Tamaulipas

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Tamaulipas

Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas
Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas
Coat of arms of Tamaulipas.svg
Seal
Anthem: Himno de Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas in Mexico (location map scheme).svg
State of Tamaulipas within Mexico
Coordinates: 24°17′N98°34′W / 24.283°N 98.567°W / 24.283; -98.567 Coordinates: 24°17′N98°34′W / 24.283°N 98.567°W / 24.283; -98.567
Capital Ciudad Victoria
Largest city Reynosa
Largest metro Tampico
Admission February 7, 1824 [1]
Order 14th
Government
   Governor Francisco García Cabeza de Vaca ( PAN Party (Mexico).svg )
   Senators [2] Ma. Guadalupe Covarrubias Cervantes Morena Party (Mexico).svg
Américo Villarreal Anaya Morena Party (Mexico).svg
Ismael García Cabeza de Vaca PAN Party (Mexico).svg
   Deputies [3]
Area
[4]
  Total80,249 km2 (30,984 sq mi)
  Ranked 6th
Highest elevation
[5]
3,280 m (10,760 ft)
Population
 (2015) [6]
  Total3,441,698
  Rank 13th
  Density43/km2 (110/sq mi)
  Density rank 21st
Demonym(s) Tamaulipeco (a)
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Postal code
87–89
Area code
ISO 3166 code MX-TAM
HDI Increase2.svg 0.792 high Ranked 10th
GDP US$ 20,789,236.56 th [a]
Website Official Web Site
^ a. The state's GDP was $266,102,228 thousand of pesos in 2008,[ citation needed ] amount corresponding to $20,789,236.56 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010). [7]

Tamaulipas (Spanish pronunciation:  [tamawˈlipas] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas (English: Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas), is one of the 32 states which comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria.

Contents

Located in northeastern Mexico, it is bordered by the states of Veracruz to the southeast, San Luis Potosí to the southwest, and Nuevo León to the west. To the north, it has a 370 km (230 mi) stretch of the U.S.–Mexico border along the state of Texas, and to the east it is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico. [8]

The name Tamaulipas is derived from Tamaholipa, a Huastec term in which the tam- prefix signifies "place (where)". No scholarly agreement exists on the meaning of holipa, but "high hills" is a common interpretation. [9] Another explanation of the state name is that it is derived from Ta ma ho'lipam ("place where the Lipan prey").

In addition to the capital city, Ciudad Victoria, the state's largest cities include Reynosa, Matamoros, Nuevo Laredo, Tampico, and Mante.

History

The area known as Tamaulipas has been inhabited for at least 8,000 years. Several different cultures (north coastal, south coastal, lowlands, and mountains) have come and gone during that period.

Tamaulipas was originally populated by the Olmec people [ citation needed ] and later by Chichimec and Huastec tribes. Between 1445 and 1466, Mexica (or Aztec) armies commanded by Moctezuma I Ilhuicamina conquered much of the territory and transformed it into a tributary region for the Mexica empire. However, the Aztecs never fully conquered certain mostly nomadic indigenous groups in the area. [ citation needed ]

Although Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs rather quickly, a gradual process was needed for Spain to subjugate the inhabitants of Tamaulipas in the 16th and 17th centuries. The first permanent Spanish settlement in the area was Tampico in 1554. Further settlement was done by Franciscan missionaries; widespread cattle and sheep ranching by the Spanish bolstered the area's economy while forcing native populations from their original lands. Repeated indigenous rebellions kept the area unstable and weakened colonial interest in the region. What is now Tamaulipas was first incorporated as a separate province of New Spain in 1746 with the name Nuevo Santander. The local government capital during this time moved from Santander to San Carlos, and finally to Aguayo. The territory of this time spanned from the San Antonio River to the northeast to the Gulf of Mexico, then south to the Pánuco River near Tampico and west to the Sierra Madre Mountains. The area became a haven for rebellious Indians who fled there after increased Spanish settlements in Nuevo León and Coahuila.

In the mid-17th century, various Apache bands from the Southern Plains, after acquiring horses from Europeans in New Mexico, moved southeastward into the Edwards Plateau, displacing the native hunting and gathering groups. One of these groups was known as Lipan (see Hodge 1907 Vol. I:769 for a confusing list of synonyms). After 1750, when most Apache groups of the Central Texas highlands were displaced by Comanche and moved into the coastal plain of southern Texas, the Europeans of the San Antonio area began referring to all Apache groups in southern Texas as Lipan or Lipan Apache. [10]

Many Indian groups of missions in southern Texas and northeastern Mexico had recently been displaced from their territory through the southward push by the Lipan Apaches and were still hostile toward Apaches, linking arms with the local Spanish authorities against their common foe.

