Coahuila

Last updated
Coahuila
Estado Libre y Soberano
de Coahuila de Zaragoza
Flag of Coahuila.svg
Flag
Coat of arms of Coahuila.svg
Seal
Anthem:
State Anthem of Coahuila
(Español: Himno Coahuilense)
Coahuila in Mexico (location map scheme).svg
State of Coahuila within Mexico
Coordinates: 27°18′N102°3′W / 27.300°N 102.050°W / 27.300; -102.050 Coordinates: 27°18′N102°3′W / 27.300°N 102.050°W / 27.300; -102.050
Country Mexico
Capital Saltillo
Largest City Saltillo
Municipalities 38
Admission May 7, 1824 [1]
Order 16th [a]
Government
   Governor Miguel Riquelme Solís PRI logo (Mexico).svg
   Senators Armando Guadiana Tijerina Morena Party (Mexico).svg
Eva Eugenia Galaz Caletti Morena Party (Mexico).svg
Verónica Martínez García PRI logo (Mexico).svg
   Deputies [2]
Area
[3]
  Total151,595 km2 (58,531 sq mi)
  Ranked 3rd
Highest elevation
[4]
3,710 m (12,170 ft)
Population
 (2015) [5]
  Total2,954,915
  Rank 15th
  Density19/km2 (50/sq mi)
  Density rank 26th
Demonym(s) Coahuilense
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Postal code
25 - 27
Area code
ISO 3166 code MX-COA
HDI Increase2.svg 0.799 High Ranked 7th of 32
GDP US$ 21,556.31 mil [b]
Website Official Web Site
^ a. Joined to the federation under the name of Coahuila y Texas also recognized as Coahuila y Tejas.
^ b. The state's GDP was 275,920,781 thousand of pesos in 2008, [6] amount corresponding to 21,556,311.01 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010). [7]

Coahuila (Spanish pronunciation:  [koaˈwila] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), formally Coahuila de Zaragoza (American Spanish:  [koaˈwila ðe saɾaˈɣosa] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza (Spanish : Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula and today has over 450 million native speakers in Spain and in the Americas. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Mexico City Capital City in Mexico, Mexico

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. It is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.

Contents

Coahuila borders the Mexican states of Nuevo León to the east, Zacatecas and San Luis Potosí to the south, and Durango and Chihuahua to the west. To the north, Coahuila accounts for a 512 kilometres (318 mi) stretch of the Mexico–United States border, adjacent to the U.S. state of Texas along the course of the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte). With an area of 151,563 square kilometres (58,519 sq mi), it is the nation's third-largest state. It comprises 38 municipalities (municipios). In 2010, Coahuila's population is 2,748,391 inhabitants.

Nuevo León One of the 32 states of Mexico

Nuevo León, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 51 municipalities and its capital city is Monterrey.

Zacatecas State of Mexico

Zacatecas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Zacatecas, is one of the 32 states of Mexico. It is divided into 58 municipalities and its capital city is Zacatecas City.

San Luis Potosí State of Mexico

San Luis Potosí, officially the Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 58 municipalities and its capital city is San Luis Potosí City.

The five largest cities in Coahuila are the state capital city of Saltillo; the second largest is Torreón (largest metropolitan area in Coahuila and 9th largest in Mexico), third largest is Monclova (a former state capital), fourth largest is Ciudad Acuña, and fifth largest is Piedras Negras.

Saltillo City in Coahuila, Mexico

Saltillo is the capital of the northeastern Mexican state of Coahuila and the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name. As of the 2015 census, Saltillo had a population of 807,537 people, while the population of the metropolitan area was 923,636 inhabitants, making Saltillo the largest city and the second-largest metropolitan area in the state of Coahuila and the 19th most populated metropolitan area in the country.

