Tamaulipas

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Tamaulipas

Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas
Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas
Coat of arms of Tamaulipas.svg
Seal
Anthem: Himno de Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas in Mexico (location map scheme).svg
State of Tamaulipas within Mexico
Coordinates: 24°17′N98°34′W / 24.283°N 98.567°W / 24.283; -98.567 Coordinates: 24°17′N98°34′W / 24.283°N 98.567°W / 24.283; -98.567
Capital Ciudad Victoria
Largest city Reynosa
Largest metro Tampico
Admission February 7, 1824 [1]
Order 14th
Government
   Governor Francisco García Cabeza de Vaca ( PAN Party (Mexico).svg )
   Senators [2] Ma. Guadalupe Covarrubias Cervantes Morena Party (Mexico).svg
Américo Villarreal Anaya Morena Party (Mexico).svg
Ismael García Cabeza de Vaca PAN Party (Mexico).svg
   Deputies [3]
Area
[4]
  Total80,249 km2 (30,984 sq mi)
  Ranked 6th
Highest elevation
[5]
3,280 m (10,760 ft)
Population
(2015) [6]
  Total3,441,698
  Rank 13th
  Density43/km2 (110/sq mi)
  Density rank 21st
Demonym(s) Tamaulipeco (a)
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Postal code
87–89
Area code
ISO 3166 code MX-TAM
HDI Increase2.svg 0.792 high Ranked 10th
GDP US$ 20,789,236.56 th [a]
Website Official Web Site
^ a. The state's GDP was $266,102,228 thousand of pesos in 2008,[ citation needed ] amount corresponding to $20,789,236.56 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010). [7]

Tamaulipas (Spanish pronunciation:  [tamau̯ˈlipas] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas (English: Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria.

Mexico City Capital in Mexico

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. It is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.

Municipalities of Tamaulipas Wikimedia list article

Tamaulipas is a state in Northeast Mexico that is divided into 43 municipalities.

Ciudad Victoria City in Tamaulipas, Mexico

Ciudad Victoria is the capital of the Municipality of Victoria and the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. It is located in the northeast of Mexico at the foot of the Sierra Madre Oriental. It borders the municipality of Güémez to the north, Llera to the south, Casas Municipality to the east, and the municipality of Jaumave to the west. The city is located 246 km (153 mi) from Monterrey and 319 km (198 mi) from the border with the United States. Ciudad Victoria is named after the first president of Mexico, Guadalupe Victoria.

Contents

Located in northeastern Mexico, it is bordered by the states of Veracruz to the southeast, San Luis Potosí to the southwest, and Nuevo León to the west. To the north, it has a 370 km (230 mi) stretch of the U.S.–Mexico border along the state of Texas. [8]

Veracruz State of Mexico

Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, is one of the 31 states that, along with the Mexico city, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided in 212 municipalities and its capital city is Xalapa-Enríquez.

San Luis Potosí State of Mexico

San Luis Potosí, officially the Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 58 municipalities and its capital city is San Luis Potosí City.

Nuevo León State of Mexico

Nuevo León, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 51 municipalities and its capital city is Monterrey.

The name Tamaulipas is derived from Tamaholipa, a Huastec term in which the tam- prefix signifies "place (where)". No scholarly agreement exists on the meaning of holipa, but "high hills" is a common interpretation. [9] Another explanation of the state name is that it is derived from Ta ma ho'lipam ("place where the Lipan prey").

Lipan Apache are Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) Native Americans whose traditional territory included present-day Texas, New Mexico, Colorado and the northern Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas prior to the 17th century.

In addition to the capital city, Ciudad Victoria, the state's largest cities include Reynosa, Matamoros, Nuevo Laredo, Tampico, and Mante.

Matamoros, Tamaulipas City in Tamaulipas, Mexico

Matamoros, officially known as Heroica Matamoros, is a city in the northeastern Mexican state of Tamaulipas. It is located on the southern bank of the Rio Grande, directly across the border from Brownsville, Texas, in the United States. Matamoros is the second largest city in the state of Tamaulipas. As of 2016, Matamoros had a population of 520,367. In addition, the Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,387,985, making it the 4th largest metropolitan area on the Mexico–US border. Matamoros is the 39th largest city in Mexico and anchors the second largest metropolitan area in Tamaulipas.