By 1790, Europeans turned their attention from the aboriginal groups and focused on containing the Apache invaders. In northeastern Coahuila and adjacent Texas, Spanish and Apache displacements created an unusual ethnic mix. Here, the local Indians mixed with displaced groups from Coahuila and Chihuahua and Texas. Some groups, to escape the pressure, combined and migrated north into the Central Texas highlands.

Independent Mexico

In 1824, after the Mexican War of Independence from Spain, and the fall of the Mexican Empire, Tamaulipas was one of the 19 founder states of the new United Mexican States. During the fights between centralists and federalists that soon followed, the successful Texas Revolution led to the creation of the Republic of Texas in 1836. The new republic claimed as part of its territory northern Tamaulipas.

Tamaulipas in Mexico, 1824 Political divisions of Mexico 1824 (location map scheme).svg
Tamaulipas in Mexico, 1824

In 1840, it became a part of the short-lived Republic of the Rio Grande. In 1848, after the Mexican–American War, Tamaulipas lost more than a quarter of its territory via the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. Its capital was kept at Aguayo, which later was renamed Ciudad Victoria in honor of Guadalupe Victoria, first President of Mexico.

The French occupation and reign of Emperor Maximilian during the 1860s was difficult for Tamaulipas, at least on the borders and in the city of Tampico. Portions of Tamaulipas supported the republican forces led by President Benito Juarez in resisting the French, especially in the north. Two years after French occupation began, Tamaulipas as a state finally acceded to Maximilian's rule, and the last French soldiers left the state in 1866, leading up to Maximilian's execution and fall of the Second Mexican Empire in 1867.

However, the years after Maximilian's defeat were ones of rebuilding and great growth in Tamaulipas. International trade began to blossom, especially with the coming of the railroad to Tampico, which was developing as not only a port city but also as an industrial and commercial center. The railroad allowed goods to flow quickly from the mines and cities of the interior and the Texas border to Tampico for processing and shipment. This, in turn, caused significant growth in towns such as Matamoros and Nuevo Laredo.

Since the revolution of 1910, successive governments have dedicated themselves to building industry and infrastructure in Tamaulipas, including communications and educational systems. Norberto Treviño Zapata founded the state university system, as well as reformed the state oil industry. Marte Gómez provided increased farm sizes for private family farmers. And more recently, Emilio Martínez Manautou led industrial growth. Lately, a push has been to strengthen fishing, including efforts to increase the price of fish and shellfish on the international market.

Geography

Sierra Madre Oriental Sierra Madre Oriental - La Independencia Jaumave, Tam..jpg
Sierra Madre Oriental

The Tropic of Cancer crosses the southern part of the municipality of Victoria.

The coastal plains along the Gulf have a large presence in the state, whereas inland the landscape is adorned by cactus species and pasture. Predominant fauna in the region include the cougar (Puma concolor), long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), American badger (Taxidea taxus), North American beaver (Castor canadensis), plain chachalaca (Ortalis vetula) and quail.

In the western part of the state, the Sierra Madre Oriental displays warm valleys and high sierras with peaks reaching 3,280 m (10,760 ft) in the Pedragoso Sierra; 3,240 m (10,630 ft) in the Borregos Sierra; 3,220 m (10,560 ft) in La Gloria Sierra; 3,180 m (10,430 ft) in Cerro el Nacimiento; and 3,000 m (9,800 ft) above sea level in the Sierra el Pinal. The Sierra de Tamaulipas and the Sierra de San Carlos are isolated mountain ranges in eastern Tamaulipas.

In terms of hydrology, the Bravo, Purificacion, and Guayalejo Rivers flow into the Gulf of Mexico after crossing the state from the western inland. On their way, their basins and zones of influence naturally correspond to the areas destined for agricultural use. The Rio Grande, known to Mexicans as the Río Bravo, represents the northern frontier shared with the United States. One of the tributaries of this natural border, the San Juan River, feeds the Marte R. Gómez Dam. Agricultural and cattle-raising activities are served by 14 other dams across the state, with a total capacity of 7,500 million m3 of water.

