Nayarit

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Nayarit
Estado Libre y Soberano de Nayarit
Flag of Nayarit.svg
Flag
Coat of arms of Nayarit.svg
Seal
Nayarit in Mexico (location map scheme).svg
State of Nayarit within Mexico
Coordinates: 21°45′N105°14′W / 21.750°N 105.233°W / 21.750; -105.233 Coordinates: 21°45′N105°14′W / 21.750°N 105.233°W / 21.750; -105.233
Country Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
Capital Tepic
Largest City Tepic
Municipalities 20
Admission January 26, 1917 [1]
Order 28th
Government
   Governor PAN logo (Mexico).svg   Antonio Echevarría García
   Senators [2] Morena Party (Mexico).svg   Miguel Ángel Navarro Quintero
PT Party (Mexico).svg   Cora Cecilia Pinedo Alonso
PAN (Mexico).svg   Gloria Elizabeth Núñez Sánchez
   Deputies [3]
Area
[4]
  Total27,857 km2 (10,756 sq mi)
  Ranked 23rd
Highest elevation
[5]
2,760 m (9,060 ft)
Population
(2015) [6]
  Total1,181,050
  Rank 29th
  Density42/km2 (110/sq mi)
  Density rank 23rd
Demonym(s) Nayarita
Time zones UTC−7 (MST)
UTC-6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−6 (MDT)
UTC-5 (CDT)
Postal code
63
Area code
ISO 3166 code MX-NAY
HDI Increase2.svg 0.785 (high)
Ranked 13th
GDP US$ 4,281.52 mil [a]
Website Official website
^ a. The state's GDP was 53,167,305 thousand pesos in 2008, [7] an amount corresponding to US$4.281 billion (a dollar worth 12.80 pesos as of June 3, 2010). [8]

Nayarit (Spanish pronunciation:  [naʝaˈɾit] ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nayarit (Spanish : Estado Libre y Soberano de Nayarit), is one of the 31 states which, together with the Mexico City, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided in 20 municipalities and its capital city is Tepic.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Mexico City Capital in Mexico

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. It is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.

Municipalities of Nayarit Wikimedia list article

Nayarit is a state in West Mexico that is divided into twenty municipalities.

Contents

It is bordered by the states of Sinaloa to the northwest, Durango to the north, Zacatecas to the northeast and Jalisco to the south. To the west, Nayarit has a significant share of coastline on the Pacific Ocean, including the islands of Marías and Marietas. The beaches of San Blas and the so-called "Riviera Nayarit" are popular with tourists. Besides tourism, the economy of the state is based mainly on agriculture and fishing.

Sinaloa State of Mexico

Sinaloa, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales.

Durango State of Mexico

Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango, is a state in northwest Mexico. With a population of 1,632,934, Durango has Mexico's second-lowest population density, after Baja California Sur. The city of Victoria de Durango is the state's capital, named after the first president of Mexico, Guadalupe Victoria.

Zacatecas State of Mexico

Zacatecas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Zacatecas, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 58 municipalities and its capital city is Zacatecas City.

Home to Uto-Aztecan indigenous peoples such as the Huichol and Cora, the region was exposed to the conquistadores , Hernán Cortés and Nuño de Guzmán, in the 16th century. Spanish governance was made difficult by indigenous rebellions and by the inhospitable terrain of the Sierra del Nayar. The last independent Cora communities were subjugated in 1722. The state's name recalls the Cora people's label for themselves: Náayerite, commemorating Nayar, a resistance leader. [9]

Uto-Aztecan languages language family

Uto-Aztecan or Uto-Aztekan is a family of indigenous languages of the Americas, consisting of over 30 languages. Uto-Aztecan languages are found almost entirely in the Western United States and Mexico. The name of the language family was created to show that it includes both the Ute language of Utah and the Nahuan languages of Mexico.

Huichol Indigenous people of Mexico

The Huichol or Wixáritari are an indigenous people of Mexico living in the Sierra Madre Occidental range in the states of Nayarit, Jalisco, Zacatecas, and Durango. They are best known to the larger world as the Huichol, however, they refer to themselves as Wixáritari in their native Huichol language. The adjectival form of Wixáritari and name for their own language is Wixárika.