Nuevo Laredo Place in Tamaulipas, Mexico

Nuevo Laredo is a city in the Municipality of Nuevo Laredo in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. The city lies on the banks of the Rio Grande, across from the U.S. city of Laredo, Texas. The 2010 census population of the city was 373,725. Nuevo Laredo is part of the Laredo-Nuevo Laredo Metropolitan Area with a population of 636,516. The municipality has an area of 1,334.02 km2 (515.07 sq mi). Both the city and the municipality rank as the third largest in the state.

Ciudad Mante Place in Tamaulipas, Mexico

Mante formally Ciudad Mante is a city in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. The city is the municipal seat of El Mante municipality in extreme southern Tamaulipas, and lies in the northwestern portion of the municipality. It had a 2005 census population of 81,884 inhabitants, or about 73 percent of El Mante's total of 112,061. The city is the state's ninth-largest community in population. El Mante has an area of 1,699.98 km², and includes smaller outlying communities such as El Limón, El Abra, Nueva Apolonia,and El Naranjo. Ciudad Mante is served by the Ciudad Mante National Airport.

History

The area known as Tamaulipas has been inhabited for at least 8,000 years. Several different cultures (north coastal, south coastal, lowlands, and mountains) have come and gone during that period.

Tamaulipas was originally populated by the Olmec people and later by Chichimec and Huastec tribes. Between 1445 and 1466, Mexica (or Aztec) armies commanded by Moctezuma I Ilhuicamina conquered much of the territory and transformed it into a tributary region for the Mexica empire. However, the Aztecs never fully conquered certain mostly nomadic indigenous groups in the area.

Chichimeca ethnic group

Chichimeca was the name that the Nahua peoples of Mexico generically applied to nomadic and semi-nomadic peoples who were established in present-day Bajio region of Mexico. Chichimeca carried the same sense as the Roman term "barbarian" to describe Germanic tribes. The name, with its pejorative sense, was adopted by the Spanish Empire. For the Spanish, in the words of scholar Charlotte M. Gradie, "the Chichimecas were a wild, nomadic people who lived north of the Valley of Mexico. They had no fixed dwelling places, lived by hunting, wore little clothes and fiercely resisted foreign intrusion into their territory, which happened to contain silver mines the Spanish wished to exploit."

The Huastec or Téenek, are an indigenous people of Mexico, living in the La Huasteca region including the states of Hidalgo, Veracruz, San Luis Potosí and Tamaulipas concentrated along the route of the Pánuco River and along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.

Moctezuma I Aztec emperor

Moctezuma I, also known as Moteuczomatzin Ilhuicamina, Huehuemoteuczoma or Montezuma I, was the second Aztec emperor and fifth king of Tenochtitlan. During his reign, the Aztec Empire was consolidated, major expansion was undertaken, and Tenochtitlan started becoming the dominant partner of the Aztec Triple Alliance. Often mistaken for his popular descendent, Moctezuma II, Moctezuma I greatly contributed to the famed Aztec Empire that thrived until Spanish arrival, and he ruled over a period of peace from 1440 to 1453. Moctezuma brought social, economical, and political reform to strengthen Aztec rule, and Tenochititlan benefited from relations with other tribes.

Although Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs rather quickly, a gradual process was needed for Spain to subjugate the inhabitants of Tamaulipas in the 16th and 17th centuries. The first permanent Spanish settlement in the area was Tampico in 1554. Further settlement was done by Franciscan missionaries; widespread cattle and sheep ranching by the Spanish bolstered the area's economy while forcing native populations from their original lands. Repeated indigenous rebellions kept the area unstable and weakened colonial interest in the region. What is now Tamaulipas was first incorporated as a separate province of New Spain in 1746 with the name Nuevo Santander. The local government capital during this time moved from Santander to San Carlos, and finally to Aguayo. The territory of this time spanned from the San Antonio River to the northeast to the Gulf of Mexico, then south to the Pánuco River near Tampico and west to the Sierra Madre Mountains. The area became a haven for rebellious Indians who fled there after increased Spanish settlements in Nuevo León and Coahuila.