Torreón Municipal seat in Coahuila, Mexico

Torreón is a city and seat of Torreón Municipality in the Mexican state of Coahuila. As of 2015, the city's population was 679,288. The Metropolitan population as of 2015 was 1,497,734, making it the ninth-biggest metropolitan area in the country and the largest Metropolitan area in the state of Coahuila, as well as one of Mexico's most important economic and industrial centers. The cities of Torreón, Gómez Palacio, Lerdo, Matamoros, Francisco I. Madero, San Pedro, Bermejillo, and Tlahualilo form the area of La Laguna or the Comarca Lagunera, a basin within the Chihuahuan Desert.

Monclova Place in Coahuila, Mexico

Monclova, is a city and seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name in the northern Mexican state of Coahuila. According to the 2015 census there were 231,107 inhabitants in the city. Its metropolitan area has 381,432 inhabitants and has a population density of 29.88 inhabitants per square kilometers. Monclova is the third largest city and metropolitan area in the state in terms of population, after Torreón and Saltillo.

History

The name Coahuila derives from native terms for the region, and has been known by variations such as Cuagüila and Cuauila. Some historians believe that this means “flying serpent”, “place of many trees”, or “place where serpents creep”. The official name of the state is Coahuila de Zaragoza, in honor of General Ignacio Zaragoza.

Ignacio Zaragoza Mexican general

Ignacio Zaragoza Seguín was a Mexican general and politician. He led the Mexican army that defeated invading French forces at the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862.

The Spanish explored the north of Mexico some decades after their victory in Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztecs. Such exploration was delayed because the northern climate was harsher and there was no gold. The first Spanish settlement in the region now called Coahuila was at Minas de la Trinidad in 1577. Saltillo was settled in 1586, to form part of the province of Nueva Vizcaya of the Vice-royalty of New Spain. Later it became one of the first provinces of Nueva Extremadura to be explored by Europeans. Among the 16th century settlers of Saltillo and other communities in Nueva Vizcaya were Tlaxcalans, who founded an independent community bordering Saltillo, called San Esteban de Nueva Tlaxcala.

Tenochtitlan Former city-state in the Valley of Mexico

Tenochtitlan, also known as Mexica-Tenochtitlan, was a large Mexica city-state in what is now the center of Mexico City. The exact date of the founding of the city is unclear. The date March 13, 1325 was chosen in 1925 to celebrate the 600 anniversary of the city. The city was built on an island in what was then Lake Texcoco in the Valley of Mexico. The city was the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire in the 15th century until it was captured by the Spanish in 1521.

Nueva Vizcaya was the first province in the north of New Spain to be explored and settled by the Spanish. It consisted mostly of the area which is today the states of Chihuahua and Durango in Mexico.

New Spain kingdom of the Spanish Empire (1535-1821)

The Viceroyalty of New Spain was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. It covered a huge area that included territories in North America, South America, Asia and Oceania. It originated in 1521 after the fall of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest, which did not properly end until much later, as its territory continued to grow to the north. It was officially created on 8 March 1535 as a Kingdom, the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, and the capital of the kingdom was Mexico City, established on the ancient Mexico-Tenochtitlan.

"Coahuila and Texas" was one of the constituent states of the newly independent United Mexican States under their 1824 Constitution, and included Texas, Coahuila and Nuevo León. Later in the same year Nuevo León was detached, but Texas remained a part of the state until 1836, when it seceded to form the Republic of Texas. Monclova was the capital of the state from 1833 to 1835.

1824 Constitution of Mexico

The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 was enacted on October 4 of 1824, after the overthrow of the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide. In the new constitution, the republic took the name of United Mexican States, and was defined as a representative federal republic, with Catholicism as the official and unique religion. It was replaced by the Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857.

Texas U.S. state in the United States

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.

Republic of Texas independent sovereign nation in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846

The Republic of Texas was a sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846. It was bordered by Mexico to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two U.S. states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, and United States territories encompassing parts of the current U.S. states of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico to the north and west. The citizens of the republic were known as Texians.

In 1840 Coahuila briefly became a member of the short lived Republic of the Rio Grande.

On February 19, 1856, Santiago Vidaurri annexed Coahuila to his state, Nuevo León, but it regained its separate status in 1868.

