Matamoros, Tamaulipas

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H. Matamoros
Heroica Matamoros
Palacio Municipal H. Matamoros.JPG
Municipal Palace in Matamoros, Tamaulipas (Mexico).
Heroica Matamoros.png
Mexico States blank map.svg
Red pog.svg
H. Matamoros
Location of Matamoros in Mexico
Coordinates: 25°52′47″N97°30′15″W / 25.87972°N 97.50417°W / 25.87972; -97.50417 Coordinates: 25°52′47″N97°30′15″W / 25.87972°N 97.50417°W / 25.87972; -97.50417
CountryFlag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
State Flag of Tamaulipas.svg  Tamaulipas
Municipality Matamoros Municipality
  Type Municipality
  Presidente Municipal Jesús de la Garza Díaz del Guante
9 m (26.24 ft)
  City520,367 [1]
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Code
Area code(s) +52-868
Airport General Servando Canales International Airport

Matamoros, officially known as Heroica Matamoros, is a city in the northeastern Mexican state of Tamaulipas. [2] It is located on the southern bank of the Rio Grande, directly across the border from Brownsville, Texas, in the United States. [3] Matamoros is the second largest city in the state of Tamaulipas. [4] As of 2016, Matamoros had a population of 520,367. [5] In addition, the Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,387,985, [6] making it the 4th largest metropolitan area on the Mexico–US border. [7] Matamoros is the 39th largest city in Mexico and anchors the second largest metropolitan area in Tamaulipas. [8]

Administrative divisions of Mexico human settlement

The United Mexican States is a federal republic composed of 31 states and the capital, Mexico City, an autonomous entity.

Tamaulipas State of Mexico

Tamaulipas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria.

Rio Grande River forming part of the US-Mexico border

The Rio Grande is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico. The Rio Grande begins in south-central Colorado in the United States and flows to the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way, it forms part of the Mexico–United States border. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, its total length was 1,896 miles (3,051 km) in the late 1980s, though course shifts occasionally result in length changes. Depending on how it is measured, the Rio Grande is either the fourth- or fifth-longest river system in North America.


Matamoros is one of the fastest growing cities in Mexico, [9] and has one of the fastest growing economies in the country. [10] The economy of the city is significantly based on its international trade with the United States through the NAFTA agreement, [11] and it is home to one of the most promising industrial sectors in Mexico, [12] mainly due to the presence of maquiladoras. [13] In Matamoros, the automotive industry hosts the assembly and accessories plants for brands such as General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, BMW, and Mercedes Benz. [14] [15] Prior to the growth of the maquiladoras in the 2000s, Matamoros' economy had historically been principally based on agriculture, [16] since northern Mexico's biggest irrigation zones are in the municipality. [17] PEMEX announced a multi-billion offshore drilling project for the port of Matamoros, [18] one of the future prospects for Mexico's oil industry. [19] [20] [21]

Economy of Mexico national economy

The economy of Mexico is the 15th largest in the world in nominal terms and the 11th largest by purchasing power parity, according to the International Monetary Fund. Since the 1994 crisis, administrations have improved the country's macroeconomic fundamentals. Mexico was not significantly influenced by the 2002 South American crisis, and maintained positive, although low, rates of growth after a brief period of stagnation in 2001. However, Mexico was one of the Latin American nations most affected by the 2008 recession with its Gross Domestic Product contracting by more than 6% in that year.

North American Free Trade Agreement trade bloc

The North American Free Trade Agreement is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994. It superseded the 1988 Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement between the United States and Canada, and is expected to be replaced by the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement once it is ratified.


A maquiladora ([makilaˈðoɾa]), or maquila, is a company that allows factories to be largely duty free and tariff free. These factories take raw materials and assemble, manufacture, or process them and export the finished product. These factories and systems are present throughout Latin America including Mexico, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Specific programs and laws have made Mexico’s maquila industry grow rapidly.