Hernán Cortés Spanish conquistador

Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers who began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

New Spain viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire (1535-1821)

The Viceroyalty of New Spain was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. It covered a huge area that included territories in North America, South America, Asia and Oceania. It originated in 1521 after the fall of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest, which did not properly end until much later, as its territory continued to grow to the north. It was officially created on 8 March 1535 as a viceroyalty, the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, and the capital of the viceroyalty was Mexico City, established on the ancient Mexico-Tenochtitlan.

In the mid-17th century, various Apache bands from the Southern Plains, after acquiring horses from Europeans in New Mexico, moved southeastward into the Edwards Plateau, displacing the native hunting and gathering groups. One of these groups was known as Lipan (see Hodge 1907 Vol. I:769 for a confusing list of synonyms). After 1750, when most Apache groups of the Central Texas highlands were displaced by Comanche and moved into the coastal plain of southern Texas, the Europeans of the San Antonio area began referring to all Apache groups in southern Texas as Lipan or Lipan Apache. [10]

Many Indian groups of missions in southern Texas and northeastern Mexico had recently been displaced from their territory through the southward push by the Lipan Apaches and were still hostile toward Apaches, linking arms with the local Spanish authorities against their common foe.

By 1790, Europeans turned their attention from the aboriginal groups and focused on containing the Apache invaders. In northeastern Coahuila and adjacent Texas, Spanish and Apache displacements created an unusual ethnic mix. Here, the local Indians mixed with displaced groups from Coahuila and Chihuahua and Texas. Some groups, to escape the pressure, combined and migrated north into the Central Texas highlands.

Independent Mexico

In 1824, after the Mexican War of Independence from Spain, and the fall of the Mexican Empire, Tamaulipas was one of the 19 founder states of the new United Mexican States. During the fights between centralists and federalists that soon followed, the successful Texas Revolution led to the creation of the Republic of Texas in 1836. The new republic claimed as part of its territory northern Tamaulipas.

Tamaulipas in Mexico, 1824 Political divisions of Mexico 1824 (location map scheme).svg
Tamaulipas in Mexico, 1824

In 1840, it became a part of the short-lived Republic of the Rio Grande. In 1848, after the Mexican–American War, Tamaulipas lost more than a quarter of its territory via the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. Its capital was kept at Aguayo, which later was renamed Ciudad Victoria in honor of Guadalupe Victoria, first President of Mexico.

The French occupation and reign of Emperor Maximilian during the 1860s was difficult for Tamaulipas, at least on the borders and in the city of Tampico. Portions of Tamaulipas supported the republican forces led by President Benito Juarez in resisting the French, especially in the north. Two years after French occupation began, Tamaulipas as a state finally acceded to Maximilian's rule, and the last French soldiers left the state in 1866, leading up to Maximilian's execution and fall of the Second Mexican Empire in 1867.

However, the years after Maximilian's defeat were ones of rebuilding and great growth in Tamaulipas. International trade began to blossom, especially with the coming of the railroad to Tampico, which was developing as not only a port city, but also as an industrial and commercial center. The railroad allowed goods to flow quickly from the mines and cities of the interior and the Texas border to Tampico for processing and shipment. This, in turn, caused significant growth in towns such as Matamoros and Nuevo Laredo.

Since the revolution of 1910, successive governments have dedicated themselves to building industry and infrastructure in Tamaulipas, including communications and educational systems. Norberto Treviño Zapata founded the state university system, as well as reformed the state oil industry. Marte Gómez provided increased farm sizes for private family farmers. And more recently, Emilio Martínez Manautou led industrial growth. Lately a push has been to strengthen fishing, including efforts to increase the price of fish and shellfish on the international market.

Geography

Sierra Madre Oriental Sierra Madre Oriental - La Independencia Jaumave, Tam..jpg
Sierra Madre Oriental

The Tropic of Cancer crosses the southern part of the municipality of Victoria.

The coastal plains along the Gulf have a large presence in the state, whereas inland the landscape is adorned by cactus species and pasture. Predominant fauna in the region include the cougar (Puma concolor), long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), American badger (Taxidea taxus), North American beaver (Castor canadensis), plain chachalaca (Ortalis vetula) and quail.