Cora people ethnic group

The Cora are an indigenous ethnic group of Western Central Mexico which live in the municipality El Nayar in the Mexican state of Nayarit and in a few settlements in the neighboring state of Jalisco. They call themselves náayerite, whence the name of the present day Mexican state of Nayarit. The 2000 Mexican census reported that there were 24,390 persons who were members of Cora speaking households, these being defined as households where at least one parent or elder claim to speak the Cora language. Of these 24 thousand, 67 percent (16,357) were reported to speak Cora, 17 percent were nonspeakers, and the remaining 16 percent were unspecified with regard to their language.

History

Map of Nayarit before the Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire Nayarit precolombino.gif
Map of Nayarit before the Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire
The colonial contaduria (accounting offices) in the old port town of San Blas Jardin de La Contaduria, en San Blas..JPG
The colonial contaduría (accounting offices) in the old port town of San Blas

Radiocarbon dating estimate Aztatlán colonization of the western Mexican coast – including parts of Sinaloa, Nayarit and Jalisco – as occurring as early as 900 AD, with some evidence suggesting it might have been as early as 520 AD. Encountered on the western coast by the Spanish invaders in 1500, the cultures were descended from these original Aztatlán settlements and other Classic-stage cultures who had merged with them. [10] [11]

Radiocarbon dating is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

Classic stage America

In archaeological cultures of North America, the classic stage is the theoretical North and Meso-American societies that existed between AD 500 and 1200. This stage is the fourth of five stages posited by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips' 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology.

Hernán Cortés was the first known European to enter into the area now known as Nayarit, which he claimed for Spain as part of Nueva Galicia. Under Nuño de Guzman, Spaniards took the region with considerable brutality, causing the indigenous inhabitants to revolt, in what was later referred to as the Mixtón War. [12] [13] After almost two centuries of resistance, the last independent Cora communities were incorporated into Spanish administration by force in 1722. Then followed intense missionary efforts by Jesuits to convert the indigenous. [14]

Hernán Cortés Spanish conquistador

Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers who began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Nueva Galicia Province & Indendancy in New Spain, Spain

Nuevo Reino de Galicia or simply Nueva Galicia was an autonomous kingdom of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was named after Galicia in Spain. Nueva Galicia's territory became the present-day Mexican states of Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Colima, Jalisco, Nayarit and Zacatecas.

The Mixtón War was fought from 1540 until 1542 between the Caxcanes and other semi-nomadic Indigenous people of the area of north western Mexico against Spanish invaders, including their Aztec and Tlaxcalan allies. The war was named after Mixtón, a hill in the southern part of Zacatecas state in Mexico which served as an Indigenous stronghold.

In the colonial period, the port of San Blas was one of the most important trade ports on the American Pacific coast. Galleons transporting goods from Manila, the Philippines arrived here before the rise of the port of Acapulco.[ citation needed ] Today, the town still boasts colonial architecture from the its heyday, such as the aduana (customs office), the contaduria (accounting offices) and the fortress that protected the port against pirates.

In Nayarit, the struggle for independence from Spain was initiated by the priest José María Mercado, who conquered Tepic and San Blas before being defeated and executed by Spanish royalists.[ citation needed ] In 1824, in the first constitution of the Mexican republic, Nayarit was a part of Jalisco state.[ citation needed ] During the second half of the 19th century, Nayarit was one of the most turbulent territories in Mexico. The population was in open revolt, demanding access to land. [15] Nayarit was one of the last territories admitted as a state of the Mexican federation, which occurred on May 1, 1917. [16]

Geography

Sayulita off Nayarit's Pacific coast, a former fishing village now mostly given over to tourism, part of the area now marketed as "La Riviera Nayarita" or "Nuevo Vallarta" Sayulita-nanzalview.jpg
Sayulita off Nayarit's Pacific coast, a former fishing village now mostly given over to tourism, part of the area now marketed as "La Riviera Nayarita" or "Nuevo Vallarta"