Matamoros is a major historical site, the site of several battles and events of the Mexican War of Independence, [22] the Mexican Revolution, [23] the Texas Revolution, [24] the Mexican–American War, [25] the American Civil War, [26] and the French Intervention [27] that allowed the city to earn its title of Undefeated, Loyal, and Heroic. [28] [29] The Mexican National Anthem was played for the first time in public at The Opera Theatre in Matamoros. [30]

Mexican War of Independence armed conflict which ended the rule of Spain in the territory of New Spain

The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808; it extended from the Cry of Dolores by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla on September 16, 1810, to the entrance of the Army of the Three Guarantees led by Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City on September 27, 1821. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.

Mexican Revolution major nationwide armed struggle in Mexico between 1910 and 1920

The Mexican Revolution, also known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.

Texas Revolution military conflict

The Texas Revolution was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico. While the uprising was part of a larger one that included other provinces opposed to the regime of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government believed the United States had instigated the Texas insurrection with the goal of annexation. The Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag." Only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas, and eventually being annexed by the United States.

Matamoros has a semi-arid climate, with mild winters, and hot, humid summers. [31] Matamoros and Brownsville, Texas are home to the Charro Days and Sombrero Festival, two-nation fiestas that commemorate the heritage of the U.S. and Mexico which are celebrated every February. [32] [33]

Brownsville, Texas City in Texas, United States

Brownsville is a city in Cameron County in the U.S. state of Texas. It located on the western Gulf Coast in South Texas, adjacent to the border with Matamoros, Mexico. The city covers 81.528 square miles (211.157 km2) and has a population of 183,299 as of 2017. It is the 131st-largest city in the United States and 16th-largest in Texas. It is part of the Brownsville–Matamoros conurbation, with a population of 1,136,995 people. The city is known for its year-round subtropical climate, deep-water seaport and Hispanic culture.

Charro Days, also known as Charro Days Fiesta or Charro Days Festival, is a two-nation fiesta and an annual four-day pre-Lenten celebration held in Brownsville, Texas, United States in cooperation with Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico. The grito—a joyous Mexican shout—opens the festivities every year. This festival is a shared heritage celebration between the two border cities of Brownsville, Texas and Matamoros, Tamaulipas. The Charro Days festivals usually have about 50,000 attendees each year. This celebration includes the Sombrero Festival as well as a parade that goes down Elizabeth St. through Historic Downtown Brownsville, TX.

Sombrero Festival, also known as Sombrero Fest, is a two-nation fiesta and an annual three-day pre-Lenten celebration held in Brownsville, Texas, United States. The grito—a joyous Mexican shout—opens the festivities every year. This festival is a shared heritage celebration between the two border cities of Matamoros, Tamaulipas and Brownsville, Texas. This festival is designed to enhance the spirit of Charro Days, and to add to the festivities. The Sombrero Festival is held in Washington Park in Brownsville, Texas.


Prehispanic history

There is very little historical evidence about the native tribes that lived in present-day Matamoros. But just like in many parts of northern Tamaulipas, the region of Matamoros was most likely occupied by the one of these three tribes that inhabited Tamaulipas—the Olmecs, the Chicimecs, and the Huastecs—before the colonization by the Spanish colonials. [34]

Olmecs Mesoamerican civilization

The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mesoamerica following a progressive development in Soconusco. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the present-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco. It has been speculated that the Olmecs derive in part from neighboring Mokaya or Mixe–Zoque.

Chichimeca ethnic group

Chichimeca was the name that the Nahua peoples of Mexico generically applied to nomadic and semi-nomadic peoples who were established in present-day Bajio region of Mexico. Chichimeca carried the same sense as the Roman term "barbarian" to describe Germanic tribes. The name, with its pejorative sense, was adopted by the Spanish Empire. For the Spanish, in the words of scholar Charlotte M. Gradie, "the Chichimecas were a wild, nomadic people who lived north of the Valley of Mexico. They had no fixed dwelling places, lived by hunting, wore little clothes and fiercely resisted foreign intrusion into their territory, which happened to contain silver mines the Spanish wished to exploit."