During the Mexican Revolution, Francisco Villa attacked the city of Torreón.

The U.S.-Mexico border fence near Texas and Coahuila US-Mexico border fence.jpg
The U.S.–Mexico border fence near Texas and Coahuila

On April 4, 2004, the border city of Piedras Negras was flooded. More than 30 people died and more than 4,000 lost their homes. In 2007 Coahuila became the first state in Mexico to offer civil unions (Pacto Civil de Solidaridad) to same-sex couples. [8]

Geography

The Sierra Madre Oriental runs northwest to southeast through the State, and the higher elevations are home to the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests. The northernmost fingers of the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Sierra del Burro and the Sierra del Carmen, reach to the border with the United States at the Rio Grande.

East of the range, the land slopes gently toward the Rio Grande, and is drained by several rivers, including the Salado and its tributary, the Sabinas River. The Tamaulipan mezquital, a dry shrubland ecoregion, occupies the eastern portion of the State, and extends across the Rio Grande into southern Texas.

The portion of the State west of the Sierra Madre Oriental lies on the Mexican Plateau, and is part of the Chihuahuan Desert. The Bolsón de Mapimí is a large endorheic basin which covers much of the western portion of the State and extends into adjacent portions of Chihuahua, Durango, and Zacatecas. The Nazas River, which flows east from Durango, and the Aguanaval River, which flows north from Zacatecas, empty into lakes in the Bolsón. Torreón, the most populous city in the State, lies on the Nazas in the irrigated Laguna Region, the (Comarca Lagunera), which straddles the border of Coahuila and Durango.

Coahuila contains two biosphere reserves. Maderas del Carmen lies on the northern border of the State, and includes sections of the Chihuahuan desert and sky islands of pine-oak forest in the Sierra del Carmen. The springs, lakes, and wetlands of Cuatro Ciénegas lie west of Monclova on the west slope of the Sierra Madre.

Coahuila is largely arid or semi-arid, but the rivers of the State support extensive irrigated agriculture, particularly cotton. The Parras district in the southern part of the State produces wines and brandies. The pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre produce timber.

Flora and fauna

Demographics

Religion in Coahuila (2010 census) [9]
Roman Catholicism
80.4%
Other Christian
12.0%
Other Religion
0.0%
No religion
5.5%
Unspecified
2.1%
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1787 15,287    
1815 [10] 50,600+231.0%
1895 242,021+378.3%
1900 296,938+22.7%
1910 362,092+21.9%
1921 393,480+8.7%
1930 436,425+10.9%
1940 550,717+26.2%
1950 720,619+30.9%
1960 907,734+26.0%
1970 1,114,956+22.8%
1980 1,557,265+39.7%
1990 1,972,340+26.7%
1995 2,173,775+10.2%
2000 2,298,070+5.7%
2005 2,495,200+8.6%
2010 2,748,391+10.1%
2015 [11] 2,954,915+7.5%

The last population census run across Mexico in the year 2015, reports Coahuila de Zaragoza as having 2,954,915 inhabitants, which, considering its size, means that the state has a very low density, in fact as low as only 15 persons per square kilometer.

Coahuila's population is mainly made up of Criollos along with Mestizos. Fewer than 7,500 natives reside in Coahuila, or merely 0.3% of the total population. The rest of the population is composed of Americans, Canadian, and Japanese communities.

The rest of the demographic particulars in the state are very similar to national averages, such as a high life expectancy (reaching 75 years of age) and a Catholic majority.

Education

Basic education

Basic public education in Coahuila is mainly managed by the state's Secretary of Education, but federal-sustained schools are also very common. There are also a lot of private schools in the main cities of the state.

Higher education

Some of the most recognized universities in Coahuila include:

Iberoamerican University (Universidad Iberoamericana)

A private university part of the Jesuit University System with a campus in Torreón and a university extension center in Saltillo.

Building at the Iberoamerican University Edificio D Ibero Torreon.jpg
Building at the Iberoamerican University

Technological Institute of La Laguna (Instituto Tecnológico de la Laguna)

The most recognized public technological university of La Laguna Region located in the city of Torreón.