Nayarit covers 27,815 square kilometers (10,739 sq mi), making it one of the smaller states in Mexico. [17] Nayarit is located between latitude lines 23°05' north and 20°36' south and longitude lines 103°43' east and 105°46' west. [18] Its terrain is broken up by the western ends of the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains. Its highest mountains are: San Juan, Sanguangüey, El Ceboruco, Cumbre de Pajaritos and Picachos. [19] Nayarit has two volcanoes, Ceboruco and Sangangüey. In the northeast are broad, tropical plains watered by the Río Grande de Santiago, a continuation of the Lerma River. The main state rivers are the Río Grande de Santiago, San Pedro, Acaponeta, Ameca and Las Cañas. The Río Grande de Santiago is the largest river in Nayarit. The Santiago and its tributaries are of major importance for agricultural irrigation. The Ameca and the Las Cañas lie on the border between Nayarit and the states of Jalisco and Sinaloa, respectively. Notable lagoons in Nayarit include Santa María del Oro, San Pedro Lagunillas and Agua Brava. [20] [21]

Municipalities

Nayarit – as with all states of Mexico – is geographically divided into municipalities (municipios), creating twenty municipalities in Nayarit:

Environment

Nayarit contains hundreds of miles of rain forest in the sierra. Its wildlife includes hundreds of bird species including the lilac-crowned amazon (Amazona finschi) and Mexican woodnymph (Thalurania ridgwayi). There are also 119 registered species of mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), caymans, armadillos and wild felines such as jaguarundi (Puma yagouarundi) and ocelot (Felis pardalis) and many more. [22] Unfortunately, most of the rain forest has been exploited, especially around the region of Santa María del Oro. The conservation and protection of the rain forest and wildlife of Nayarit is an issue of crucial importance. [23]

The Islas Marías were designated as the Islas Marías Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 2010. [24]

Flora and fauna

Flora and fauna of Nayarit
Jaguarundi.jpg Micrurus tener.jpg Bark Scorpion.jpg Aquila chrysaetos Flickr.jpg Zenaida macroura2.jpg
Puma yagouaroundi ,
eyra cat
Micrurus ,
coral snake
Centruroides suffusus ,
bark scorpion
Aquila chrysaetos ,
golden eagle
Zenaida macroura ,
mourning dove
Amazona finschi -Xcaret Eco Park -Mexico-8a.jpg Crotalus basiliscus.jpg Odocoileus hemionus 20.JPG Canis latrans.jpg Falco peregrinus - 01.jpg
Amazona finschi ,
lilac-crowned amazon
Crotalus basiliscus ,
green rattler
Odocoileus hemionus ,
mule deer
Canis latrans ,
coyote
Falco peregrinus ,
peregrine
Agave tequilana 1.jpg Figa de moro 01.JPG Singapore Botanic Gardens Cactus Garden 2.jpg Cylindropuntia spinosior, with flower, Albuquerque.jpg Pinus ponderosa 9681.JPG
Agave tequilana ,
tequila agave
Opuntia ficus-indica ,
cactus pear
Echinocactus grusonii ,
golden barrel cactus
Cylindropuntia imbricata ,
cane cholla
Pinus ponderosa ,
ponderosa pine

Education

Archaeological zone of Los Toriles Ixtlan.jpg
Archaeological zone of Los Toriles

Demographics

The state capital, Tepic, seen from the Cerro de la Cruz. Tepic is home to some 340,000 people. Cerro de la cruz.JPG
The state capital, Tepic, seen from the Cerro de la Cruz. Tepic is home to some 340,000 people.
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1895 [25] 149,807    
1900 150,098+0.2%
1910 171,173+14.0%
1921 163,183−4.7%
1930 167,724+2.8%
1940 216,698+29.2%
1950 290,124+33.9%
1960 389,929+34.4%
1970 544,031+39.5%
1980 726,120+33.5%
1990 824,643+13.6%
1995 896,702+8.7%
2000 920,185+2.6%
2005 949,684+3.2%
2010 1,084,979+14.2%
2015 1,181,050+8.9%

Nayarit is Mexico's twenty-ninth most populous state. According to the census of 2010, the state had a population of 1,084,979 and its population density was 39/km2.