In the year 1519, the same year that Hernán Cortés arrived to the Americas at the port of Veracruz, [35] a captain named Alonso Álvarez de Pineda carried out a brief expedition to the region of northern Tamaulipas, where he named the town known today as Rio Bravo (Rio Grande) as Rio de las Palmas (Palms River). [36] Nevertheless, the actual founding of Matamoros began in 1686, when Captain Alonso de León explored the area and concluded that the Rio Grande was an excellent route for navigation, and that the area of Matamoros was an ideal spot for cattle raising. [37]

Hernán Cortés Spanish conquistador

Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers who began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Veracruz State of Mexico

Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, is one of the 31 states that, along with the Mexico city, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided in 212 municipalities and its capital city is Xalapa-Enríquez.

Alonso Álvarez de Pineda Spanish explorer and cartographer

Alonso Álvarez de Pineda was a Spanish Conquistador and cartographer who was first documented in Texas history. In 1519 he led several expeditions to map the western coastlines of the Gulf of Mexico, from the Yucatán Peninsula to the Pánuco River, just north of Veracruz. Ponce de León had previously mapped parts of Florida, which he believed to be an island. Antón de Alaminos' exploration eliminated the western areas as being the site of the passage, leaving the land between the Pánuco River and Florida to be mapped.

In the year 1749, thirteen enterprising families, twelve from Camargo and one from Reynosa, decided to invest and begin a new, influential cattle industry in the area. [38] Former landowners were reluctant that this new investment would be successful, since the frequent overflows from the Rio Grande caused severe floods, and because ranches were occasionally attacked by Indians. Nonetheless, these thirteen families effectively carried out their business plan and structuralized 113 cattle-raising sites. In the year 1774, they officially named the area San Juan de los Esteros Hermosos, known today as Matamoros. [39]

In 1793, to colonize the province of Nuevo Santander, two Franciscan missionaries named Francisco Pueyes and Manuel Júlio Silva established a parish in the main plaza of Matamoros. They proposed a new name for the community: Villa del Refugio, in honor of the parish and patron saint, Our Lady of the Refuge of the Estuaries. [40]

Mexican Independence

In 1826, the governor Lucas Fernandez dispatched a decree to change the name of the city to Matamoros, in honor of Mariano Matamoros, a hero of the Mexican War of Independence who participated along with José María Morelos. [41] During the Texas Revolution (1836), Matamoros was the fortress for many Mexican soldiers against rebel attacks. [42] In 1851, the city of Matamoros was again heroic for defending soldiers against attacks, and the troops of Francisco Avalos were able to repel their enemy. [43]

After that victory, the state congress granted Matamoros the title of "Heroic", countersigned by the Mexican Congress. [44]

The future of the city radically changed after Matamoros declared itself an international free trade zone in 1858. [45] This transformation brought upon urbanization, industrialization, and the expansion of the Bagdad Port, which experienced an economic boom for being the only entrance port for mercenaries for the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. [46] The Port of Matamoros, also known as the Port of Bagdad, was during the American Civil War one of the leading commercial ports of the world. [47]

Texas Revolution

The city of Matamoros, Tamaulipas was a strategic and fortified city during the Texas Revolution. The Matamoros Expedition was launched to attack Matamoros and defeat the forces of Antonio López de Santa Anna. It proved controversial and divisive. The roots of the controversy lay in the division within the provisional government between Governor Henry Smith and the General Council over whether to remain loyal to the Constitution of 1824 and support the liberals of Mexico in the Federalist cause against Santa Anna or to declare independence from Mexico and seek to become an independent territory. The division, on the other hand, was mirrored within the provisional government and among the commanders in the field, who compounded the situation and contributed to the near destruction of the Texan army. [48]

American Civil War

At the beginning of the American Civil War, the city of Matamoros was simply a sleepy little border town across the Rio Grande from Brownsville. [49] It had, for several years, been considered a port, but it had relatively few ships arriving. Previous to the war, accounts mention that not over six ships entered the port each year. [50] Nevertheless, in about four years, Matamoros, due to its proximity to Texas, was to assume state as a port, and multiply its inhabitants in number. Following is a quote from a Union General in 1885 describing the importance of the port in Matamoros:

