Texian Army

Last updated

Texian Army
Army of Texas
Army of the People
Sam Houston Army of Texas recruitment proclamation Dec 12, 1835.jpg
Sam Houston's call for the Army of Texas recruitment proclamation on December 12, 1835
ActiveOctober 1, 1835 - April 21, 1836
Country Republic of Texas
AllegianceRepublic of Texas
Consultation (Texian provisional government)
Constitution of the Republic of Texas
Type Army
RoleGround-based military warfare
Size3,685-3,700 (approximated)
Engagements Texas Revolution
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Stephen F. Austin
Sam Houston  (WIA)
James Fannin   (POW) (Executed)
William Travis  
James Bowie  
Davy Crockett  
Frank W. Johnson
Edward Burleson
Stephen F. Austin
George Fisher
Philip Dimmitt
John Linn
George Collinsworth
Benjamin Milam  
William Scott
William Ward   (POW) (Executed)
George H. Burroughs
Thomas H. Breece
Robert C. Morris
Jack Shackelford
Juan Seguín
Plácido Benavides
Salvador Flores
Manuel Leal

The Texian Army, also known as the Army of Texas and the Army of the People, was a military organization consisting of volunteer and regular soldiers who fought against the Mexican army during the Texas Revolution. Approximately 3,700 men joined the army between October 2, 1835, during the Battle of Gonzales through the end of the war on April 21, 1836, at the Battle of San Jacinto. After gaining independence the Texian Army would be officially known as the Army of the Republic of Texas. In 1846, after the annexation of Texas by the United States, the Army of the Republic of Texas merged with the US Army. Sam Houston became the new commander in chief of the new Texas army.

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the tenth most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Texas Revolution military conflict

The Texas Revolution was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico. While the uprising was part of a larger one that included other provinces opposed to the regime of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government believed the United States had instigated the Texas insurrection with the goal of annexation. The Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag." Only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas, and eventually being annexed by the United States.

Battle of Gonzales first military engagement of the Texas Revolution

The Battle of Gonzales was the first military engagement of the Texas Revolution. It was fought near Gonzales, Texas, on October 2, 1835, between rebellious Texian settlers and a detachment of Mexican army soldiers.

Contents

Organization

When Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, the former Spanish province of Texas became part of the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas. [1] Many of the people who lived in Texas, which had included the land north of the Medina and the Nueces Rivers, 100 miles (161 km) northeast of the Rio Grande, [2] west of San Antonio de Bexar, and east of the Sabine River, [2] [3] [4] wished to be a separate state again. For the first time, the government of Texas encouraged immigrants from the United States to settle its lands. [5] By 1834, an estimated 30,000 English speakers lived in Texas, [6] compared to only 7,800 of Spanish heritage. [7] The bankrupt Mexican government was unable to offer Texas much military support. [5] [8] Many of the settlements had created small militias to protect themselves against raids by Indian tribes.

Mexican War of Independence armed conflict which ended the rule of Spain in the territory of New Spain

The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808; it extended from the Cry of Dolores by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla on September 16, 1810, to the entrance of the Army of the Three Guarantees led by Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City on September 27, 1821. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.

Spanish Texas

Spanish Texas was one of the interior provinces of the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1690 until 1821.

Coahuila y Tejas former Mexican state

Coahuila y Tejas was one of the constituent states of the newly established United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution.

Texian Army volunteers elected Stephen F. Austin their first commander-in-chief. Stephen f austin.jpg
Texian Army volunteers elected Stephen F. Austin their first commander-in-chief.
General and President of Mexico Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna issued orders to the Mexican Army to show no quarter to the Texian Army rebels Santaanna1.JPG
General and President of Mexico Antonio López de Santa Anna issued orders to the Mexican Army to show no quarter to the Texian Army rebels

Under President Antonio López de Santa Anna the government of Mexico began to drift towards a more centralist form. [9] In 1835 Santa Anna revoked the Constitution of 1824 and began reigning as a dictator. In various parts of the country federalists revolted. [10]

Antonio López de Santa Anna 19th-century Mexican politician general

Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón, often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then fought for Mexican independence. He greatly influenced early Mexican politics and government, and he was an adept soldier and cunning politician who dominated Mexican history in the first half of the nineteenth century to such an extent that historians often refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna." He was called "the Man of Destiny" who "loomed over his time like a melodramatic colossus, the uncrowned monarch." Santa Anna first opposed the movement for Mexican independence from Spain, but then fought in support of it. He was one of the earliest caudillos of modern Mexico, and he "represents the stereotypical caudillo in Mexican history". Lucas Alamán wrote that "the history of Mexico since 1822 might accurately be called the history of Santa Anna's revolutions…. His name plays the major role in all the political events of the country and its destiny has become intertwined with his."