Indigenous groups

Nayarit is the home to four indigenous groups: the Wixaritari (Huichol), the Naayeri (Cora), the Odam (Tepehuan) and the Nahuatl-speaking Mexicaneros. The indigenous groups mostly inhabit the Nayar highlands, but are also frequently encountered in Tepic and on the Pacific coast, where they have also established colonies. They are known for their crafts and artwork which they sell. About five percent of the state population speaks an indigenous language. [26]

Economy

Shrimp fisherman on the coast of Nayarit Shrimp fisherman.jpg
Shrimp fisherman on the coast of Nayarit

Nayarit is predominantly an agricultural state, and produces a large variety of crops such as beans, sorghum, sugar cane, corn, tobacco, rice, chiles, peanuts, melons, tomatoes, coffee, mangoes, bananas, and avocados. In addition to these crops, livestock and fishing are also central to the local economy. Approximately six percent of the land in Nayarit is pasture land, with the most common livestock being cattle, horses, pigs, goats, and sheep. Nayarit has 289 kilometers of coastline, which provides an abundance of fish and shellfish, including bass, snapper, sharks, and oysters. There are over 75 cooperatives related to the fishing industry alone in Nayarit. Much of the food produced in Nayarit is exported to the larger urban areas surrounding Mexico City and Guadalajara, and much of the agricultural labor is performed by migrant laborers. Although mining exists in Nayarit, it is mostly of non-metallic substances such as limestone or kaolin. [27]

In recent years, Nayarit has worked to build its tourism sector, marketing the "Riviera Nayarita" as a safe, beautiful destination served by Puerto Vallarta International Airport. Popular resort towns include Bucerius, Punta de Mita, La Cruz de Huanacaxtle, San Blas, Santiago Ixcuintla, Sayulita and Tecuala. However, some residents in these and other towns are concerned that the growth in the tourism industry might have harmful impacts on the community. [27] Due to the growth of tourism, some vacationers have fallen victim to timeshare scams. [28]

See also

Related Research Articles

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The Grande de Santiago River is one of the longest rivers in Mexico, measuring up 433 km (269 mi) long. The river begins at Lake Chapala and continues roughly north-west through the Sierra Madre Occidental, receiving the Verde, Juchipila, Bolaños, and other tributaries. At La Yesca, the La Yesca Dam was completed in 2012 and the El Cajón Dam was completed downstream in 2007. Below El Cajón, the Aguamilpa Dam was completed in 1993, creating a reservoir covering a large part of the territory of the municipality of El Nayar in Nayarit. From Aguamilpa, the river descends to the coastal lowlands, passing by Santiago Ixcuintla and empties into the Pacific Ocean, 16 km (10 mi) northwest of San Blas, in Nayarit. The river is viewed by some sources as a continuation of the Lerma River, which flows into Lake Chapala.

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La Yesca is a municipality and the municipal seat of the same in the Mexican state of Nayarit. The population of the municipality was 12,025 (2005). The population of the town and municipal seat was 356 inhabitants in 2005. The population density was 7 inhabitants per square kilometer, one of the lowest in the state.

Cora is an indigenous language of Mexico of the Uto-Aztecan language family. It is spoken by the ethnic group that is widely known as the Cora but who refer to themselves as Naáyarite. The Cora inhabit the northern sierra of the Mexican state Nayarit which is named after its indigenous inhabitants. Cora is a Mesoamerican language and shows many of the traits defining the Mesoamerican Linguistic Area. Under the General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples it is recognized as a "national language" along with 62 other indigenous languages and Spanish which have the same "validity" in Mexico.

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Xalisco is a city and its surrounding municipality of the same name in the Mexican state of Nayarit. The city had a population of 21,899 in the 2005 census while the municipality has an area of 290.6 km² and a population of 42,893. The municipality lies adjacent to the south side of Tepic, the state capital, and is part of the Tepic metropolitan area.

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Santa María del Oro, Nayarit Nayarit

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Jalisco State of Mexico

Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and is bordered by six states which are Nayarit, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Michoacán and Colima. Jalisco is divided into 125 municipalities, and its capital city is Guadalajara. Jalisco is one of the most important states in Mexico because of its natural resources as well as its history. Many of the characteristic traits of Mexican culture, particularly outside Mexico City, are originally from Jalisco, such as mariachi, ranchera music, birria, tequila, jaripeo, etc., hence the state's motto: "Jalisco es México." Economically, it is ranked third in the country, with industries centered in the Guadalajara metropolitan area, the second largest metropolitan area in Mexico. The state is home to two significant indigenous populations, the Huichols and the Nahuas. There is also a significant foreign population, mostly retirees from the United States and Canada, living in the Lake Chapala and Puerto Vallarta areas.