Technological Institute of Saltillo (Instituto Tecnológico de Saltillo)

Monterrey Institute Of Technology and Higher Studies

It is the most known technological university in Mexico with two campuses: one in Saltillo and another one in Torreón.

Autonomous University of La Laguna

Antonio Narro Agrarian Autonomous University (UAAAN)

Autonomous University of Coahuila (Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila)

It is considered the best public university of the states and it has campuses and schools all across Coahuila.

Economy

About 95% of Mexico's coal reserves are found in Coahuila, which is the country's top mining state.

Torreón has Met-Mex Peñoles, a mining company. The city is the world's largest silver producer and Mexico's largest gold producer. It also has Lala, a dairy products company, which produces 40% of Mexico's milk consumption.

Saltillo also has a growing automobile industry, hosting General Motors and Chrysler assembly plants.

As of 2005, Coahuila's economy represents 3.5% of Mexico's total gross domestic product or US$22,874 million. [12] Coahuila's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 221,273 people are employed in the manufacturing sector. [13] Foreign direct investment in Coahuila was US$143.1 million for 2005. The average wage for an employee in Coahuila is approximately 190 pesos per day.[ citation needed ]

On the other hand, Coahuila is the Mexican state with the highest level of public debt in the nation.

Municipalities

Coahuila is subdivided into five regions and 38 municipalities (municipios).

Major communities

Saltillo, the capital of Coahuila. Saltillo, mexico(3).jpg
Saltillo, the capital of Coahuila.
Acuna Presidencia acuna 10.jpg
Acuña
Monclova Commemorating Monclova's industrial base.jpg
Monclova
Piedras Negras La Gran Plaza 21DIC2010 (2).JPG
Piedras Negras
Torreon Plaza Mayor Torreon 05.jpg
Torreón

List of governors

This list is incomplete

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Piedras Negras, Coahuila Place in Coahuila, Mexico

Piedras Negras is a city and seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name in the Mexican state of Coahuila. It stands at the northeastern edge of Coahuila on the U.S.-Mexico border, across the Rio Grande from Eagle Pass in the U.S. state of Texas. In the 2015 census the city had a population of 163,595 inhabitants, while the metropolitan area had a population of 245,155 inhabitants. The Piedras Negras and the Eagle Pass areas are connected by the Eagle Pass-Piedras Negras International Bridge, Camino Real International Bridge, and the Eagle Pass Union Pacific International Railroad Bridge.

Durango State of Mexico

Durango, officially named Estado Libre y Soberano de Durango, is a state in the northwest of Mexico. With a population of 1,632,934, Durango has Mexico's second-lowest population density, after Baja California Sur. The capital city, Victoria de Durango, is named after the first president of Mexico, Guadalupe Victoria.

Chihuahuan Desert desert

The Chihuahuan Desert is a desert and ecoregion designation covering parts of northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. It occupies much of West Texas, parts of the middle and lower Rio Grande Valley and the lower Pecos Valley in New Mexico, and a portion of southeastern Arizona, as well as the central and northern portions of the Mexican Plateau. It is bordered on the west by the extensive Sierra Madre Occidental range, along with northwestern lowlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental range. On the Mexican side, it covers a large portion of the state of Chihuahua, along with portions of Coahuila, north-eastern Durango, the extreme northern part of Zacatecas, and small western portions of Nuevo León. With an area of about 362,000 km2 (139,769 sq mi), it is the third largest desert of the Americas and the second largest in North America, after the Great Basin Desert.

Municipalities of Coahuila Wikimedia list article

Coahuila is a state in Northeast Mexico that is divided into 38 municipalities. According to the 2015 Mexican Intercensal Survey, Coahuila is the 16th most populous state with 2,954,915 inhabitants and the third largest by land area spanning 151,846.16 square kilometres (58,628.13 sq mi).