Matamoros is to the rebellion west of the Mississippi what New York is to the United States—its great commercial and financial center, feeding and clothing the rebellion, arming and equipping, furnishing it materials of war and a specie basis of circulation that has almost displaced Confederate paper ... The entire Confederate Government is greatly sustained by resources from this port. [51]

The cotton trade brought together in Bagdad, Tamaulipas and Matamoros over 20,000 speculators from the Union and the Confederacy, England, France, and Germany. [52] Bagdad had grown from a small, seashore town to a "full-pledge town." [53] The English-speaking population in the area by 1864 was so great that Matamoros even had a newspaper printed in English—it was called the Matamoros Morning Call. [54] In addition, the port exported cotton to England and France, where millions of people needed it for their daily livelihood, [55] and it was possible to receive fifty cents per pound in gold for cotton, when it cost about three cents in the Confederacy, "and much more money was received for it laid down in New York and European ports." [56] Other sources mention that the port of Matamoros traded with London, Havana, Belize, and New Orleans. [57] [58] The Matamoros and New York City trade agreement, however, continued throughout the war and until 1864, and it was considered "heavy and profitable." [59]

By 1865, Matamoros was described as a prosperous town of 30,000 people, [60] and Lew Wallace informed General Ulysses S. Grant that neither Baltimore or New Orleans could compare itself to the growing commercial activity of Matamoros. [50] Nevertheless, after the collapse of the Confederacy, "gloom, despondency, and despair" became evident in Matamoros—markets shut down, business almost ceased to exist, and ships were rarely seen. [61] "For Sale" signs began to sprout up everywhere, and Matamoros returned to its role of a sleepy little border town across the Rio Grande. [62]

The conclusion of the American Civil War brought a severe crisis to the now abandoned Port of Bagdad, a crisis that until this day the port has never recovered from. [63] In addition, a tremendous hurricane in 1889 destroyed the desolated port. This same hurricane was one of the many hurricanes during the period of devastating hurricanes of 1870 to 1889, which reduced the population of Matamoros to nearly half its size, mounting with it another upsetting economic downturn. [64] [65]

French intervention

During the French intervention, the port of Baghdad was the scene for the Battle of Baghdad, where the Mexican army defeated the French army and its conservative allies. [66]

Mexican Revolution

During the course of the Mexican Revolution, the generals Francisco Mújica and Lucio Blanco executed the first agrarian reform for land in the country (1913). [67] Consequently, in the years to come, Matamoros enjoyed another golden era during The Cotton Age, from 1948 to 1962. This epoch placed Matamoros as the largest cotton producer and exporter in the country. [68]

Modern era

Since the 1970s, and especially during the 1990s, after the initiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement, foreign investment has multiplied in Matamoros, resulting in an enormous population growth, prominently from other Mexican states, like San Luis Potosí and Veracruz.


Historical population


Industrial sector

The economy of Matamoros depends primarily on its proximity to the United States, due to the importance of the strong presence of foreign investment in the area. Maquiladoras are a direct representation of American presence in the state of Tamaulipas; the trade of goods through the international bridges and the flow of people on both sides of the border play a huge role in the economic posture of Matamoros.

Matamoros is home to more than 122 maquiladoras dedicated in its majority to export to the United States. This industry produces technological goods like cables, electrical appliances, electrical components, vehicle parts and accessories, textiles, chemical products, machinery, and computer products. [70] The city operates about 35% of the Tamaulipas' maquiladora industry, placing second, just behind Reynosa. In December 2004, the maquiladora industry gave employment to more than 52,777 workers in Matamoros, which showed an increase of 576 jobs compared to 2003, formulating a 60% increase in employment. [71]

Commercial sector

This economic activity is the second most important in the city of Matamoros, generating approximately 13.5% of the total employment in the municipality. The rapid growths of the population in Matamoros, along with an increase in incomes, have amplified the demand of satisfiers in the area. [72] In the whole state of Tamaulipas, Matamoros places first in terms of jobs and businesses generated by foreign investment in the area, summing a total of 238 companies, 36% of the state's whole business sector. [73]

