|West Caucasian tur|
Güldenstädt and Pallas, 1783
The West Caucasian tur (Capra caucasica) is a mountain-dwelling goat-antelope native to the western half of the Caucasus Mountains range, in Georgia and European Russia. It is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, as the wild population is estimated to be between 5,000 and 6,000 individuals. 
It is also known by the names "zebuder," "zac" and "Caucasian ibex."  
West Caucasian turs stand up to 1 m (3.3 ft) tall at the shoulder and weigh around 65 kg (143 lb). They have large but narrow bodies and short legs. West Caucasian turs have a chestnut coat with a yellow underbelly and darker legs. Their horns are scimitar-shaped and heavily ridged. In males, these horns are around 70 cm (28 in), while in females they are much smaller.
West Caucasian turs live in rough mountainous terrain between 800 and 4,000 m (2,600 and 13,100 ft) above sea level, where they eat mainly grasses and leaves.
They are preyed upon by steppe wolves and lynxes; Persian leopards and Syrian brown bears may also be possible predators.
The West Caucasian tur is nocturnal, eating in the open at night, and sheltering during the day. Females live in herds of around 10 individuals, while males are solitary.
The Alpine ibex, also known as the steinbock, bouquetin, or simply ibex, is a species of wild goat that lives in the mountains of the European Alps. It is a sexually dimorphic species: males are larger and carry longer, curved horns than females. Its coat colour is typically brownish grey. Alpine ibex tend to live in steep, rough terrain near the snow line. They are also social, although adult males and females segregate for most of the year, coming together only to mate. Four distinct groups exist; adult male groups, female-offspring groups, groups of young individuals, and mixed-sex groups.
Capra is a genus of mammals, the goats, composed of up to nine species, including the markhor and many species known as ibexes. The domestic goat is a domesticated species derived from the wild goat. Evidence of goat domestication dates back more than 8,500 years.
The markhor is a large Capra species native to Central Asia, the Karakoram, and the Himalayas. It is listed on the IUCN Red List as Near Threatened since 2015.
The wild goat is a wild goat species, inhabiting forests, shrublands and rocky areas ranging from Turkey and the Caucasus in the west to Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east. It has been listed as near threatened on the IUCN Red List and is threatened by destruction and degradation of habitat.
The East Caucasian tur, also known as the Daghestani tur, is a mountain-dwelling caprine living in the eastern half of the Greater Caucasus mountains, in Azerbaijan, Georgia, and European Russia. It inhabits rough mountainous terrain, where it eats mainly grasses and leaves. It is listed as near threatened on the IUCN Red List.
The Nubian ibex is a desert-dwelling goat species found in mountainous areas of northern and northeast Africa, and the Middle East. It was historically considered to be a subspecies of the Alpine ibex, but is now considered a distinct species. The wild population is estimated at 4,500 mature individuals.
The gemsbok or South African oryx is a large antelope in the genus Oryx. It is native to the extremely dry, arid regions of Southern Africa; notably, the Kalahari and Namib desert. Some authorities formerly classified the East African oryx, or beisa oryx, as a subspecies.
The walia ibex is an vulnerable species of ibex. It is sometimes considered a subspecies of the Alpine ibex. Threats against the species include habitat loss, poaching, and restricted range; only about 500 individuals survived in the mountains of Ethiopia, concentrated in the Semien Mountains, largely due to past poaching and habitat depletion. If the population were to increase, the surrounding mountain habitat would be sufficient to sustain only 2,000 ibex. The adult walia ibex's only known wild predator is the hyena. However, young ibex are often hunted by a variety of fox and cat species. The ibex are members of the goat family, and the walia ibex is the southernmost of today's ibexes. In the late 1990s, the walia ibex went from endangered to critically endangered due to the declining population. The walia ibex is also known as the Abyssinian ibex. Given the small distribution range of the Walia ibex in its restricted mountain ecosystem, the presence of a large number of domestic goats may pose a serious threat that can directly affect the survival of the population.
The Caucasus mixed forests is a temperate broadleaf and mixed forests ecoregion in the Caucasus Mountains, as well as the adjacent Lesser Caucasus range and the eastern end of the Pontic Mountains.
Shahdag National Park — is a national park of Azerbaijan. It was established on an area of 115,900 hectares (1,159 km2) in the Quba Rayon, Qusar Rayon, İsmayıllı Rayon, Qəbələ Rayon, Oğuz Rayon and Şamaxı Rayon administrative districts on December 8, 2006. It was enlarged by presidential decree on July 8, 2010 from 115,900 hectares (1,159 km2) to 130,508.1 hectares (1,305.081 km2).
The Siberian ibex, also known as the Altai ibex, Central Asia(n) ibex, Gobi ibex, Himalayan ibex, Mongolian ibex or Tian Shan ibex, is a species of ibex that lives in central Asia. It has traditionally been treated as a subspecies of the Alpine ibex, and whether it is specifically distinct from other ibex is still not entirely clear. It is the longest and heaviest member of the genus Capra, though its shoulder height is surpassed by the markhor.
The Caucasian salamander is a species of stream-dwelling salamander in the family Salamandridae. This is a salamander of medium size, with a thin, elongated body. It is a relict species, endemic to the south-western Caucasus, in Georgia and Turkey. The subspecies M. c. janashvilii is found at Mt. Mtirala near Batumi and probably along the Black Sea coast.
The bezoar ibex is a wild goat subspecies that is native to the montane forested areas in the Caucasus and the Zagros Mountains.
The Pyrenean ibex, Aragonese and Spanish common name bucardo, Basque common name bukardo, Catalan common name herc and French common name bouquetin, was one of the four subspecies of the Iberian ibex or Iberian wild goat, a species endemic to the Pyrenees. Pyrenean ibex were most common in the Cantabrian Mountains, Southern France, and the northern Pyrenees. This species was common during the Holocene and Upper Pleistocene, during which their morphology, primarily some skulls, of the Pyrenean ibex was found to be larger than other Capra subspecies in southwestern Europe from the same time.
Pshav-Khevsureti National Park is in Dusheti Municipality, Mtskheta-Mtianeti region of Georgia. Park has been established by direct involvement of World Wide Fund for Nature.
Capra dalii is a fossil species of goat discovered in Georgia in 2006. It is named for the Georgian goddess Dali, who was considered the guardian of hoofed animals such as ibexes and goats. Fragments of C. dalii fossils were first located at the Dmanisi archaeological site, and are believed to be related to the west Caucasian tur, Capra caucasica. The species is believed to have existed during the Early Pleistocene, around 1.76 million years ago, making it the oldest known example of the Capra genus.
Pskhu-Gumista Strict Nature Reserve is a protected area in the Sukhumi District of Abkhazia, Georgia. The primary goal of the reserve is to protect flora and fauna of the area, including the surrounding mountainous region.