Climate

About 58% of the state has a hot, subhumid climate. [11] In the centre, north, and towards southwest, an arid and semi-arid climate predominate (both of these account for 38% of the state). [11] A temperate subhumid climate is found in the extreme southwest of the state while in the extreme southeast, a hot, humid climate is present. [11] Mean annual temperature in the state is around23.5 °C (74.3 °F) while mean annual precipitation is 780 mm (31 in), mostly concentrated between June to September. [11]

Government and infrastructure

State agencies include:

Economy and culture

Port of Tampico Entrada al Puerto de Tampico Mexico.JPG
Port of Tampico

Northern Tamaulipas shares its economic culture with that of Texas, and is primarily characterized by agriculture and strong growth in all industrial sectors. This region is home to many of the maquiladoras, factories owned by foreign companies but worked by Mexicans, primarily by women. In the state there are important industrial parks such as the Oradel Industrial Center [12] , located in the border city of Nuevo Laredo.

Southern Tamaulipas' economy is based primarily on the petrochemical industries. There are petrochemical production plants around Altamira as well as a principal Gulf coast container port, refinery facilities in Ciudad Madero and many oil-industry support service companies in Tampico, as well as a major general and bulk cargo port. [13] Also of importance are the tourism and fishing industries, as well as much commercial shipping, based in Tampico and Altamira. The little village of La Pesca, in the municipality of Soto La Marina, about midway between Brownsville, Texas and Tampico, is a rapidly growing tourist area with lovely beaches and excellent fishing both in the Gulf of Mexico and the Rio Soto La Marina. The central zone contains the capital, Ciudad Victoria, and is home to much forestry and farming, as well as some industrial development. About 30% of the population lives here, both in the capital and in Ciudad Mante. Ciudad Victoria is a significant educational center, home to the Autonomous University of Tamaulipas (which also has campuses in other cities in the state), the Regional Technical Institute of Ciudad Victoria, the University of Valle de Bravo, and other institutions of learning.

As of the 1990 Mexican census, 13 percent of the homes had only dirt floors, nearly 19 percent had no running water, and over 15 percent of the homes had no electricity. This was better than the national average but was skewed because of the high rate of development in the urban centers. In rural communities in Tamaulipas, access to running water was available in less than 40 percent of homes.

As of 2005, Tamaulipas's economy represents 3.3% of Mexico's total gross domestic product or 21,664 million USD. [14] Tamaulipas's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 258,762 people are employed in the manufacturing sector. [14] Foreign direct investment in Tamaulipas was 386.2 million USD for 2005. The average wage for an employee in Tamaulipas is approximately 240 pesos per day, $2.00 to $3.00 an hour.[ citation needed ]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1895 [15] 209,106    
1900 218,948+4.7%
1910 249,641+14.0%
1921 286,904+14.9%
1930 344,039+19.9%
1940 458,832+33.4%
1950 718,167+56.5%
1960 1,024,182+42.6%
1970 1,456,858+42.2%
1980 1,924,484+32.1%
1990 2,249,581+16.9%
1995 2,527,328+12.3%
2000 2,753,222+8.9%
2005 3,024,238+9.8%
2010 3,268,554+8.1%
2015 [16] 3,441,698+5.3%
CityCity
Population [17]
Municipality
Population
Metropolitan
Population [18]
Metropolitan
area type
Reynosa 589,466608,8911,501,919 [19] International R/RB/H
Matamoros 449,815 [20] 489,1931,136,995 [21] International M/C
Nuevo Laredo 373,725384,033636,516International NL/W/H/C
Ciudad Victoria 305,155321,953321,953 Municipality
Tampico 297,284309,003859,419In and Out-of-state
Ciudad Madero 197,216197,216Part of Tampico Metro
Miramar 118,614Part of Tampico Metro
Rio Bravo 95,647118,259Part of Reynosa Metro
Ciudad Mante 84,787115,792115,792Municipality
Altamira 59,536212,001Part of Tampico Metro
Valle Hermoso 48,91863,17063,170Municipality
Bustamante 100101101Municipality

There is a large number of people (around 200 000 only in the city of Reynosa) born in the southern neighboring state of Veracruz who are economic immigrants that end up working in the maquila industry. [22]

Education

Tamaulipas enjoys standards slightly higher than the national averages, since illiteracy has been reduced to 5% for those over 15 years of age, average schooling reaches 7.8 years, and as many as 11% have earned a professional degree.

Institutions of higher education include:

Transportation

Airports

Tamaulipas is served by 5 international airports and one national airport.

