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Temporal range: Pleistocene to present
White-tailed deer.jpg
Odocoileus virginianus
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Tribe: Odocoileini
Genus: Odocoileus
Rafinesque, 1832 [1]
Type species
Odocoileus speleus [1]
Rafinesque, 1832

Odocoileus hemionus
Odocoileus pandora
Odocoileus virginianus
Odocoileus lucasi
Odocoileus salinae [2]

Odocoileus is a genus of medium-sized deer (family Cervidae) containing three species native to the Americas. [1] [3] [4] The name is sometimes spelled odocoeleus; it is from a contraction of the roots odonto- and coelus meaning "hollow-tooth".

Extant species

Odocoileus hemionus .jpg Odocoileus hemionus Mule deer western half of North America.
Mazama-pandora2.jpg Odocoileus pandora Yucatan brown brocket Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico, Guatemala, Belize)
White-tailed deer.jpg Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America, and northern portions of South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia. [5]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deer</span> Family of mammals

A deer or true deer is a hoofed ruminant ungulate of the family Cervidae. It is divided into subfamilies Cervinae and Capreolinae. Male deer of almost all species, as well as female reindeer, grow and shed new antlers each year. These antlers are bony extensions of the skull and are often used for combat between males.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">White-tailed deer</span> Species of hooved mammal

The white-tailed deer, also known commonly as the whitetail and the Virginia deer, is a medium-sized species of deer native to North America, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia, where it predominately inhabits high mountain terrains of the Andes. It has also been introduced to New Zealand, all the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean, and some countries in Europe, such as the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Romania and Serbia. In the Americas, it is the most widely distributed wild ungulate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mule deer</span> Deer indigenous to western North America

The mule deer is a deer indigenous to western North America; it is named for its ears, which are large like those of the mule. Two subspecies of mule deer are grouped into the black-tailed deer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Black-tailed deer</span> Subspecies of deer

Two forms of black-tailed deer or blacktail deer that occupy coastal woodlands in the Pacific Northwest of North America are subspecies of the mule deer. They have sometimes been treated as a species, but virtually all recent authorities maintain they are subspecies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scent gland</span> Exocrine glands found in most mammals

Scent gland are exocrine glands found in most mammals. They produce semi-viscous secretions which contain pheromones and other semiochemical compounds. These odor-messengers indicate information such as status, territorial marking, mood, and sexual behaviour. The odor may be subliminal—not consciously detectable. Though it is not their primary function, the salivary glands may also function as scent glands in some animals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brocket deer</span> Species of deer in the genus Mazama

Brockets or brocket deer are the species of deer in the genus Mazama. They are medium to small in size, and are found in the Yucatán Peninsula, Central and South America, and the island of Trinidad. Most species are primarily found in forests. They are superficially similar to the African duikers and the Asian muntjacs, but only distantly related. About 10 species of brocket deer are described.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gray brocket</span> Species of deer

The gray brocket, also known as the brown brocket, is a species of brocket deer from northern Argentina, Bolivia, southern Peru, eastern and southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It formerly included the Amazonian brown brocket and sometimes also the Yucatan brown brocket as subspecies. Unlike other species of brocket deer in its range, the gray brocket has a gray-brown fur without reddish tones.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yucatan brown brocket</span> Species of deer

The Yucatan brown brocket is a small species of deer native to Central America.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Capreolinae</span> Subfamily of mammals

The Capreolinae, Odocoileinae, or the New World deer are a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the telemetacarpal deer, due to their bone structure being different from the plesiometacarpal deer subfamily Cervinae. The telemetacarpal deer maintain their distal lateral metacarpals, while the plesiometacarpal deer maintain only their proximal lateral metacarpals. The Capreolinae are believed to have originated in the Middle Miocene, between 7.7 and 11.5 million years ago, in Central Asia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">American mountain deer</span> Extinct species of deer

Odocoileus lucasi, known commonly as the American mountain deer, is an extinct species of North American deer.

The Cedros Island mule deer is a subspecies of mule deer found only on Cedros Island off the coast of Baja California. Only about 50 individuals remain, with no captive population. Its behavior is similar to that of other subspecies of mule deer. The subspecies is threatened by feral dogs and poaching.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Central American red brocket</span> Species of deer

The Central American red brocket is a species of brocket deer ranging from southern Mexico, through Central America, to northwestern Colombia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alberta Mountain forests</span> Temperate coniferous forests ecoregion of Alberta and British Columbia, Canada

The Alberta Mountain forests are a temperate coniferous forests ecoregion of Western Canada, as defined by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) categorization system.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northern Tallgrass Prairie</span> Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregion of Canada and the United States

The Northern Tallgrass Prairie is one of 844 terrestrial ecoregions defined by One Earth. This ecoregion largely follows the Red River Valley in the Canadian province of Manitoba and the American states of North Dakota and Minnesota.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Central Rockies forests</span> Temperate coniferous forest ecoregion in Canada and the United States

The North Central Rockies forests is a temperate coniferous forest ecoregion of Canada and the United States. This region overlaps in large part with the North American inland temperate rainforest and gets more rain on average than the South Central Rockies forests and is notable for containing the only inland populations of many species from the Pacific coast.

Agalmaceros is a potentially invalid extinct genus of deer of the Cervidae family, that lived in South America during the Pleistocene. The only species currently known is A. blicki. Remains have only been found in Ecuador. It showed a clear affinity to Andean or temperate habitats. Agalmaceros blicki is estimated to have been 60 kilograms (130 lb) in weight.

The Pennsylvania State Game Lands Number 247 are Pennsylvania State Game Lands in Armstrong County in Pennsylvania in the United States providing hunting, bird watching, and other activities.


  1. 1 2 3 Odocoileus, Mammal Species of the World, 3rd Edition
  2. "Fossilworks: Odocoileus salinae". fossilworks.org.
  3. Valerius Geist (1998). Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour, and Ecology. Stackpole Books. ISBN   978-0-8117-0496-0.
  4. Gutiérrez, E. E., Helgen, K. M., McDonough, M. M., Bauer, F., Hawkins, M. T., Escobedo-Morales, L. A., ... & Maldonado, J. E. (2017). A gene-tree test of the traditional taxonomy of American deer: the importance of voucher specimens, geographic data, and dense sampling. ZooKeys, (697), 87.
  5. "IUCN Red List maps". Explore and discover Red List species ranges and observations.