Shades of white

Last updated
White
 
Color icon white.svg
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FFFFFF
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(255, 255, 255)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 0, 0, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(0°, 0%, 100%)
SourceBy definition
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Shades of white are colors that differ only slightly from pure white. Variations of white include what are commonly termed off-white colors, which may be considered part of a neutral color scheme.

Color Characteristic of human visual perception

Color, or colour, is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple. This perception of color derives from the stimulation of cone cells in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum. Color categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light that is reflected from them. This reflection is governed by the object's physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc.

White color

White is the lightest color and is achromatic. It is the color of fresh snow, chalk, and milk, and is the opposite of black. White objects fully reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and computer screens is created by a mixture of red, blue and green light.

Contents

In color theory, a shade is a pure color mixed with black (or having a lower lightness). Strictly speaking, a “shade of white” would be a neutral beige . This article is also about off-white colors that vary from pure white in hue, and in chroma (also called saturation, or intensity).

In the visual arts, color theory or colour theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual effects of a specific color combination. There are also definitions of colors based on the color wheel: primary color, secondary color, and tertiary color. Although color theory principles first appeared in the writings of Leone Battista Alberti and the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, a tradition of "colory theory" began in the 18th century, initially within a partisan controversy over Isaac Newton's theory of color and the nature of primary colors. From there it developed as an independent artistic tradition with only superficial reference to colorimetry and vision science.

Lightness property of a color

In colorimetry and color theory, lightness, also known as value or tone, is a representation of variation in the perception of a color or color space's brightness. It is one of the color appearance parameters of any color appearance model.

Hue Property of a color indicating balance of color perceived by the normal human eye

Hue is one of the main properties of a color, defined technically, as "the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow",. Hue can typically be represented quantitatively by a single number, often corresponding to an angular position around a central or neutral point or axis on a colorspace coordinate diagram or color wheel, or by its dominant wavelength or that of its complementary color. The other color appearance parameters are colorfulness, saturation, lightness, and brightness.

Colors often considered "shades of white" include cream, eggshell, ivory, Navajo white, and vanilla. Even the lighting of a room, however, can cause a pure white to be perceived as off-white. [1]

The color eggshell is meant as a representation of the average color of a chicken egg. Since the color of chicken eggs may vary between pale brown and white, the color is an average between those two, closer to white than pale brown, because more chicken eggs are white.

Ivory (color) off-white color that resembles ivory

Ivory is an off-white color that resembles ivory, the material from which the teeth and tusks of animals is made. It has a very slight tint of yellow.

In computing, on the X Window System, X11 color names are represented in a simple text file, which maps certain strings to RGB color values. It was traditionally shipped with every X11 installation, hence the name, and is usually located in <X11root>/lib/X11/rgb.txt. The web colors list is descended from it but differs for certain color names.

Off-white colors were pervasively paired with beiges in the 1930s, [2] and especially popular again from roughly 1955 to 1975. [3]

Beige brown color with a cream colored tone; pale yellowish brown color

Beige is variously described as a pale sandy fawn color, a grayish tan, a light-grayish yellowish brown, or a pale to grayish yellow. It takes its name from French, where the word originally meant natural wool that has been neither bleached nor dyed, and hence also the color of natural wool. It has come to be used to describe a variety of light tints chosen for their neutral or pale warm appearance.

Whiteness measures the degree to which a surface is white in colorimetry.

In colorimetry, whiteness is the degree to which a surface is white. An example of its use might be to quantitatively compare two pieces of paper which appear white viewed individually, but not when juxtaposed.

Colorimetry is "the science and technology used to quantify and describe physically the human color perception." It is similar to spectrophotometry, but is distinguished by its interest in reducing spectra to the physical correlates of color perception, most often the CIE 1931 XYZ color space tristimulus values and related quantities.