Media

Newspapers of Tamaulipas include: El Bravo, El Diario de Ciudad Victoria, El Mañana, El Mañana de Reynosa, El Mercurio de Tamaulipas, El Sol de la Tarde, El Sol de Tampico, Hora Cero Tamaulipas, La Razón, La Tarde, La Verdad de Tamaulipas, Milenio, Periódico Valle del Norte, and Siempre con la verdad a tiempo. [23] [24]

Notable natives and residents

State anthem

The current anthem of the state of Tamaulipas is Himno a Tamaulipas  [ es ], composed in 1926 by Rafael Antonio Pérez Pérez, set to music by Alfredo Tamayo Marín. Normally, only the chorus, first verse and chorus are sung in public.

Coro:
Viva Tamaulipas altiva y heroica,
la región que dormita en la margen del río.
La sangre palpita en el pecho mío,
al recuerdo glorioso de sus héroes y su honor.
Viva Tamaulipas la tierra querida
que en las horas aciagas dio su sangre y su vida.
Cantemos un himno de amor y lealtad
y todo Tamaulipas vibre a la voz de libertad.

Chorus:
Live proud and heroic Tamaulipas,
The region that slumbers on the banks of the river.
The blood pounding in my chest,
The glorious memory of their heroes and honor.
Long live the beloved land Tamaulipas
That in dire times gave their blood and lives.
Sing a song of love and loyalty
And all Tamaulipas vibrates to the voice of freedom.

Estrofa I:
Fuiste cuna de nobles varones
que con la luz de su saber iluminaron,
y al pasar por la tierra dejaron
con sus obras su nombre inmortal.
Hoy la historia, canta la gloria
de tus heroes en marcha triunfal.

Verse I:
You were born of noble sons
Who were lit by the light of knowledge.
And whose passing on earth leaves
With their labors and immortal name.
Today the story, sings the glory
Of your heroes' triumphal march.

Estrofa II:
En los tiempos de duelo y de guerra
con tu valor fuiste el honor de nuestro suelo.
Defendiste heroica la tierra
y tu espada fue siempre inmortal.
Hoy la historia, canta la gloria
de tus heroes en marcha triunfal.

Verse II:
In times of grief and war,
With your courage you were the honor of our soil.
You heroically defended the land
And your sword was always immortal.
Today the story, sings the glory
Of your heroes' triumphal march.

Estrofa III:
En tu seno de mirtos y rosas
fuente de amor en el hogar tamaulipeco.
¡Son tus hijas mujeres virtuosas
que engalanan el patio vergel!
Hoy la historia, canta la gloria
con el mirto, la oliva y laurel.

Verse III:
In your heart of myrtle and roses,
Source of love in the Tamaulipecan home.
Your daughters are virtuous women
That adorn the courtyard garden!
Today the story, sings the glory
With the myrtle, olive and laurel.

Estrofa IV:
Los que duermen eterno descanso,
los que por ti con fe y valor su vida dieron,
por hacerte feliz sucumbieron
bajo el fuego que te hizo inmortal.
Hoy la historia, canta la gloria
de tus heroes en marcha triunfal.

Verse IV:
Those who sleep in eternal rest,
That for you with faith and courage gave his life,
Succumbed to make you happy
Under the fire that made you immortal.
Today the story, sings the glory
Of your heroes' triumphal march.

Estrofa V:
Ya la aurora de tiempos mejores
iluminó con su fulgor nuestros albores;
y en los surcos que abre el arado
va sembrando la fraternidad.
Y su anhelo, protege el cielo
floreciendo en la santa hermandad.

Verse V:
Since the dawn of better times
Illuminated by his splendor our dawn;
And in the plow furrows opened
Is sowing the fraternity.
And his desire, protects the heavens
Flourishing in the holy brotherhood.

Estrofa VI:
Nuestros hombres hoy luchan ufanos
por mejorar su condición de ciudadanos.
Igualdad es la flor del ensueño
que el obrero pretende alcanzar.
Y si alcanza, una esperanza
es que sabe morir o triunfar. [26]

Verse VI:
Our self-satisfied men today struggle
To improve their status as citizens.
Equality is the flower of dreams
That the worker strives to achieve.
And if he reaches it, a hope
Is to know death or victory..

Crime

This state is known to be the site of a territorial struggle for both the Gulf Cartel and Los Zetas. The resulting deaths and unresolved kidnappings from the gang violence have been described as a "humanitarian tragedy". [27]

See also

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