"El Son de la Negra" is a Mexican folk song, originally from Tepic, Nayarit, best known from an adaptation by Jaliscian musical composer Blas Galindo in 1940 for his suite Sones de mariachi.

Club Coras de Nayarit Fútbol Club commonly known as Coras is a football club that plays in the Mexican football league system Mexican Liga Premier (third-tier). The club was founded in the late 1950s as Deportivo Tepic and was based in Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico.

Federal Highway 15D is the name for toll highways paralleling Federal Highway 15. The toll segments of Highway 15D include some of the most significant highways in the country along the Nogales-Mexico City corridor. The highway is the southern terminus of the CANAMEX Corridor, a trade corridor that stretches from Mexico north across the United States to the Canadian province of Alberta.

References

  1. "Diciembre en la Historia de Nayarit" [December in the History of Nayarit]. nayaritas.net (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 January 2008.
  2. "Senadores por Nayarit LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved March 24, 2010.
  3. "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Nayarit". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
  4. "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on December 22, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  5. "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on December 8, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  6. "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 8, 2015.
  7. "Jalisco". 2010. Archived from the original on April 20, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
  8. "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  9. "El Nayar". Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Archived from the original on 2007-05-02. Retrieved 2007-08-07.
  10. Mountjoy, Joseph B. (2013). "Aztatlan Complex". In Evans, Susan T.; Webster, David L. (eds.). Archaeology of Ancient Mexico and Central America: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 59. ISBN   9781136801853.
  11. For a map showing important archaeological sites in Nayarit, refer to: Gorenstein, Shirley (2000). "Western and Northwestern Mexico". In Trigger, Bruce G.; et al. (eds.). The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Cambridge University Press. p. 320. ISBN   9780521351652.
  12. Pasztor, Suzanne B. (2004). "Nayarit (state)". In Coerver, Don M.; et al. (eds.). Mexico: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Culture and History. ABC-CLIO. p. 323. ISBN   9781576071328.
  13. Patch, Robert W. (2010). "Indian Resistance to Colonialism". In Beezley, William; Meyer, Michael (eds.). The Oxford History of Mexico. Oxford University Press. pp. 180–184. ISBN   9780199779932.
  14. Coyle, Philip E. “The Customs of our Ancestros: Cora Religious Conversion and Millennailism, 2000-1722. Ethnohistory 45:3 (summer 1998), pp. 509-542
  15. Morales, Leopoldo R. (2001). El Nayarit de los años del general Romano: la historia documental de un gobernante. Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit. p. 5.
  16. "Nayarit y Su History ("Nayarit and Its History")". H. Congreso del Estado de Nayarit. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14.
  17. "Gov Mx". elbalero.gob.mx. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  18. "Map Gov Mx". inegi.gob.mx. Archived from the original on 1 March 2007. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  19. "Nayarit" in The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2012, Columbia University Press
  20. Pasztor, Suzanne B. (2012). "Nayarit". In Saragoza, Alex; et al. (eds.). Mexico Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 459. ISBN   9780313349485.
  21. Fernández, Marina Anguiano (1992). Nayarit: costa y altiplanicie en el momento del contacto (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). p. 27. ISBN   9789683616067.
  22. Pulido Pérez, R. (1995). Diagnostico de la fauna silvestre en el estado de Nayarit/. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-07-11.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  23. Kealy, Kelly; Duecy, Erica, eds. (2011). Fodor's Puerto Vallarta with the Riviera Nayarit, Costalegre, and Inland Jalisco. Random House. p. 33. ISBN   9781400004829.
  24. "Islas María". UNESCO. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
  25. "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Archived from the original on 2012-03-11. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  26. Archived 2013-01-19 at the Wayback Machine
  27. 1 2 Standish, Peter (2009). "Nayarit". The States of Mexico: A Reference Guide to History and Culture. Greenwood Publishing. pp. 251–252. ISBN   9780313342233.
  28. ""Nayarit Vacation Rentals"". Nayarit Vacation Rentals. Retrieved 1 December 2016.

Further reading