In the western part of the state, the Sierra Madre Oriental displays warm valleys and high sierras with peaks reaching 3,280 m (10,760 ft) in the Pedragoso Sierra; 3,240 m (10,630 ft) in the Borregos Sierra; 3,220 m (10,560 ft) in La Gloria Sierra; 3,180 m (10,430 ft) in Cerro el Nacimiento; and 3,000 m (9,800 ft) above sea level in the Sierra el Pinal. The Sierra de Tamaulipas and the Sierra de San Carlos are isolated mountain ranges in eastern Tamaulipas.

In terms of hydrology, the Bravo, Purificacion, and Guayalejo Rivers flow into the Gulf of Mexico after crossing the state from the western inland. On their way, their basins and zones of influence naturally correspond to the areas destined for agricultural use. The Rio Grande, known to Mexicans as the Río Bravo, represents the northern frontier shared with the United States. One of the tributaries of this natural border, the San Juan River, feeds the Marte R. Gómez Dam. Agricultural and cattle-raising activities are served by 14 other dams across the state, with a total capacity of 7,500 million m3 of water.

As much as 90% of the state reports a dry or semidry climate, while the Huasteca mountain range presents hot and semihumid conditions, along with humid winds coming from the Gulf, which means it is located in a zone highly influenced by cyclones, with predominant winds coming from the east and southeast.

Government and infrastructure

State agencies include:

Economy and culture

Port of Tampico Entrada al Puerto de Tampico Mexico.JPG
Port of Tampico

Northern Tamaulipas shares its economic culture with that of Texas, and is primarily characterized by agriculture and strong growth in all industrial sectors. This region is home to many of the maquiladoras, factories owned by foreign companies but worked by Mexicans, primarily by women.

Southern Tamaulipas' economy is based primarily on the petrochemical industries. There are petrochemical production plants around Altamira as well as a principal Gulf coast container port, refinery facilities in Ciudad Madero and many oil-industry support service companies in Tampico, as well as a major general and bulk cargo port. [11] Also of importance are the tourism and fishing industries, as well as much commercial shipping, based in Tampico and Altamira. The little village of La Pesca, in the municipality of Soto La Marina, about midway between Brownsville, Texas and Tampico, is a rapidly growing tourist area with lovely beaches and excellent fishing both in the Gulf of Mexico and the Rio Soto La Marina. The central zone contains the capital, Ciudad Victoria, and is home to much forestry and farming, as well as some industrial development. About 30% of the population lives here, both in the capital and in Ciudad Mante. Ciudad Victoria is a significant educational center, home to the Autonomous University of Tamaulipas (which also has campuses in other cities in the state), the Regional Technical Institute of Ciudad Victoria, the University of Valle de Bravo, and other institutions of learning.

As of the 1990 Mexican census, 13 percent of the homes had only dirt floors, nearly 19 percent had no running water, and over 15 percent of the homes had no electricity. This was better than the national average, but was skewed because of the high rate of development in the urban centers. In rural communities in Tamaulipas, access to running water was available in less than 40 percent of homes.

As of 2005, Tamaulipas's economy represents 3.3% of Mexico's total gross domestic product or 21,664 million USD. [12] Tamaulipas's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 258,762 people are employed in the manufacturing sector. [12] Foreign direct investment in Tamaulipas was 386.2 million USD for 2005. The average wage for an employee in Tamaulipas is approximately 240 pesos per day, $2.00 to $3.00 an hour.[ citation needed ]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1895 [13] 209,106    
1900 218,948+4.7%
1910 249,641+14.0%
1921 286,904+14.9%
1930 344,039+19.9%
1940 458,832+33.4%
1950 718,167+56.5%
1960 1,024,182+42.6%
1970 1,456,858+42.2%
1980 1,924,484+32.1%
1990 2,249,581+16.9%
1995 2,527,328+12.3%
2000 2,753,222+8.9%
2005 3,024,238+9.8%
2010 3,268,554+8.1%
2015 [14] 3,441,698+5.3%
CityCity
Population [15]
Municipality
Population
Metropolitan
Population [16]
Metropolitan
area type
Reynosa 589,466608,8911,501,919 [17] International R/RB/H
Matamoros 449,815 [18] 489,1931,136,995 [19] International M/C
Nuevo Laredo 373,725384,033636,516International NL/W/H/C
Ciudad Victoria 305,155321,953321,953 Municipality
Tampico 297,284309,003859,419In and Out-of-state
Ciudad Madero 197,216197,216Part of Tampico Metro
Miramar 118,614Part of Tampico Metro
Rio Bravo 95,647118,259Part of Reynosa Metro
Ciudad Mante 84,787115,792115,792Municipality
Altamira 59,536212,001Part of Tampico Metro
Valle Hermoso 48,91863,17063,170Municipality
Bustamante 100101101Municipality