Web colors

Below is a chart showing the computer web color shades of white. An achromatic white is a white color in which the red, green, and blue codes are exactly equal. The web colors white and white smoke are achromatic colors. A chromatic shade of white is a white color in which the red, green, and blue codes are not exactly equal, but are close to each other, which is what makes it a shade of white.

HTML color nameSampleHex triplet
(rendered by name)(rendered by hex triplet)
White#FFFFFF
Whitesmoke#F5F5F5
Snow#FFFAFA
Honeydew#F0FFF0
Mintcream#F5FFFA
Azure#F0FFFF
Aliceblue#F0F8FF
Ghostwhite#F8F8FF
Seashell#FFF5EE
Beige#F5F5DC
Oldlace#FDF5E6
Floralwhite#FFFAF0
Ivory#FFFFF0
Antiquewhite#FAEBD7
Linen#FAF0E6
Lavenderblush#FFF0F5

White

White (#FFFFFF)
#FFFFFF

White
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FFFFFF
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(255, 255, 255)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 0, 0, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(0°, 0%, 100%)
SourceBy definition
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

White is a color, the perception of which is evoked by light that stimulates all three types of color sensitive cone cells in the human eye in equal amounts and with high brightness compared to the surroundings. A white visual stimulation will be void of hue and grayness. White is the lightest possible color.

Ghost white

Ghost white (#F8F8FF)
#F8F8FF

Ghost white
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #F8F8FF
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(248, 248, 255)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(3, 3, 0, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(240°, 3%, 100%)
Source X11 [4]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The web color ghost white is a tint of white associated with what it is imagined[ by whom? ] the color of a ghost might be.

There is no evidence that this color name was in use before the X11 color names were formulated in 1987.

White smoke

White smoke (#F5F5F5)
#F5F5F5

White smoke
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #F5F5F5
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(245, 245, 245)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 0, 0, 9.95)
HSV     (h, s, v)(0°, 0%, 96.1%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The web color white smoke is displayed on the left.

There is no evidence that this color name was in use before the X11 color names were formulated in 1987.

Baby powder

Baby powder (#FEFEFA)
#FEFEFA

Baby powder
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FEFEFA
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(254, 254, 250)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 0, 2, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(60°, 2%, 100%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Talcum or baby powder Talcum Powder.JPEG
Talcum or baby powder

The Crayola crayon color baby powder was introduced in 1994 as part of its specialty Magic Scent crayon collection.

Snow

Snow (#FFFAFA)
#FFFAFA

Snow
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FFFAFA
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(255, 250, 250)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 2, 2, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(0°, 2%, 100%)
Source X11 [4]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The web color snow is displayed at left.

The first recorded use of snow as a color name in English was in 1000. [5]

Snow in Bulgaria Snow Scene at Shipka Pass 1.JPG
Snow in Bulgaria

The color snow was included as one of the X11 colors when they were formulated in 1987.

Ivory

Ivory (#FFFFF0)
#FFFFF0

Ivory
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FFFFF0
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(255, 255, 240)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 0, 6, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(60°, 6%, 100%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Ivory is an off-white color that resembles ivory, the material out of which the teeth and tusks of animals (such as the elephant and the walrus) are made. It has a very slight tint of yellow.

The first recorded use of ivory as a color name in English was in 1385. [6]

A carving in ivory Bimbisar welcoming Buddha Roundel 30 buddha ivory tusk.jpg
A carving in ivory

The color ivory was included as one of the X11 colors when they were formulated in 1987.

Floral white

Floral white (#FFFAF0)
#FFFAF0

Floral white
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FFFAF0
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(255, 250, 240)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 2, 2, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(40°, 6%, 100%)
Source X11 [4]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The web color floral white is displayed at left.

There is no evidence that this color name was in use before the X11 color names were formulated in 1987.

Seashell

Seashell (#FFF5EE)
#FFF5EE

Seashell
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FFF5EE
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(255, 245, 238)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 3, 4, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(25°, 7%, 100%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Seashell is an off-white color that resembles some of the very pale pinkish tones that are common in many seashells.