A centralized government is one in which power or legal authority is exerted or coordinated by a de facto political executive to which federal states, local authorities, and smaller units are considered subject. In a national context, centralization occurs in the transfer of power to a typically sovereign nation state. Menes, an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the early dynastic period, is credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt, and as the founder of the first dynasty, became the first ruler to institute a centralized government.

Federalism political concept

Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism by the United States under the Constitution of 1787, is a relationship of parity between the two levels of government established. It can thus be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status.

In September 1835, Colonel Domingo Ugartechea, the military commander of the Mexican forces at San Antonio de Bexar set troops to recover a small cannon that had been given to the people of Gonzales for protection. When the Mexican troops, under Lieutenant Francisco de Castañeda, reached Gonzales, the head of the local militia, Captain Albert Martin, convinced the troops to wait for several days. [11] Martin then sent messengers to other English-speaking settlements, asking for reinforcements to help protect the cannon. [12]

Domingo Ugartechea Mexican army officer

Domingo de Ugartechea was a 19th-century Mexican Army officer for the Republic of Mexico.

Gonzales, Texas City in Texas, United States

Gonzales is a city in Gonzales County, Texas, United States. The population was 7,237 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat.

Francisco de Castañeda, also spelled Castonado, was a lieutenant in the Mexican army stationed in San Antonio, in the 1830s. He was the commander of the troops involved in the first battle of the Texas Revolution.

Within several days, militias from Fayette County and Columbus arrived. In Gonzales, the Texian forces combined to form a single force. The militiamen held an election and chose John Henry Moore as their captain, Joseph Washington Elliot Wallace as a lieutenant colonel, and Edward Burleson as major. [12] The first military action taken by the new army was the Battle of Gonzales on October 2, 1835. After a skirmish, the Mexican troops withdrew to San Antonio, leaving the cannon with the Texians. [13] After the battle ended, disgruntled colonists continued to assemble in Gonzales, eager to put a decisive end to Mexican control over the area. [14] The Committee of Safety at San Felipe named the gathering "The Army of the People." [15]

Militia (United States) National military force of citizens used in emergencies

The militia of the United States, as defined by the U.S. Congress, has changed over time.

Fayette County, Texas County in the United States

Fayette County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,554. Its county seat is La Grange. The county was created in 1837 and organized the next year.

Columbus, Texas City in Texas, United States

Columbus is a city in Colorado County in southeastern Texas, United States, 74 miles (119 km) west of Houston. The population was 3,655 as of the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Colorado County and is located on the Colorado River. The Colorado County Courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Within a week, the men had taken the Mexican post at Goliad. [13] On October 11, the disorganized volunteers elected Stephen F. Austin, who had settled Texas's first English-speaking colonists in 1821, as their commander-in-chief. [14] Austin had only two months of military experience in the Missouri First Regiment of Mounted Militia under Colonel Alexander McNair, where he earned the rank of quartermaster sergeant, but he saw no combat. [16]

Goliad, Texas City in Texas, United States

Goliad is a city in Goliad County, Texas, United States. It is known for the 1836 Goliad massacre during the Texas Revolution. It had a population of 1,908 at the 2010 census. Founded on the San Antonio River, it is the county seat of Goliad County. It is part of the Victoria, Texas, Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Stephen F. Austin American empresario, slaveholder, namesake of Austin, Texas

Stephen Fuller Austin was an American empresario. Known as the "Father of Texas", and the founder of Texas, he led the second, and ultimately, the successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States to the region in 1825.

Alexander McNair American politician

Alexander McNair was an American frontiersman and politician. He was the first Governor of Missouri from its entry as a state in 1820, until 1824.

Demographics

In 1836, Texas had a population of 40,000 people. Approximately 2,000 of the citizens, around 5% of the population, served in the army at some point between October 1835 and April 1846. [17] Still, Historian Paul Lack argues that "for a people of such fabled militance, the Texians turned out for army duty in the period of crisis at a low rate of participation". [17] The army was augmented with volunteers from the United States. [17]

Overall, 3,685 men served in the Army of the People between October 1, 1835 and April 21, 1836. Forty percent of them had emigrated after October 1. Of the Texians, 57.8% were residents of the Department of the Brazos, 10.4% of the Department of Bexar, and 31.7% from the Department of Nacogdoches. [18] Of the men who arrived in Texas after October 1, 1835, not all of these additions were American citizens; many were recent immigrants from Europe who were seeking adventure and potential riches in Texas. Through the course of the Texas Revolution, one in seven of the English-speaking settlers in Texas joined the army. One in three adult male Tejanos, that is, Spanish-speaking settlers in Texas, joined the army. [19]

The composition of the army changed dramatically over time, with four distinct waves:

The early army was composed predominantly of Texas residents, with every municipality represented. Over 1,300 men volunteered for the army in October and November 1835. Of these, approximately 1,1001,500 were residents of Texas, with an average date of emigration of 1830. [20] [Note 1] Half of the men were married. Roughly 51% of them came from the Department of the Brazos, an area in central Texas which consisted of the colonies established by Stephen F. Austin and Green DeWitt, as well as some of the area granted to Sterling C. Robertson. An additional 15% of the volunteers were from the Department of Bexar, where most citizens were Tejano, and which was partially occupied by Mexican troops. Thirty-four percent of the volunteers came from the Nacogdoches district of far East Texas, an area where homes and families were not under threat. [20]

After the Texas victory in Bexar in early December, men began leaving the army and returning home. By the end of February 1836, fewer than 600 men remained in the army. [21] A total of 917 men served in the army for varying lengths of time in January March 1836. In a sharp contrast from the army of a few months prior, these men were predominantly newcomers to Texas. The overwhelming majority—78%—had arrived from the United States since the outbreak of hostilities in October. They had an average age of 27, and almost two-thirds were single. Of the Texians who continued to participate, 57% were from the areas most at risk of Mexican attempts to reassert control over its national territory—Bexar, Gonzales, Matagorda and Jackson—despite the small population of these areas. When examined in the context of the political districts, 59% of the Texians were from the Brazos department and 23% from Bexar. [22]

The army suffered significant losses at the battles of the Alamo and Coleto. The provisional government passed conscription laws, [23] which should have resulted in about 4,000 men joining the army. [24] The laws were impossible to enforce due to the fact that most citizens had fled as part of the Runaway Scrape. [23] By the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, new commander Sam Houston had a total of 1,282 recruits in the army. Of these, about 250 were ill, at camp, or on scouting missions at the time of the battle. [24]

The average date of emigration was 1835; 21% of the men had arrived in Texas after October 1, 1835, and almost 18% had arrived between January 1 and October 1, 1835. [25] Approximately 60% of the soldiers were single, and their average age was 28. In many families, the younger sons joined the army while the fathers escorted the women and younger children east, away from the advancing Mexican army. [26] 67% of the Texians who volunteered were from the Brazos Department, an impressive number considering the heavy losses many of these areas had sustained in the March fighting. 25% were from the Nacogdoches district, fewer than had served in 1835. Only 5% of the Texians were from the Bexar District. This number was low both because many of the volunteers had perished at the Alamo or Coleto and because the area was now occupied by the Mexican army. It was not only difficult for men to leave the area, but it was unwise to leave their families. The majority of the men from Bexar who served in April were cavalry officers under the command of Colonel Juan Seguin. [26]

An additional 623 men served in April outside of Houston's army. Less is known about these men, who had no central command or location. It is estimated that 31% were recent arrivals from the United States. They were older, with an average age of 34, and over 41% of them came from the Nacogdoches district. Historian Paul Lack described these men as a home guard, a "last line of defense" for the Texians. [25]

398 men served in both 1835 and April 1836. Of these, 58% were single, with an average age of 30, and 26% had arrived in Texas after the war began. Of the Texians, 63% were from the Brazos district, 11% from Bexar, and 26% from Nacogdoches. [27] Lack posits that many of those who chose not to re-enlist in April 1836 believed that they had done their duty. For the most part, they were older and, as they had been in Texas longer, they had more to protect. [17]

Believing the hostilities were over, by the end of May, most of the Texas residents had left the army, which shrank to 400 men. With fears of a Mexican counterattack spreading, more volunteers arrived from the United States. By June, the ranks had increased to 1300–1700 men, and by September to 2,500 men, spread across 53 companies. Of those in the army in September, 1,800 had come to Texas after the Battle of San Jacinto. [28]

Formation and structure

The structure of the Texian Army was relatively fluid. Originally, it was composed entirely of volunteers or militia, who came and went at will. [13] To become an officer, a man must simply have had enough money or charisma to convince others to serve under him. In the first half of the Texas Revolution, many of the units and individual volunteers came from the United States. The United States volunteer units in the Army represented ten states; from New Orleans, Louisiana the New Orleans Greys, from Alabama the Red Rovers, Huntsville Rovers, and Mobile Greys, from Mississippi the Mississippi Guards and Natchez Mustangs, from New York the 1st New York Battalion and 2nd New York Battalion and from other states the Georgia Volunteers, Kentucky Mustangs, Missouri Invincibles, North Carolina Volunteers, and Tennessee Mounted Volunteers, and Union Guards

By the end of the war, the army had grown to include three distinct divisions. Members of the regular army enlisted for two years and were subject to army discipline and the army's chain of command. A squad of permanent volunteers enlisted for the duration of the war. This group was permitted to elect its own officers, outside the oversight of the army commander-in-chief. Most of the men who joined the permanent volunteers had settled in Texas before the war had begun, both Tejano and Texians. The last unit was the volunteer auxiliary corps, comprising primarily recent arrivals from the United States who officially enlisted for a six-month term. [29] On November 24, 1835, the Texas provisional government authorized the creation of ranging companies of rifleman. [29] Robert "Three-legged Willie" Williamson was asked to raise three of these companies with 56 men each. [30] Rangers were to be paid $1.25 per day. [30]

Republic Army

Texian regular army and permanent volunteer units

  • Texas Rangers (paramilitary unit)
  • Infantry (militia)
  • Mounted Volunteers (militia)
  • Mounted Gunmen (militia)
  • Mounted Riflemen (militia)
  • Spies (militia)
  • Ranging Corps. (militia)
  • Mounted Rangers (militia)
  • Army
  • Minute Men (militia)
  • Juan Seguín's Mexican Tejano Volunteers (militia)

United States volunteer auxiliary corps units

Texian Army flags

Notable Texian Army commanders and officers

Notable soldiers

Private Gail Borden of the Texian Army and later of condensed milk fame, with his brother founded the first newspaper in Texas in San Felipe de Austin, the Telegraph and Texas Register which appeared on October 10, 1835, days after the Texas Revolution began. Gail Borden.jpg
Private Gail Borden of the Texian Army and later of condensed milk fame, with his brother founded the first newspaper in Texas in San Felipe de Austin, the Telegraph and Texas Register which appeared on October 10, 1835, days after the Texas Revolution began.

Uniforms, weapons, and equipment

Neither the regular nor volunteer components of the Texian Army were issued specific uniforms. [19] Several of the companies that formed in the United States, including the New Orleans Greys, purchased U.S. Army surplus uniforms before they arrived. [31] Other companies had more loosely defined "uniforms", such as wearing matching hunting shirts. [29]

Texian volunteer Noah Smithwick wrote a description of the volunteer army as it looked in October 1835:

Words are inadequate to convey an impression of the appearance of the first Texas army as it formed in marching order. ... Buckskin breeches were the nearest approach to uniform and there was wide diversity even there, some of them being new and soft and yellow, while others, from long familiarity with rain and grease and dirt, had become hard and black and shiny. ... Boots being an unknown quantity, some wore shoes and some moccasins. Here a broad brimmed sombrero overshadowed the military cap at its side; there, a tall "beegum" rode familiarly beside a coonskin cap, with the tail hanging down behind, as all well regulated tails should do ... here a bulky roll of bed quilts jostled a pair of "store " blankets; there the shaggy brown buffalo robe contrasted with a gaily colored checkered counterpane on which the manufacturer had lavished all the skill of dye and weave known to art ... in lieu of a canteen, each man carried a Spanish gourd.... Here a big American horse loomed above the nimble Spanish pony, there a half-broke mustang pranced beside a sober methodical mule. A fantastic military array to a casual observer, but the one great purpose animating every heart clothed us in a uniform more perfect in our eyes than was ever donned by regulars on dress parade. [29]

