecological regions; western Indonesia which is more influenced by Asian fauna, and the east which is more influenced by Australasian species.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lesser Sundas deciduous forests</span> Ecoregion in Lesser Sundas, Indonesia

The Lesser Sundas deciduous forests is a tropical dry forest ecoregion in Indonesia. The ecoregion includes the islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Komodo, Flores, and Alor, along with the many adjacent smaller islands.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timor and Wetar deciduous forests</span> Ecoregion in Indonesia and East Timor

The Timor and Wetar deciduous forests is a tropical dry forest ecoregion in Indonesia and East Timor. The ecoregion includes the islands of Timor, Wetar, Rote, Savu, and adjacent smaller islands.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trans-Fly savanna and grasslands</span> Ecoregion in New Guinea

The Trans Fly savanna and grasslands are a lowland ecoregion on the south coast of the island of New Guinea in both the Indonesian and Papua New Guinean sides of the island. With their monsoon and dry season climate these grasslands are quite different from the tropical rainforest that covers most of the island and resemble the landscape of northern Australia which lies to the south.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Taman Safari</span> Indonesia conservation theme park group

Taman Safari Indonesia or simply Taman Safari are animal theme parks in Cisarua, Prigen, and Bali. Being part of the same organization, they are known as Taman Safari I, II and III. The most popular is Taman Safari I.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gembira Loka Zoo</span> Zoo in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Gembira Loka Zoo is a zoological garden located in Yogyakarta, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Gembira Loka Zoo was opened in 1956 and comprises a botanical garden, orchid nursery, (artificial) lake, children's park, numerous scenic bridges across the Gajahwong River, and a collection of approximately 470 animals, most notable of which are its native Indonesian tigers, leopards, Komodo dragons, saltwater crocodiles, orangutans, and gibbons, as well as African animals such as lions, camels and hippopotamus. The park is 54 acres in size.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lesser Sunda Islands</span> Group of islands in Indonesian Archipelago

The Lesser Sunda Islands, now known as Nusa Tenggara Islands, are an archipelago in Maritime Southeast Asia. Most of the Lesser Sunda Islands are located within the Wallacea region, except for the Bali province which is west of the Wallace Line and is within the Sunda Shelf. Together with the Greater Sunda Islands to the west they make up the Sunda Islands. The islands are part of a volcanic arc, the Sunda Arc, formed by subduction along the Sunda Trench in the Java Sea. In 1930 the population was 3,460,059; today slightly over 15.5 million people live on the islands. Etymologically, Nusa Tenggara means "Southeast Islands" from the words of nusa which means 'island' from Old Javanese language and tenggara means 'southeast'.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Australasian Mediterranean Sea</span> Sea enclosed by the Sunda Islands and the Philippines

The Australasian Mediterranean Sea is a mediterranean sea located in the area between Southeast Asia and Australasia. It connects the Indian and Pacific oceans. It has a maximum depth of 7,440 m and a surface area of 9.08 mil. km².

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Javan spitting cobra</span> Species of snake

The Javan spitting cobra, also called Indonesian cobra or Komodo spitting cobra, is a species of cobra in the family Elapidae, found in the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia, including Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Komodo, and others.

References

  1. 1 2 Hedges, S.; Duckworth, J.W.; Timmins, R.; Semiadi, G.; Dryden, G. (2015). "Rusa timorensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2015: e.T41789A22156866. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T41789A22156866.en . Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. 1 2 3 Grubb, P. (2005). "Species Rusa timorensis". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 670. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  3. Fitzinger, L. J. (1875). "Kritische Untersuchungen über die Arten der natürlichen Familie der Hirsche (Cervi). II. Abtheilung". Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. 70: 239–333.
  4. 1 2 3 "Rusa, Sunda sambar". Ultimate Ungulate.
  5. Long, J.L. (2003). Introduced Mammals of the World: Their History, Distribution and Influence . Cabi Publishing. ISBN   9780851997483.
  6. Georges, A.; Guarino, F. & Bito, B. (2006). "Freshwater turtles of the TransFly region of Papua New Guinea – notes on diversity, distribution, reproduction, harvest and trade". Wildlife Research. 33 (5): 373–375. doi:10.1071/wr05087.[ permanent dead link ]
  7. 1 2 Pangau-Adam, Margaretha; Flassy, Marlina; Trei, Jan-Niklas; Waltert, Matthias; Soofi, Mahmood (January 2022). "The role of the introduced rusa deer Cervus timorensis for wildlife hunting in West Papua, Indonesia". Ecological Solutions and Evidence. 3 (1). Bibcode:2022EcoSE...3E2118P. doi: 10.1002/2688-8319.12118 . ISSN   2688-8319. S2CID   245817034.
  8. 1 2 3 Ali, Nur Alizati Nabila Giarat; Abdullah, Mohd Lutfi; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd; Pau, Tan Min; Kulaimi, Noor Azleen Mohd; Naim, Darlina Md (2021-01-01). "A review of the genus Rusa in the indo-malayan archipelago and conservation efforts". Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 28 (1): 10–26. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.024. ISSN   1319-562X. PMC   7783680 . PMID   33424278.
  9. 1 2 Reyes, E. "Rusa timorensis". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Animal Diversity Web.