The first recorded use of seashell as a color name in English was in 1926. [7]

Seashell in the sand Seashell unknown 2.jpg
Seashell in the sand

In 1987, seashell was included as one of the X11 colors.

Cornsilk

Cornsilk (#FFF8DC)
#FFF8DC

Cornsilk
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FFF8DC
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(255, 248, 220)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 3, 14, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(48°, 14%, 100%)
Source X11 [4]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Cornsilk is a color that is a representation of the color of cornsilk.

The first recorded use of cornsilk as a color name in English was in 1927. [8]

Cornsilk Cornsilk 7091.jpg
Cornsilk

In 1987, cornsilk was included as one of the X11 colors.

Old lace

Old lace (#FDF5E6)
#FDF5E6

Old lace
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FDF5E6
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(253, 245, 230)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 3, 9, 1)
HSV     (h, s, v)(39°, 9%, 99%)
Source X11 [4]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Old lace is a web color that is a very pale yellowish orange that resembles the color of an old lace tablecloth.

It is one of the original X11 colors.

Old lace is used as a color of a certain kind of Caucasian skin type in art.

Cream

Cream (#FFFDD0)
#FFFDD0

Cream
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FFFDD0
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(255, 253, 208)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 1, 18, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(57°, 18%, 100%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Cream is a color that is a representation of the color of the cream produced from the milk of cattle.

The first recorded use of cream as a color name in English was in 1590. [9]

Strawberries with cream Strawberry ice cream dessert.jpg
Strawberries with cream

In 1987, cream was included as one of the X11 colors.

Beige

Beige (#F5F5DC)
#F5F5DC

Beige
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #F5F5DC
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(245, 245, 220)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 0, 10, 4)
HSV     (h, s, v)(60°, 10%, 96%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color beige is displayed at left.

The first recorded use of beige as a color name in English was in 1887. [10]

The term originates from beige cloth, a cotton fabric left undyed in its natural color.

Items that are of beige color in real world applications are typically closer to yellow than they are to white.

Parchment

Parchment (#F1E9D2)
#F1E9D2

Parchment
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #F1E9D2
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(241, 233, 210)
Source Xona.com Color List
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Displayed at right is the color parchment

In 2001, this was made into one of the colors on the Xona.com color list.

Antique white

Antique white (#FAEBD7)
#FAEBD7

Antique white
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FAEBD7
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(250, 235, 215)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 6, 14, 2)
HSV     (h, s, v)(34°, 14%, 98%)
Source X11 [4]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Antique white is a web color.

The color name antique white began to be used in 1987 when the X11 colors were first formulated.

Champagne

Champagne (#F7E7CE)
#F7E7CE

Champagne
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #F7E7CE
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(247, 231, 206)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 7, 17, 3)
HSV     (h, s, v)(37°, 17%, 97%)
SourceMaerz and Paul
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color champagne is displayed at left.

The color's name is derived from the typical color of the beverage champagne.

A glass of champagne Champagne.jpg
A glass of champagne

The first recorded use of champagne as a color name in English was in 1915. [11]

Eggshell

Eggshell (#F0EAD6)
#F0EAD6

Eggshell
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #F0EAD6
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(240, 234, 214)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 2, 11, 6)
HSV     (h, s, v)(46°, 11%, 94%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color eggshell is displayed at left.

Broken egg shells Hanoi-Coquilles d'oeufs utilisees pour les applications (1).jpg
Broken egg shells

The color eggshell is a representation of the average color of chicken eggs.

Dutch white

Dutch white (#EFDFBB)
#EFDFBB

Dutch white
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #EFDFBB
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(239, 223, 187)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 7, 22, 6)
HSV     (h, s, v)(42°, 22%, 94 [12] %)
Source Resene
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at left is the color Dutch white.