Education

Tamaulipas enjoys standards slightly higher than the national averages, since illiteracy has been reduced to 5% for those over 15 years of age, average schooling reaches 7.8 years, and as many as 11% have earned a professional degree.

Institutions of higher education include:

Transportation

Airports

Tamaulipas is served by 5 international airports and one national airport.

Notable natives and residents

State anthem

The current anthem of the state of Tamaulipas is Himno a Tamaulipas  [ es ], composed in 1926 by Rafael Antonio Pérez Pérez, set to music by Alfredo Tamayo Marín. Normally, only the chorus, first verse and chorus are sung in public.

Coro:
Viva Tamaulipas altiva y heroica,
la región que dormita en la margen del río.
La sangre palpita en el pecho mío,
al recuerdo glorioso de sus héroes y su honor.
Viva Tamaulipas la tierra querida
que en las horas aciagas dio su sangre y su vida.
Cantemos un himno de amor y lealtad
y todo Tamaulipas vibre a la voz de libertad.

Chorus:
Live proud and heroic Tamaulipas,
The region that slumbers on the banks of the river.
The blood pounding in my chest,
The glorious memory of their heroes and honor.
Long live the beloved land Tamaulipas
That in dire times gave their blood and lives.
Sing a song of love and loyalty
And all Tamaulipas vibrates to the voice of freedom.

Estrofa I:
Fuiste cuna de nobles varones
que con la luz de su saber iluminaron,
y al pasar por la tierra dejaron
con sus obras su nombre inmortal.
Hoy la historia, canta la gloria
de tus heroes en marcha triunfal.

Verse I:
You were born of noble sons
Who were lit by the light of knowledge.
And whose passing on earth leaves
With their labors and immortal name.
Today the story, sings the glory
Of your heroes' triumphal march.

Estrofa II:
En los tiempos de duelo y de guerra
con tu valor fuiste el honor de nuestro suelo.
Defendiste heroica la tierra
y tu espada fue siempre inmortal.
Hoy la historia, canta la gloria
de tus heroes en marcha triunfal.

Verse II:
In times of grief and war,
With your courage you were the honor of our soil.
You heroically defended the land
And your sword was always immortal.
Today the story, sings the glory
Of your heroes' triumphal march.

Estrofa III:
En tu seno de mirtos y rosas
fuente de amor en el hogar tamaulipeco.
¡Son tus hijas mujeres virtuosas
que engalanan el patio vergel!
Hoy la historia, canta la gloria
con el mirto, la oliva y laurel.

Verse III:
In your heart of myrtle and roses,
Source of love in the Tamaulipecan home.
Your daughters are virtuous women
That adorn the courtyard garden!
Today the story, sings the glory
With the myrtle, olive and laurel.

Estrofa IV:
Los que duermen eterno descanso,
los que por ti con fe y valor su vida dieron,
por hacerte feliz sucumbieron
bajo el fuego que te hizo inmortal.
Hoy la historia, canta la gloria
de tus heroes en marcha triunfal.

Verse IV:
Those who sleep in eternal rest,
That for you with faith and courage gave his life,
Succumbed to make you happy
Under the fire that made you immortal.
Today the story, sings the glory
Of your heroes' triumphal march.

Estrofa V:
Ya la aurora de tiempos mejores
iluminó con su fulgor nuestros albores;
y en los surcos que abre el arado
va sembrando la fraternidad.
Y su anhelo, protege el cielo
floreciendo en la santa hermandad.

Verse V:
Since the dawn of better times
Illuminated by his splendor our dawn;
And in the plow furrows opened
Is sowing the fraternity.
And his desire, protects the heavens
Flourishing in the holy brotherhood.

Estrofa VI:
Nuestros hombres hoy luchan ufanos
por mejorar su condición de ciudadanos.
Igualdad es la flor del ensueño
que el obrero pretende alcanzar.
Y si alcanza, una esperanza
es que sabe morir o triunfar. [22]

Verse VI:
Our self-satisfied men today struggle
To improve their status as citizens.
Equality is the flower of dreams
That the worker strives to achieve.
And if he reaches it, a hope
Is to know death or victory..

Crime

This state is known to be the site of a territorial struggle for both the Gulf Cartel and Los Zetas. The resulting deaths and unresolved kidnappings from the gang violence have been described as a "humanitarian tragedy". [23]

See also

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Joint Operation Nuevo León-Tamaulipas is an anti-drug joint operation in two Mexican states of Tamaulipas and Nuevo León by Federal Police and the Mexican Armed Forces. The objective of the joint operation is to eliminate Los Zetas and Gulf Cartel operations in the area. So far a large number of cartel members have been either killed or arrested. Recently Los Zetas and the Gulf Cartel have broken relations and started fighting each other.

Antonio Cárdenas Guillén Mexican drug lord

Antonio Ezequiel Cárdenas Guillén, commonly referred to by his alias Tony Tormenta, was a Mexican suspected drug lord and co-leader of the Gulf Cartel, a drug trafficking organization based in Tamaulipas. He headed the criminal group along with Jorge Eduardo Costilla Sánchez. Antonio was considered by Mexican security forces as one of Mexico's most-wanted men.

Rodolfo Torre Cantú Mexican politician

Rodolfo Torre Cantú was a Mexican physician and politician. He held a number of public offices, such as Federal deputy, Secretary of Health of Tamaulipas and Director-general of the DIF in Ciudad Victoria. While running for governor of Tamaulipas as the candidate of the PRI, he was assassinated, apparently by agents of a drug cartel. Torre was murdered alongside a Tamaulipas lawmaker, Enrique Blackmore, on 28 June 2010 near Ciudad Victoria, which is approximately three hours south of Brownsville, Texas. Felipe Calderón promised a full investigation, saying, "the fight against drug cartels must continue". He further stated, "This was an act not only against a candidate of a political party but against democratic institutions, and it requires a united and firm response from all those who work for democracy." Torre's assassination is the "highest-profile case of political violence" in Mexico since the murder of Luis Donaldo Colosio.

The Mexican Central League was a Minor League Baseball circuit that operated for 19 seasons from 1960 through 1978 with several clubs based across Mexico.

Tamaulipas State Police

The Tamaulipas State Police, also known as the Tamaulipas Force, is a state agency of law enforcement in Tamaulipas, Mexico. It operates public safety services. It is a division of the Secretariat of Public Safety of Tamaulipas.

Tampico metropolitan area Metropolitan area in Mexico

The Tampico metropolitan area is the third most populous metropolitan area in the state of Tamaulipas, in the country of Mexico. Its in-state metropolitan area of Tamaulipas counts with the municipalities of Tampico, Ciudad Madero, Altamira. On the other hand, the out-of-state municipalities include Pueblo Viejo and Pánuco, from the state of Veracruz.

Homero Enrique Cárdenas Guillén, also known by his aliases El Majadero and El Orejón, was a Mexican suspected drug lord and alleged leader of the Gulf Cartel, a drug trafficking organization. He is the brother of the former Gulf Cartel leaders Antonio, Mario, and Osiel Cárdenas Guillen. During the late 1990s, Homero worked for the Gulf Cartel under the tutelage of his brothers. However, after several years of government crackdowns, the Gulf Cartel suffered severe drawbacks, including the death and arrests of Homero's brothers and allies. In August 2013, Homero became the de facto leader of the Gulf Cartel following the arrest of Mario Ramírez Treviño. However, he reportedly died of a heart attack on 28 March 2014.

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