Indian hog deer

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Indian hog deer
Indian hog deer.jpg
Indian hog deer in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Cervinae
Genus: Axis
A. porcinus
Binomial name
Axis porcinus
(Zimmermann, 1780)
Axis porcinus range map.png
Range in green

Hyelaphus porcinus(Zimmermann, 1780)

The Indian hog deer or Indochinese hog deer (Axis porcinus), is a small cervid native to the region of the Indian subcontinent and Indo-Gangetic Plain. Introduced populations exist and are established in Australia, [2] [3] as well as the United States (in Texas, Hawaii and Florida), and Sri Lanka. [1]


Its name derives from the hog-like manner in which it runs through forests (with its head hung low), to ease ducking under obstacles instead of leaping over them, like most other deer.


Cervus porcinus was the scientific name used by Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann in 1777 and 1780, based on an earlier description of Indian hog deer brought to England from India. [4] [5] It was placed in the genus Axis by William Jardine in 1835 and by Brian Houghton Hodgson in 1847. [6] [7] In 2004, it was proposed to be placed in the genus Hyelaphus . [8] [9] The proposal has not been accepted, with most authors keeping it under Axis. [10] [1] [11] A subspecies, A. p. annamiticus, was once considered its own species, but is now generally considered the same species as A. porcinus. [1]


Young hog deer male in Assam Hog deer in Terai grassland.JPG
Young hog deer male in Assam

A mature hog deer stag stands about 70 centimetres (28 in) at the shoulder, and weighs approximately 50 kilograms (110 lb); hinds are much smaller, standing about 61 centimetres (24 in) and weighing around 30 kilograms (66 lb). They are very solidly built, with a long body and relatively short legs; the line of the back slopes upward from the shoulders to a high rump. The ears are rounded; older animals tend to become light coloured in the face and neck. The Indian hog deer's coat is quite thick, and generally a uniform dark-brown in winter, except for the underparts of the body and legs, which are lighter in colour. During late spring, the change to a summer coat of rich reddish-brown commences, although this may vary between individuals. Many hog deer show a dark dorsal stripe extending from the head down the back of the neck, and along the spine. In summer, there is usually a uniform row of light-coloured spots along either side of the dorsal stripe from the shoulders to the rump. The tail is fairly short and brown, but tipped with white. The underside of the tail is white, and the deer can fan the white hairs out in a distinctive alarm display.

Indian hog deer have preorbital glands on the face just below the eyes and metatarsal glands located high on the side of the rear legs. Pedal glands are located between the cleaves or toes of the hind hooves.

The antlers of a mature hog deer stag are typically three tined, having a brow tine and a solid main beam terminating in inner and outer top tines. However, antlers with more points are not uncommon. [12] The distinctive features of typical hog deer antlers are the acute angle between the brow tine and main beam, and the fact that the inner tops tend to be short and angle back from the main beam and across towards the opposite antler.

Distribution and habitat

The Indian hog deer's status in Pakistan is uncertain; it occurs in northern India, Nepal, southern Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and China's Yunnan Province, has been reintroduced to Thailand but is locally extinct in Laos and Vietnam. [1] A small, isolated population lives in Cambodia’s Prek Prasab Wildlife Sanctuary. [13]

Behaviour and ecology

Female suckling fawn in Kaziranga, India Indian Hog Deer.jpg
Female suckling fawn in Kaziranga, India

The Indian hog deer is gregarious only when conditions are favorable and do not form a "unit" at these times, fleeing in different directions rather than in a herd. When alarmed, it makes a whistling vocalization or a warning bark. Home ranges vary widely in size, but average about 0.70 km2 (0.27 sq mi). Males are aggressive, and may become territorial at low population densities, marking its territory with glandular secretions. During the rut, males gather in open meadows, pawing the ground during antagonistic encounters. Harems are not created, with males courting and defending a single female at any given time. Population densities may be as low as 0.1 animals per square kilometer in riverine valleys, rising to over 19 individuals per square kilometer in grassy flood plains.[ citation needed ]

The tiger, leopard and clouded leopard are known predators of the Indian hog deer. [14] Other known predators include the Burmese python and dhole, [15]

See also

Related Research Articles

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