Dutch white is one of the colors on the Resene Color List, a color list popular in Australia and New Zealand. The color Dutch white was formulated in 2000.

Bone

Bone (#E3DAC9)
#E3DAC9

Bone
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E3DAC9
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(227, 218, 201)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 4, 11, 11)
HSV     (h, s, v)(39°, 11%, 89%)
Source Kelly-Moore
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color bone is displayed at left. This color is a representation of the color of bones.

The first recorded use of bone as a color name in English was in the first decade of the 19th century (exact year uncertain). [13]

Cranial bones Crocuta crocuta(Cranial bone) new.jpg
Cranial bones

Bone colored paint is often used by landlords to paint vacant apartments that are for rent since it hides dirt and stains better than white.

Vanilla

Vanilla (#F3E5AB)
#F3E5AB

Vanilla
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #F3E5AB
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(243, 229, 171)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 6, 30, 5)
HSV     (h, s, v)(48°, 30%, 95%)
Source ISCC NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color vanilla is a rich tint of off-white as well as a medium pale tint of yellow.

Vanilla orchid Vanilla1web.jpg
Vanilla orchid

The first recorded use of vanilla as a color name in English was in 1925. [14]

Flax

Flax (#EEDC82)
#EEDC82

Flax
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #EEDC82
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(238, 220, 130)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(7, 8, 60, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(50°, 45%, 93%)
SourceMaerz and Paul [15]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color flax is displayed at left.

A patch of flax in Poland Flax (Linum usitassimum).jpg
A patch of flax in Poland

The first recorded use of flax as a color name in English was in 1915. [16]

Navajo white (#FFDEAD)
#FFDEAD

Navajo white
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FFDEAD
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(255, 222, 173)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 13, 32, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(36°, 32%, 100%)
Source X11 [17]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Navajo white is a whitish orange color, and derives its name from its similarity to the background color of the Navajo Nation ethnic flag.

Flag of the Navajo Nation Navajo flag.svg
Flag of the Navajo Nation

In 1987, Navajo white was included as one of the X11 colors.

Alabaster

Alabaster (#EDEAE0)
#EDEAE0

Displayed at right is the color alabaster.

Alabaster
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #EDEAE0
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(237, 234, 224)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 1, 5, 7)
HSV     (h, s, v)(46.2°, 5.5%, 92.9%)
Source[Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
A slab alabaster Alabaster.jpg
A slab alabaster

There is no evidence that this color name was in use before the X11 color names were formulated in 1971.

See also

Related Research Articles

Tan (color) pale brown

Tan is a pale tone of brown. The name is derived from tannum used in the tanning of leather.

Copper (color) reddish brown color

Copper is a reddish brown color that resembles the metal copper.

Cerise is a deep to vivid reddish pink.

Champagne (color) color

The color champagne is a name given for various very pale tints of yellowish-orange that are close to beige. The color's name is derived from the typical color of the beverage Champagne.

Seashell (color) color

Seashell is an off-white color that resembles some of the very pale pinkish tones that are common in many seashells.

Spring green is a color included on the color wheel that is precisely halfway between cyan and green. When plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram it corresponds to a visual stimulus of 505 nanometers on the visible spectrum. Spring green is a pure chroma on the color wheel. In HSV color space, the expression of which is known as the RGB color wheel, spring green has a hue of 150°. Spring green is one of the tertiary colors on the RGB color wheel. It is also sometimes referred to as mint green.

Raspberry (color) color that resembles the color of raspberries

Raspberry is a color that resembles the color of raspberries.

Rose (color) color halfway between red and magenta on the HSV color wheel

Rose is the color halfway between red and magenta on the HSV color wheel, also known as the RGB color wheel, on which it is at hue angle of 330 degrees.

Amaranth (color) color

Amaranth is a reddish-rose color that is a representation of the color of the flower of the amaranth plant. The color shown is the color of the red amaranth flower, but there are other varieties of amaranth that have other colors of amaranth flowers; these colors are also shown below.