History

The campaigns of the Texian Army during the Texas Revolution Campaigns of the Texas Revolution.jpg
The campaigns of the Texian Army during the Texas Revolution

Offensive maneuvers (October – December 1835)

Several days after Austin took command, the army marched towards Bexar to confront General Martin Perfecto de Cos, who had recently arrived to command the remaining Mexican troops in Texas. [13]

Texian soldiers fighting in the Battle of Gonzales, the first battle of the Texas Revolution Come And Take It Mural.jpg
Texian soldiers fighting in the Battle of Gonzales, the first battle of the Texas Revolution
Texian soldiers in the victory at the Battle of Goliad which was followed by the Goliad Massacre Milam meets Texan troops.jpg
Texian soldiers in the victory at the Battle of Goliad which was followed by the Goliad Massacre
Davy Crockett leading Texian defenders in the Battle of the Alamo which depicted him wielding his rifle as a club against Mexican troops who have breached the walls of the old Spanish mission FalloftheAlamo.jpg
Davy Crockett leading Texian defenders in the Battle of the Alamo which depicted him wielding his rifle as a club against Mexican troops who have breached the walls of the old Spanish mission

Restructuring (December 1835 – February 1836)

The regular division of the Army was officially established on December 12. Any man who enlisted in the regular division would receive $24 in cash, the rights to 800 acres (320 ha) of land, and instant Texas citizenship. Those who joined the volunteer auxiliary corps would receive 640 acres (260 ha) of land if they served two years, while those who served 1 year would receive 320 acres (130 ha). [32] A month later the establishment of a Legion of Cavalry would be authorized. [33]

The commander of the regular forces, Sam Houston, called for 5,000 men to enlist in the regular army but had difficulty convincing men to join. Many of the arrivals from the United States did not want to be under a more strict military control, and instead informally joined the volunteer units that had gathered in other parts of Texas. These volunteer soldiers were in many cases more impassioned than the Texas settlers. Although the provisional Texas government was still debating whether the troops were fighting for independence or for separate statehood, on December 20, 1835, the Texian garrison at Goliad voted unanimously to issue a proclamation of independence, stating "that the former province and department of Texas is, and of right ought to be, a free, sovereign and independent state". [32]

The provisional government had originally placed Houston in charge of the regular forces, but in December the council gave secret orders to James Fannin, Frank W. Johnson, and Dr. James Grant to prepare forces to invade Mexico. [32] Houston was then ordered to travel to East Texas to broker a treaty that would allow the Cherokee to remain neutral in the conflict. Johnson and Grant gathered 300 of the 400 men garrisoned in Bexar and left to prepare for the invasion. [34]

The government was woefully short of funds. On January 6, 1836, Colonel James C. Neill, commander of the remaining 100 troops in Bexar, wrote to the council: " there has ever been a dollar here I have no knowledge of it. The clothing sent here by the aid and patriotic exertions of the honorable Council, was taken from us by arbitrary measures of Johnson and Grant, taken from men who endured all the hardships of winter and who were not even sufficiently clad for summer, many of them having but one blanket and one shirt, and what was intended for them given away to men some of whom had not been in the army more than four days, and many not exceeding two weeks." [34]

For the next several months it was unclear who was in charge of the Texian army—Fannin, Johnson, Grant, or Houston. [35] On January 10, Johnson issued a call to form a Federal Volunteer Army of Texas which would march on Matamoros during the Matamoros Expedition. [35]

The Texian Army of Sam Houston soundly defeats Mexican forces at the Battle of San Jacinto ending the hostilities of the Texas Revolution. The Battle of San Jacinto (1895).jpg
The Texian Army of Sam Houston soundly defeats Mexican forces at the Battle of San Jacinto ending the hostilities of the Texas Revolution.

Defensive maneuvers (March – April 1836)

The Mexican army returned to Texas in February and initiated a siege of the garrison in San Antonio on February 23. [36] The commander at the Alamo, William B. Travis, sent numerous letters to the Texas settlements, begging for reinforcements. [37] Men began to gather in Gonzales to prepare to reinforce the garrison. [38] Before they left, the Mexican army launched the Battle of the Alamo, and all of the Texian soldiers who had been stationed in Bexar were killed. [39] This left two branches of the Texian Army: Fannin's 400 men at Goliad [40] and Neill's 400 men at Gonzales, [41] who soon reported to Houston. On hearing the news of the massacre at the Alamo, Houston ordered his army to retreat and burned the town of Gonzales as they left. He ordered Fannin to bring his men and join the rest of the army. [42] Fannin's force was defeated at the Battle of Coleto Creek, and on March 27 Fannin and his men were executed at the Goliad Massacre. A few soldiers escaped, and 80 soldiers who had just arrived from the United States and had no weapons were spared. [43]

As news spread of the defeats at the Alamo and Goliad, men flocked to the Texian army. By early April, Houston commanded about 800 men. [44] The Texas Revolution essentially ended on April 21, when the Texian Army routed a Mexican force and captured Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto. [44]

For six months David G. Burnet, ad interim President of the Republic, had diligently maintained the army laws set forth by the Consultation in December 1835. The 1835–36 Regular Army of Texas would never consist of more than 100 soldiers and would never approach the Consultation's number goal of 560 infantry, 560 artillery and 384 cavalry, in the permanent "Regular Army" of Texas. However, the goal of independence was achieved, nonetheless.


The Commander-in-Chief of the Texian Army Sam Houston lying wounded with his troops at the surrender of the Mexican Army commanded by the Mexican general Santa Anna which brought an end to the war SantaAnnaSurrender.jpg
The Commander-in-Chief of the Texian Army Sam Houston lying wounded with his troops at the surrender of the Mexican Army commanded by the Mexican general Santa Anna which brought an end to the war

End of hostilities and independence

Retention as permanent defensive force for the Republic of Texas (1836-1845)

See also

Notes

  1. If the recent arrivals from the United States are considered, the average date of emigration rises to 1832. Lack (1992), pp. 1145.

Related Research Articles

Battle of San Jacinto decisive battle of the Texas Revolution

The Battle of San Jacinto, fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas, was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston, the Texian Army engaged and defeated General Antonio López de Santa Anna's Mexican army in a fight that lasted just 18 minutes. A detailed, first-hand account of the battle was written by General Houston from Headquarters of the Texian Army, San Jacinto, on April 25, 1836. Numerous secondary analyses and interpretations have followed, several of which are cited and discussed throughout this entry.

Battle of the Alamo Major battle of the Texas Revolution

The Battle of the Alamo was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna reclaimed the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar, killing the Texian and immigrant occupiers. Santa Anna's cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians, both legal Texas settlers and illegal immigrants from the United States, to join the Texian Army. Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, on April 21, 1836, ending the rebellion.

Goliad Campaign

The Goliad Campaign was the 1836 Mexican offensive to retake the Texas Gulf Coast during the Texas Revolution. Mexican troops under the command of General José de Urrea defeated rebellious immigrants to the Mexican province of Texas, known as Texians, in a series of clashes in February and March.

Manuel Fernández Castrillón was a major general in the Mexican army of the 19th century. He was a close friend of General and Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna. During the Texas Revolution, Castrillón advocated for mercy for captured Texian soldiers. He was killed at the Battle of San Jacinto, despite attempts by Republic of Texas Secretary of War Thomas Rusk to save his life.

James Fannin American soldier

James Walker Fannin Jr. was a 19th-century American military figure in the Texas Army and leader during the Texas Revolution of 1835–36. After being outnumbered and surrendering to Mexican forces at the Battle of Coleto Creek, Colonel Fannin and nearly all his 344 men were executed soon afterward at Goliad, Texas, under Santa Anna's orders for all rebels to be executed.

Battle of Goliad second skirmish of the Texas Revolution

The Battle of Goliad was the second skirmish of the Texas Revolution. In the early-morning hours of October 9, 1835, Texas settlers attacked the Mexican Army soldiers garrisoned at Presidio La Bahía, a fort near the Mexican Texas settlement of Goliad. La Bahía lay halfway between the only other large garrison of Mexican soldiers and the then-important Texas port of Copano.

Battle of Concepción battle fought on October 28, 1835

The Battle of Concepción was fought on October 28, 1835, between Mexican troops under Colonel Domingo Ugartechea and Texian insurgents led by James Bowie and James Fannin. The 30-minute engagement, which historian J. R. Edmondson describes as "the first major engagement of the Texas Revolution", occurred on the grounds of Mission Concepción, 2 miles (3.2 km) south of what is now Downtown San Antonio in the U.S. state of Texas.

Battle of Agua Dulce battle

The Battle of Agua Dulce Creek was a skirmish during the Texas Revolution between Mexican troops and rebellious colonists of the Mexican province of Texas, known as Texians. As part of the Goliad Campaign to retake the Texas Gulf Coast, Mexican troops ambushed a group of Texians on March 2, 1836. The skirmish began approximately 26 miles (42 km) south of San Patricio, in territory belonging to the Mexican state of Tamaulipas.

The Grass Fight was a small battle during the Texas Revolution, fought between the Mexican Army and the Texian Army. The battle took place on November 26, 1835, just south of San Antonio de Béxar in the Mexican region of Texas. The Texas Revolution had officially begun on October 2 and by the end of the month the Texian had initiated a siege of Béxar, home of the largest Mexican garrison in the province. Bored with the inactivity, many of the Texian soldiers returned home; a smaller number of adventurers from the United States arrived to replace them. After the Texian Army rejected commander-in-chief Stephen F. Austin's call to launch an assault on Béxar on November 22, Austin resigned from the army. The men elected Edward Burleson their new commander-in-chief.

Runaway Scrape

The Runaway Scrape events took place mainly between September 1835 and April 1836, and were the evacuations by Texas residents fleeing the Mexican Army of Operations during the Texas Revolution, from the Battle of the Alamo through the decisive Battle of San Jacinto. The ad interim government of the new Republic of Texas and much of the civilian population fled eastward ahead of the Mexican forces. The conflict arose after Antonio López de Santa Anna abrogated the 1824 constitution of Mexico and established martial law in Coahuila y Tejas. The Texians resisted and declared their independence. It was Sam Houston's responsibility, as the appointed commander-in-chief of the Provisional Army of Texas, to recruit and train a military force to defend the population against troops led by Santa Anna.

James Clinton Neill was a 19th-century American soldier and politician, most noted for his role in the Texas Revolution and the early defense of the Alamo. He was born in North Carolina.

The Consultation served as the provisional government of Mexican Texas from October 1835 to March 1836 during the Texas Revolution. Tensions rose in Texas during early 1835 as throughout Mexico federalists began to oppose the increasingly centralist policies of the government. In the summer, Texians elected delegates to a political convention to be held in Gonzales in mid-October. Weeks before the convention and war began, settlers took up arms against Mexican soldiers at the Battle of Gonzales. The convention was postponed until November 1 after many of the delegates joined the newly organized volunteer Texian Army to initiate a siege of the Mexican garrison at San Antonio de Bexar. On November 3, a quorum was reached in San Antonio. Within days, the delegates passed a resolution to define why Texians were fighting. They expressed allegiance to the deposed Constitution of 1824 and maintained their right to form an independent government while this document was not in effect. Henry Smith was elected governor of the new provisional government and the remaining delegates formed a General Council. In the next weeks, the council authorized the creation of a new regular army to be commanded by Sam Houston. As Houston worked to establish an army independent from the existing volunteer army, the council repeatedly interfered in military matters.

The Siege of Béxar was an early campaign of the Texas Revolution in which a volunteer Texian army defeated Mexican forces at San Antonio de Béxar. Texians had become disillusioned with the Mexican government as President and General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's tenure became increasingly dictatorial. In early October, 1835, Texas settlers gathered in Gonzales to stop Mexican troops from reclaiming a small cannon. The resulting skirmish, known as the Battle of Gonzales, launched the Texas Revolution. Men continued to assemble in Gonzales and soon established the Texian Army. Despite a lack of military training, well-respected local leader General Stephen F. Austin was elected commander.

Presidio La Bahía

The Presidio Nuestra Señora de Loreto de la Bahía, known more commonly as Presidio La Bahia, or simply La Bahia is a fort constructed by the Spanish Army that became the nucleus of the modern-day city of Goliad, Texas, United States. The current location dates to 1747.

