|Humpback red snapper, Lutjanus gibbus|
T. N. Gill, 1861
Snappers are a family of perciform fish, Lutjanidae, mainly marine, but with some members inhabiting estuaries, feeding in fresh water. The family includes about 113 species. Some are important food fish. One of the best known is the red snapper.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods. Because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology, unless it is used in the cladistic sense, including tetrapods. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Snappers inhabit tropical and subtropical regions of all oceans. Some snappers grow up to about 1 m (3.3 ft) in length however one specific Snapper, the Cubera Snapper, grows up to 5 ft in length. Most are active carnivores, feeding on crustaceans or other fish, though a few are plankton-feeders. They can be kept in aquaria, but mostly grow too fast to be popular aquarium fish. Most species live at depths reaching 100 m (330 ft) near coral reefs, but some species are found up to 500 m (1,600 ft) deep.
The cubera snapper is a species of snapper native to the western Atlantic Ocean from Nova Scotia to the Amazon River in Brazil, though it is rare north of Florida. It can also be found in the Caribbean Sea and, rarely, in the Gulf of Mexico. It inhabits areas associated with reefs, preferring areas with rocky substrates, and feeds on ray-finned fishes, shrimp and crabs. It can be found at depths from 18 to 55 m. This species can reach a length of 160 cm (63 in), though most do not exceed 90 cm (35 in). The greatest recorded weight for a specimen of this species is 57 kg (126 lb). It is commercially important and is also sought-after as a game fish, though it has been reported to cause ciguatera poisoning.
Crustaceans form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles. The crustacean group is usually treated as a subphylum, and because of recent molecular studies it is now well accepted that the crustacean group is paraphyletic, and comprises all animals in the Pancrustacea clade other than hexapods. Some crustaceans are more closely related to insects and other hexapods than they are to certain other crustaceans.
Plankton are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current. The individual organisms constituting plankton are called plankters. They provide a crucial source of food to many large aquatic organisms, such as fish and whales.
As other fish, snappers harbour parasites. A detailed study conducted in New Caledonia has shown that coral reef-associated snappers harbour about 9 species of parasites per fish species.
New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France in the southwest Pacific Ocean, located to the south of Vanuatu, about 1,210 km (750 mi) east of Australia and 20,000 km (12,000 mi) from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Chesterfield Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of Pines, and a few remote islets. The Chesterfield Islands are in the Coral Sea. Locals refer to Grande Terre as Le Caillou.
A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of colonies of coral polyps held together by calcium carbonate. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, whose polyps cluster in groups.
Etelis is a genus of snappers mostly native to the Indian and Pacific oceans with one species (E. oculatus) native to the western Atlantic Ocean.
Pristipomoides is a genus of snappers native to the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans.
Apsilus is a genus of snappers native to the Atlantic Ocean, with these currently recognized species:
Paracaesio is a genus of snappers native to the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean, with these currently recognized species:
Aphareus is a genus of snappers native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans from the African coast to the Hawaiian Islands. The currently recognized species in this genus are:
Cymothoa exigua, or the tongue-eating louse, is a parasitic isopod of the family Cymothoidae. This parasite enters fish through the gills. The female attaches to the tongue and the male attaches on the gill arches beneath and behind the female. Females are 8–29 millimetres (0.3–1.1 in) long and 4–14 mm (0.16–0.55 in) in maximum width. Males are approximately 7.5–15 mm (0.3–0.6 in) long and 3–7 mm (0.12–0.28 in) wide. The parasite severs the blood vessels in the fish's tongue, causing the tongue to fall off. It then attaches itself to the remaining stub of the tongue and becomes the fish's new tongue.
The threadfin breams consist of the family Nemipteridae within the order Perciformes. They are also known as whiptail breams and false snappers.
The yellowtail snapper is an abundant species of snapper native to the western Atlantic Ocean including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Although they have been found as far north as Massachusetts, their normal range is along Florida south to the West Indies and Brazil. This species is mostly found around coral reefs, but may be found in other habitats. They occur at depths of from near the surface to 180 metres (590 ft), though mostly between 10 and 70 m. This species can reach a length of 86.3 cm (34.0 in), though most do not exceed 40 cm (16 in). The greatest weight recorded for this species is 4.1 kg (9.0 lb). It is a commercially important species and has been farmed. It is sought as a game fish by recreational anglers and is a popular species for display in public aquaria. This species is the only known member of its genus.
The [common] bluestripe snapper, bluestripe sea perch or blue-line snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, is a species of snapper native to the Indian Ocean from the coast of Africa and the Red Sea to the central Pacific Ocean. It is commercially important and sought as a game fish. It can also be found in the aquarium trade.
Pristipomoides filamentosus, commonly known as the crimson jobfish, crimson snapper, opakapaka, or Hawaiian pink snapper, is a species of snapper native to the Indian Ocean and into the Pacific Ocean as far east as Hawaii and Tahiti. They inhabit waters over rocky substrates at depths from 40 to 400 m seemingly preferring to remain between 180 and 270 m. This species can reach a length of 100 cm (39 in), though most are around 50 cm (20 in). The greatest known weight for this species is 8.2 kg (18 lb). This species is very important to local commercial fisheries and is sought out as a game fish. One of the Deep Seven species of Hawai'i.
Lutjanus is a genus of snappers found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. They are predatory fish usually found in tropical and subtropical reefs, and mangrove forests. This genus also includes two species that only occur in fresh and brackish waters.
Lutjanus bohar, the two-spot red snapper, is a species of snappers belonging to the Lutjanidae family. It is also known as the red bass, twinspot snapper or Bohar snapper.
Oplopomus is a genus of gobies found in coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. It contains two species.
The humpback red snapper or paddletail snapper, Lutjanus gibbus, is a species of snapper native to the Indian Ocean from the coast of Africa and the Red Sea to the western Pacific Ocean. It is mostly an inhabitant of coral reefs at depths of from 1 to 150 m, with the juveniles being found in beds of seagrass or on sheltered coral reefs and subadults and adults found on sloping substrates. This species can reach a length of 50 cm (20 in). It is a commercially important species, as well as being sought after as a game fish. It is also a popular species for display in public aquaria. It has been reported to cause ciguatera poisoning.
Lethrinus nebulosus is a species of emperor fish. Common names include spangled emperor, green snapper, morwong, north-west snapper, sand bream, sand snapper, sixteen-pounder, and yellow sweetlip.
Lagenivaginopseudobenedenia is a genus of monopisthocotylean monogenean, included in the family Capsalidae. The type-species of the genus is Lagenivaginopseudobenedenia etelisYamaguti, 1966. The genus includes only 2 species, which are both parasitic on the gills of marine fish of the family Lutjanidae.
Bentholebouria is a genus of trematodes in the family Opecoelidae.
Jean-Lou Justine, French parasitologist and zoologist, is a professor at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, France, and a specialist of fish parasites and invasive land planarians.