Agricultural sector

The rural area of Matamoros, Tamaulipas encompasses 97 communities, with more than 36,096 inhabitants in these small agrarian sectors. Traditionally, the city was eminently agricultural, cultivating sorghum, corn, beans, vegetables, and sunflower by millions each year. The terrain in Matamoros categorized in two factions: gley soil, land that is only used for grazing by livestock, and arable land, used solely for growing crops. [74]

The municipality of Matamoros is within the Rio Grande river basin, and by means of irrigation, the agricultural sector flourishes in production.[ vague ][ quantify ] The two main water suppliers are the Rio Grande and the Arroyo del Tigre, which have dams that irrigate the region. [36]

Livestock production

The bovine is the most predominant livestock in the municipality of Matamoros, and the commercialization of its meat is the principal income of ranchers in the region. In fact, livestock production goes as the following: bovine (62%), pigs (16%), and sheep (9%). [75]

In the northern part of Tamaulipas, near the municipality of Matamoros, the breeding of calves is characterized and well known for having European blood. However, this is only seen among specialized, high quality meat industries that breed Charolais cattle, Simmental cattle, and the Zebus. [76]

Fishing industry

Matamoros, Tamaulipas counts with more than 117 kilometers of coast in the Gulf of Mexico, and with a total of 70,000 hectares of the Laguna Madre. In addition, there are fishing activities in spots like Higuerillas, la Capilla, Rincón de las Flores, el Mezquital, and Playa Bagdad. The city counts with 10 fishing corporations operating in all of these areas. [77]


Bagdad Beach

Sunset at Playa Bagdad Matamoros004.JPG
Sunset at Playa Bagdad

Bagdad Beach (Playa Bagdad), also known as Lauro Villar Beach, is 27 km (17 mi) east of Matamoros, about 20 minutes in trajectory. [78] At Playa Bagdad, important fishing tournaments are held each year, where participants from all over the state of Tamaulipas get together. [79] During Holy Week, the beach experiences an abundant presence of visitors, primarily from Nuevo León, when Playa Bagdad becomes the host of several concerts, sport tournaments, and festivals. [80] In 2014, the mayor Leticia Salazar proposed to change the beach's name to Costa Azul, in reference to a song of the Matamoros-native Rigo Tovar. [81]

In 1985, during the yearly festival of 'Festival del Mar,' Rigo Tovar, along with other important attractions, played in Playa Bagdad. Other second tier bands like 'La Firma', 'La Mira de Linares,' and 'La Leyenda,' along with several other pop groups, have also played during the month of April, the most visited period of the year. [82] In addition, Playa Bagdad has several seafood restaurants. Jet ski, surfing, and even motocross and off-road 4x4 racing are allowed with few area restrictions. [83] In a single day during summer breaks, the number of visitors can get as high as 180,000.

Cultural attractions

Museum of Casamata. Museo Fuerte Historico Casamata, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.jpg
Museum of Casamata.
Catedral Nuestra Senora del Refugio [es
] Catedral Nuestra Senora del Refugio.JPG
Catedral Nuestra Señora del Refugio  [ es ]

Fortress of Casamata, converted into Museum Casamata in 1970, was a bastion that now guards a fine collection of prehispanic figurines and artifacts dating from central historic moments: [84] the Spanish colonist era, the Mexican War of Independence, and the contentious Mexican Revolution. [85] Unique and curious items are also exhibited, such as an iron casket where the remains of fearless General Canales once rested (fought against both American and French invasions) and the dark tunnels lounged beneath the construction, inevitable reference for local horror stories. [86] The existence of a multipurpose hall and newspaper library also provide extra interest to the museum. The museum was founded by Don Eliseo Paredes Manzano, the city's first "cronista" and recognized historian.