Siege of the Alamo Siege of the Texas Revolution

The Siege of the Alamo describes the first thirteen days of the Battle of the Alamo. On February 23, Mexican troops under General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna entered San Antonio de Bexar, Texas and surrounded the Alamo Mission. The Alamo was defended by a small force of Texians and Tejanos, led by William Barrett Travis and James Bowie, and included Davy Crockett. Before beginning his assault on the Alamo, Santa Anna offered them one last chance to surrender. Travis replied by opening fire on the Mexican forces and, in doing so, effectively sealed their fate. The siege ended when the Mexican Army launched an early-morning assault on March 6. Almost all of the defenders were killed, although several civilians survived.

Philip Dimmitt (1801–1841) was an officer in the Texian Army during the Texas Revolution. Born in Kentucky, Dimmitt moved to Texas in 1823 and soon operated a series of trading posts. After learning that Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos was en route to Texas in the year 1835 (??) to quell the unrest, Dimmitt proposed that the general be kidnapped on his arrival at Copano. The plan was shelved when fighting broke out at Gonzales, but by early October, 1835, it had been resuscitated by a group of volunteers at Matamoros. Not knowing that Cos had already departed for San Antonio de Bexar, this group decided to corner Cos at Presidio La Bahia in Goliad. Dimmitt joined them en route, and participated in the battle of Goliad.

Army of the Republic of Texas

The Army of the Republic of Texas was the land-based component of the armed forces for the Republic of Texas. It directly descended from the Texian Army, which was established on October 2, 1835, to fight for independence from Mexico in the Texas Revolution. The army was provisionally formed from the Consultation in November 1835, and officially established on September 5, 1836, from Article II, Section 5 of the Constitution of the Republic of Texas. After Texas' annexation by the United States, the Army of the Republic of Texas was merged into the United States Army. Today, the 141st Infantry Regiment trace their lineage back to the Texas Revolution.

References

  1. Manchaca (2001), p. 161.
  2. 1 2 Edmondson (2000), p. 6.
  3. Edmondson (2000), p. 10.
  4. Manchaca (2001), p. 162.
  5. 1 2 Manchaca (2001), p. 164.
  6. Manchaca (2001), p. 201.
  7. Manchaca (2001), p. 172.
  8. Edmondson (2000), p. 75.
  9. Barr (1990), p. 2.
  10. Hardin (1994), p. 6.
  11. Hardin (1994), p. 7.
  12. 1 2 Hardin (1994), p. 8.
  13. 1 2 3 4 Todish et al. (1998), p. 8.
  14. 1 2 Barr (1990), p. 6.
  15. Lack (1992), p. 111.
  16. Cantrell, Gregg (1999). Stephen F. Austin Empresario of Texas (1st ed.). New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 50–53. ISBN   0-300-07683-5.
  17. 1 2 3 4 Lack (1992), p. 132.
  18. Lack (1992), p. 133.
  19. 1 2 Todish et al. (1998), p. 13.
  20. 1 2 Lack (1992), pp. 1145.
  21. Lack (1992), p. 121.
  22. Lack (1992), pp. 1223.
  23. 1 2 Lack (1992), p. 124.
  24. 1 2 Lack (1992), p. 125.
  25. 1 2 Lack (1992), pp. 1289.
  26. 1 2 Lack (1992), pp. 1267.
  27. Lack (1992), p. 130.
  28. Lack (1992), p. 134.
  29. 1 2 3 4 Todish et al. (1998), p. 14.
  30. 1 2 Todish et al. (1998), p. 15.
  31. Hardin (1994), p. 60.
  32. 1 2 3 Todish et al. (1998), p. 28.
  33. Thomas W. Cutrer, "ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF TEXAS," Handbook of Texas Online , accessed April 23, 2011. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
  34. 1 2 Todish et al. (1998), p. 29.
  35. 1 2 Todish et al. (1998), p. 30.
  36. Todish et al. (1998), p. 40.
  37. Edmondson (2000), pp. 302, 312, 345.
  38. Edmondson (2000), p. 375.
  39. Nofi (1992), p. 133.
  40. Edmondson (2000), p. 377.
  41. Lindley (2003), p. 310.
  42. Todish et al. (1998), p. 67.
  43. Todish et al. (1998), p. 68.
  44. 1 2 Todish et al. (1998), p. 69.

Sources

Preceded by
Mexican Tejas Militia
1823-1835
Texian Army
1835-1836
Succeeded by
Army of the Republic of Texas
1836-1845