Comarca Lagunera Place in Mexico

The Comarca Lagunera or La Comarca de la Laguna is a region of northern Mexico occupying large portions of the states of Durango and Coahuila, with rich soils produced by periodic flooding of the Nazas and Aguanaval rivers. Neither river drains into either the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico, but rather they created a series of inland lakes. The region was developed for large-scale irrigated cotton agriculture. During the Mexican Revolution, the region was the site of fierce fighting. Following the military phase of the Revolution, the region was part of the agrarian reform under President Lázaro Cárdenas. The dam named for Cárdenas now controls flooding of the rivers, but the groundwater resources are no longer recharged as a result. It is the 8th largest metropolitan area in Mexico.

Federal Highway 40, also called the Carretera Interoceánica, is a road beginning at Reynosa, Tamaulipas, just west of the Port of Brownsville, Texas, and ending at Fed. 15 in Villa Unión, Sinaloa, near Mazatlán and the Pacific coast. It is called Interoceanic as, once finished, the cities of Matamoros, Tamaulipas, on the Gulf of Mexico and Mazatlán on the Pacific Ocean will be linked.

The National Pedagogic University is Mexico's national university for teacher training. The main campus, directly adjacent to the Colegio de México in Mexico City, hosts more than 5,000 students and is the largest of more than 70 UPN campuses nationwide. The university offers both undergraduate (licenciatura) and graduate programs of study.

Bolsón de Mapimí

The Bolsón de Mapimí is an endorheic or internal drainage basin in which no rivers or streams drain to the sea but rather toward the center of the basin often terminating in swamps and ephemeral lakes. It is located in the center-north of the Mexican Plateau. The Basin is shared by the states of Durango, Coahuila, Chihuahua, and Zacatecas. It takes its name from Mapimí, a town in Durango.

MVS Radio are a group of four international Spanish radio networks owned by the mass media conglomerate MVS Comunicaciones. The group of radio networks consists of Exa FM, La Mejor, FM Globo and MVS Noticias and are broadcast in a various Latin American countries including Argentina, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Panama and the United States.

Chihuahua (state) State of Mexico

Chihuahua, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua, is one of the 31 states of Mexico. It is located in Northwestern Mexico and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the west, Sinaloa to the southwest, Durango to the south, and Coahuila to the east. To the north and northeast, it has a long border with the U.S. adjacent to the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas. Its capital city is Chihuahua City.

The Mexican Central League was a Minor League Baseball circuit that operated for 19 seasons from 1960 through 1978 with several clubs based across Mexico.

H-E-B Mexico

H-E-B, a grocery company based in San Antonio, Texas, USA, operates 51 stores in México. It competes mainly with Soriana, Walmart México, S-Mart, Chedraui and Casa Ley.

Jesús de Cárdenas was the Governor of Tamaulipas and the President of the Republic of the Rio Grande.

The following television stations broadcast on digital channel 24 in Mexico:

Northern Mexico Cultural region of Mexico

Northern Mexico, commonly referred as El Norte, is an informal term for the northern cultural and geographical area in Mexico. Depending on the source, it contains some or all of the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, Sinaloa, Sonora and Tamaulipas.

References

  1. "La diputación provincial y el federalismo mexicano" (in Spanish).
  2. "Listado de Diputadas y Diputados alfabético". Cámara de Diputados del Congreso de la Unión (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  3. "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on April 19, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  4. "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on December 13, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
  5. "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 8, 2015.
  6. "Coahuila". 2010. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
  7. "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  8. ""Mexican state moves to allow same-sex unions", Advocate News, Gay.com, January 11, 2007". Archived from the original on January 14, 2007. Retrieved January 13, 2007.
  9. "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010". INEGI. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
  10. Jones, Jr., Oakah L. (1979), Los Paisanos: Spanish Settlers of the Northern Frontier of New Spain, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, p. 240
  11. "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved 2015-12-08.
  12. Industrial Costs in Mexico - A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 90.
  13. Industrial Costs in Mexico - A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 92.
  14. Benjamin, Thomas, and William McNellie. Other Mexicos: Essays on Regional Mexican History, 1876-1911. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984.