The 'Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Tamaulipas (MACT),' inaugurated in 1969, is largest and most important art museum in the city, and one of the most memorable in the state of Tamaulipas. [87] Art and photo exhibitions are held yearlong at MACT. Artworks from Mexico City, Monterrey, New York City, Los Angeles, Milan, and Paris have been displayed at this museum. [88]

The central 'plaza' in Matamoros is home to the Presidential Offices, the Cathedral of Nuestra Señora Villa del Refugio, and of the Casino Matamorense, along with other historical buildings. [89] The 'Teatro Reforma', the most important theater in the city, is found a few blocks away. On 28 January 1829, the plaza was named after the heroic and historical figure Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, who fought in the Mexican War of Independence. Moreover, the Cathedral of Nuestra Señora Villa del Refugio, constructed in 1831, was one of the first mayor constructions and is one of the present symbols of the city. Its neoclassical architecture, along with its rich, historical background, attracts visitors yearlong. The Casino Matamorense, constructed in 1950, is traditionally considered the center of social gatherings for the principal families of Matamoros. [90] Also with its unique architecture, Centro Cultural Olimpico, is a historical creation built in the city. Nothing like it had been done before. And finally, the 'Teatro Reforma,' once considered the 'House of the Opera of the 19th Century', was constructed in 1861. For decades, the theater was home to important balls held by the richest families of Matamoros and the high-ranking military officers of the state. In addition, 'Teatro Reforma' is well known for being the first place in history where the Mexican National Anthem was played. [91]


The city of Matamoros has a warm humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with mild winters, and hot, humid summers. Its proximity to the Gulf of Mexico accompanies cooler winds during the summers and winters, compared to its sister cities of Reynosa and Nuevo Laredo, which are farther inland. Moreover, the climate of Matamoros is subtropical, with relatively low precipitation patterns distributed throughout the summer, and with summer temperatures ranging from 30 to 40 °C (86 to 104 °F). Temperatures above 38 °C (100.4 °F) are very uncommon, just as the other extreme, where freezing temperatures during the winter are rarely seen as well. While on average the warmest month is August, the March record high shows influence from the tropical wet and dry climates located further south in Mexico where the temperatures soar to their yearly maximums in March and April before decreasing somewhat during the rainy season.

Heavy rainfall is usually seen during the months of July and August, although it is not uncommon to go about without any rain whatsoever during the "wet" season. The average temperatures during the winters usually range around 0–10 °C (32 to 50 °F); this seasons is usually attended with rain, drizzle, and fog. The last snowfall was seen on 25 December 2004, which is the greatest snowfall ever recorded in the city, with up to 3.8 cm (1.5 in) in one day. Despite its proximity to the humid Gulf Coast, the city is dry, receiving an average of 698 mm (27.48 in) of precipitation annually.

Climate data for Matamoros/Brownsville
Record high °C (°F)34
Average high °C (°F)21.5
Daily mean °C (°F)16.2
Average low °C (°F)10.9
Record low °C (°F)−8
Average precipitation mm (inches)32
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 130.2152.6207.7234.0266.6306.0334.8306.9252.0229.4165.0130.22,715.4
Source #1: NOAA (normals 1981–2010) [92]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun, 1961–1990) [93]

International bridges

The international exchange of goods and services between the U.S. and Mexico is seen in effect throughout the city of Matamoros with the presence of its four international bridges. It is worth mentioning that Matamoros, Tamaulipas is the only border city in the U.S.-Mexico border that has four international bridges. [94]

Notable people

Bronze statue honoring Rigo Tovar in Matamoros, Tamaulipas Statue of Rigo Tovar in Matamoros.png
Bronze statue honoring Rigo Tovar in Matamoros, Tamaulipas

Sister cities

See also

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Federal Highway 2 is a free part of the federal highway corridors that runs along the Mexico–United States border. The highway is in two separate improved segments, starting in the west at Tijuana, Baja California, on the Pacific coast and ending in the east in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, on the Gulf of Mexico. Fed. 2 passes through the border states of Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. It has a total length of 1,963 kilometres (1,220 mi); 1,319 kilometres (820 mi) in the west and 644 kilometres (400 mi) in the east.

Río Bravo, formally Ciudad Río Bravo, is a city on the northern border of the state of Tamaulipas in northeastern Mexico.

Federal Highway 180 is a Mexican Federal Highway that follows Mexico's Gulf and Caribbean Coast from the Mexico-U.S. border at Brownsville, Texas, into Matamoros, Tamaulipas, to the resort city of Cancún, Quintana Roo, in the Yucatán Peninsula. Although the highway is numbered as a west-east route, it initially follows a north-south alignment through Tamaulipas and Veracruz.

Antonio Cárdenas Guillén Mexican drug lord

Antonio Ezequiel Cárdenas Guillén, commonly referred to by his alias Tony Tormenta, was a Mexican suspected drug lord and co-leader of the Gulf Cartel, a drug trafficking organization based in Tamaulipas. He headed the criminal group along with Jorge Eduardo Costilla Sánchez. Antonio was considered by Mexican security forces as one of Mexico's most-wanted men.

Rodolfo Torre Cantú Mexican politician

Rodolfo Torre Cantú was a Mexican physician and politician. He held a number of public offices, such as Federal deputy, Secretary of Health of Tamaulipas and Director-general of the DIF in Ciudad Victoria. While running for governor of Tamaulipas as the candidate of the PRI, he was assassinated, apparently by agents of a drug cartel. Torre was murdered alongside a Tamaulipas lawmaker, Enrique Blackmore, on 28 June 2010 near Ciudad Victoria, which is approximately three hours south of Brownsville, Texas. Felipe Calderón promised a full investigation, saying, "the fight against drug cartels must continue". He further stated, "This was an act not only against a candidate of a political party but against democratic institutions, and it requires a united and firm response from all those who work for democracy." Torre's assassination is the "highest-profile case of political violence" in Mexico since the murder of Luis Donaldo Colosio.

Matamoros–Brownsville metropolitan area Metropolitan area

Matamoros–Brownsville, also known as Brownsville–Matamoros, or simply as the Borderplex, is one of the six bi-national metropolitan areas along the Mexico–United States border. The city of Matamoros is situated in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, on the southern bank of the Rio Grande, while the city of Brownsville is located in the U.S. state of Texas, directly north across the bank of the Rio Grande. The Matamoros–Brownsville is connected by four international bridges. In addition, this transnational conurbation area has a population of 1,136,995, making it the 4th largest metropolitan area in the Mexico-U.S. border.

Reynosa–McAllen metropolitan area Metropolitan area

Reynosa–McAllen, also known as McAllen–Reynosa, or simply as Borderplex, is one of the six bi-national metropolitan areas along the Mexico–U.S border. The city of Reynosa is situated on the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, on the southern bank of the Rio Grande, while the city of McAllen is located in the American state of Texas, directly north across the bank of the Rio Grande. This metropolitan area has a population of roughly 1,500,000, making it the largest and most populous in the state of Tamaulipas, and third most populous in the U.S–Mexico border.

The Altamira prison brawl was a deadly fight that occurred on 4 January 2012 in Altamira, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Officials from the state of Tamaulipas confirmed that 31 people were killed, with another thirteen injured. The fight started after a drug gang burst into a section of the prison where they were banned from, attacking their rival gang housed there, triggering the fight. During the altercation, the inmates used several kinds of cold weapons to kill their opponents. The prisoners also used sticks and knives to massacre the members of the rival gang.

The infighting in the Gulf Cartel refers to a series of confrontations between the Metros and the Rojos, two factions within Gulf Cartel that engaged in a power struggle directly after the death of the drug lord Samuel Flores Borrego in September 2011. The infighting has lasted through 2013, although the Metros have gained the advantage and regained control of the major cities controlled by the cartel when it was essentially one organization.

Homero Enrique Cárdenas Guillén, also known by his aliases El Majadero and El Orejón, was a Mexican suspected drug lord and alleged leader of the Gulf Cartel, a drug trafficking organization. He is the brother of the former Gulf Cartel leaders Antonio, Mario, and Osiel Cárdenas Guillen. During the late 1990s, Homero worked for the Gulf Cartel under the tutelage of his brothers. However, after several years of government crackdowns, the Gulf Cartel suffered severe drawbacks, including the death and arrests of Homero's brothers and allies. In August 2013, Homero became the de facto leader of the Gulf Cartel following the arrest of Mario Ramírez Treviño. However, he reportedly died of a heart attack on 28 March 2014.


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Further reading