Shades of orange

In optics, orange has a wavelength between approximately 585 and 620 nm and a hue of 30° in HSV color space. In the RGB color space it is a secondary color numerically halfway between gamma-compressed red and yellow, as can be seen in the RGB color wheel. The complementary color of orange is azure. Orange pigments are largely in the ochre or cadmium families, and absorb mostly blue light.

Shades of green varieties of the color green

Varieties of the color green may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a green or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.

Bronze (color) metallic brown color which resembles the actual alloy bronze

At right is displayed the color bronze. Bronze is a metallic brown color which resembles the actual alloy bronze.

Desert sand (color) dark tan color

Desert sand is a very light and very weakly saturated reddish yellow colour which corresponds specifically to the coloration of sand. It may also be regarded as a deep tone of beige.

Blue-grey is a medium bluish-gray color. Another name for this color is livid; this color name comes from the Latin color term lividus meaning "'a dull leaden-blue color', and also used to describe the color of contused flesh, leading to the English expression 'black and blue'".

Shades of yellow

Varieties of the color yellow may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a yellow or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.

Shades of purple variations of the color purple

There are numerous variations of the color purple, a sampling of which are shown below.

Shades of brown

Brown is a composite color which can be produced by combining red, yellow, and black pigments, or by a combination of orange and black—as can be seen in the color box at right. The color brown shown at right has a hue code of 30, signifying that is a shade of orange. In the RGB color model used to create all the colors on computer and television screens, brown is made by combining red and green light at different intensities. Brown color names are often not very precise, and some shades, such as beige, can refer to a wide variety of colors, including shades of yellow or red. Browns are usually described as light or dark, reddish, yellowish, or gray-brown. There are no standardized names for shades of brown; the same shade may have different names on different color lists, and sometimes the one name can refer to several very different colors. The X11 color list of web colors lists seventeen different shades of brown, but the complete list of browns is much longer.

Shades of black colours that differ only slightly from pure black

Shades of black are colors that differ only slightly from pure black. These colors have a low lightness. From photometric point of view, a color which differs slightly from black always has low relative luminance. Variations of black include what are commonly termed off-black colors, which may be considered part of a neutral color scheme, usually in interior design as a part of a background for brighter colors. Black and dark gray colors are powerful accent colors that suggest weight, dignity, formality, and solemnity.

References

  1. Sickler, Dean (2010). The Keys to Color: A Decorator's Handbook. p. 11. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  2. Ryan, Elaine (2007). Color Your Life: How to Design Your Home with Colors from Your Heart. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 12–15. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  3. Mahnke, Frank H. (1996). Color, Environment, and Human Response. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 80. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 CSS Color Module Level 3 (W3C):
  5. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 204
  6. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 197; Color Sample of Ivory: Page 43 Plate 10 Color Sample B12
  7. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 204; Color Sample of Seashell: Page 43 Plate 10 Color Sample A4
  8. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 193; Color Sample of Cornsilk: Page 43 Plate 10 Color Sample G3
  9. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 193; Color Sample of Cream: Page 41 Plate 9 Color Sample D4
  10. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 190; Color Sample of Beige: Page 45 Plate 11 Color Sample C2
  11. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 192; Color Sample of Champagne: Page 45 Plate 11 Color Sample B3 Note: The color called Champagne in the color box above (color #F7E7CE) matches the color shown as Champagne in Maerz and Paul.
  12. web.Forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to color #EFDFBB (Dutch White):
  13. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 190
  14. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 206; Color Sample of Vanilla: Page 43 Plate 10 Color Sample C3
  15. The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called flax in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color flax is displayed on page 47, Plate 12, Color Sample B2.
  16. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 195; Color Sample of Flax: Page 47 Plate 12 Color Sample B2
  17. CSS Color Module Level 3: