Longwave

Last updated

Tuning dial on 1946 Dynatron Merlin T.69 console radio receiver, showing LW wavelengths between 800 and 2000 metres (150-375 kHz) Harumphy.radio dial.jpg
Tuning dial on 1946 Dynatron Merlin T.69 console radio receiver, showing LW wavelengths between 800 and 2000 metres (150–375 kHz)

In radio, longwave, long wave or long-wave, [1] and commonly abbreviated LW, [2] refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium-wave broadcasting band. The term is historic, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of longwave (LW), medium-wave (MW), and short-wave (SW) radio bands. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would then have been considered 'ultra-short'.

Contents

In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely, and its intended meaning varies. It may be used for radio wavelengths longer than 1,000 m [2] i.e. frequencies [note 1] up to 300  kilohertz (kHz), [3] [4] including the International Telecommunication Union's (ITU's) low frequency (LF, 30–300 kHz) and very low frequency (VLF, 3–30 kHz) bands. Sometimes the upper limit is taken to be higher than 300 kHz, but not above the start of the medium wave broadcast band at 520 kHz. [5]

In Europe, Africa, and large parts of Asia (International Telecommunication Union Region 1), where a range of frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5  kHz is used for AM broadcasting [6] in addition to the medium-wave band, the term longwave usually refers specifically to this broadcasting band, which falls wholly within the low frequency band of the radio spectrum (30–300 kHz). The "Longwave Club of America" (United States) is interested in "frequencies below the AM broadcast band" [5] (i.e., all frequencies below 520 kHz).

Propagation

Because of their long wavelength, radio waves in this frequency range can diffract over obstacles like mountain ranges and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth. This mode of propagation, called ground wave , is the main mode in the longwave band. [7] The attenuation of signal strength with distance by absorption in the ground is lower than at higher frequencies, and falls with frequency. Low frequency ground waves can be received up to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) from the transmitting antenna. Very low frequency waves below 30 kHz can be used to communicate at transcontinental distances, and can penetrate saltwater to depths of hundreds of feet, and is used by the military to communicate with submerged submarines.

Low frequency waves can also occasionally travel long distances by reflecting from the ionosphere (the actual mechanism is one of refraction), although this method, called skywave or "skip" propagation, is not as common as at higher frequencies. Reflection occurs at the ionospheric E layer or F layers. Skywave signals can be detected at distances exceeding 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the transmitting antenna. [8]

Non-broadcast use

Non-directional beacons

Non-directional beacons transmit continuously for the benefit of radio direction finders in marine and aeronautical navigation. They identify themselves by a callsign in Morse code. They can occupy any frequency in the range 190–1750 kHz. In North America, they occupy 190–535 kHz. In ITU Region 1 the lower limit is 280 kHz.

Time signals

There are institutional broadcast stations in the range that transmit coded time signals to radio clocks. For example:

Radio-controlled clocks receive their time calibration signals with built-in long-wave receivers. They use long-wave, rather than short-wave or medium-wave, because long-wave signals from the transmitter to the receiver always travel along the same direct path across the surface of the Earth, so the time delay correction for the signal travel time from the transmitting station to the receiver is always the same for any one receiving location.

Longwaves travel by groundwaves that hug the surface of the earth, unlike mediumwaves and shortwaves. Those higher-frequency signals do not follow the surface of the Earth beyond a few kilometers, but can travel as skywaves, ‘bouncing’ off different layers of the ionosphere at different times of day. These different propagation paths can make the time lag different for every signal received. The delay between when the long-wave signal was sent from the transmitter (when the coded time was correct) and when the signal is received by the clock (when the coded time is slightly late) depends on the overland distance between the clock and the transmitter and the speed of light through the air, which is also very nearly constant. Since the time lag is essentially the same, a single constant shift forward from the time coded in the signal can compensate for all long-wave signals received at any one location from the same time signal station.

Submarine communication

The militaries of the United Kingdom, Russian Federation, United States, Germany, India and Sweden use frequencies below 50 kHz to communicate with submerged submarines.

LowFER

In North America during the 1970s, the frequencies 167, 179 and 191 kHz were assigned to the short-lived Public Emergency Radio of the United States. Nowadays, in the United States, Part 15 of FCC regulations allows unlicensed use of 136 kHz and the 160–190 kHz band at output power up to 1 watt with up to a 15-meter antenna. This is called Low Frequency Experimental Radio (LowFER). The 190–435 kHz band is used for navigational beacons.

Historic

Swedish station SAQ, located at the Varberg Radio Station facility in Grimeton, is the last remaining operational Alexanderson alternator long-wave transmitter. Although the station ended regular service in 1996, it has been maintained as a World Heritage Site, and makes at least two demonstration transmissions yearly, on 17.2 kHz. [9]

Broadcasting

Longwave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1. The long-wave broadcasters are located in western, northern, central, and southeastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia, Algeria, and Morocco.

Typically, a larger geographic area can be covered by a long-wave broadcast transmitter compared to a medium-wave one. This is because ground-wave propagation suffers less attenuation due to limited ground conductivity at lower frequencies. [10]

Carrier frequencies

Long-wave carrier frequencies are exact multiples of 9 kHz; ranging from 153 to 279 kHz, except for a French-language station, Europe No. 1 in Germany. This station kept correctly spaced channels spacing for 4 months—only 7 years ago, and all Mongolian transmitters are 2 kHz above the internationally recognized channels.[ clarification needed ]

Until the 1970s, some long-wave stations in northern and eastern Europe and the Soviet Union operated on frequencies as high as 433 kHz. [11]

Some radio broadcasters, for instance Droitwich transmitting station in the UK, derive their carrier frequencies from an atomic clock, allowing their use as frequency standards. Droitwich also broadcasts a low bit-rate data channel, using narrow-shift phase-shift keying of the carrier, for Radio Teleswitch Services.

In 2014 and 2015 Russia closed all of its LW broadcast transmitters. [12]

Long-distance reception

Because long-wave signals can travel very long distances, some radio amateurs and shortwave listeners engage in an activity called DXing. DXers attempt to listen in to far away transmissions, and they will often send a reception report to the sending station to let them know where they were heard. After receiving a report, the sending station may mail the listener a QSL card to acknowledge this reception.

Reception of long-wave signals at distances in excess of 17,000 kilometres (11,000 mi) have been verified. [13]

List of long-wave broadcasting transmitters

Height diagram1.gif
Height diagram of the antenna towers and antenna masts of long-wave broadcasting stations

List of stations currently operating

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap  
Download coordinates as: KML  ·  GPX
  Denotes non-standard frequency (not divisible by 9)

[14] [15] [16] [17]

Freq.
(kHz)
Station
name
LanguageCountryLocationAerial
type
Power
(kW)
CoordinatesNotes
153 Radio Antena Satelor Romanian Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Brașov T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 250 metres (820 ft)200 45°45′22.27″N25°36′26.77″E / 45.7561861°N 25.6074361°E / 45.7561861; 25.6074361 (Bod Transmitter, mast 1)
45°45′13.16″N25°36′25.15″E / 45.7536556°N 25.6069861°E / 45.7536556; 25.6069861 (Bod Transmitter, mast 2)
Fifth state-owned radio station in Romania
162ANFR (TDF time signal, previously France Inter) French Flag of France.svg  France Allouis Two guyed lattice steel masts, height: 350 metres (1,150 ft) fed on the top1000
/
2000
47°10′10.45″N2°12′16.75″E / 47.1695694°N 2.2046528°E / 47.1695694; 2.2046528 (Allouis transmitter, mast 1)
47°10′25.34″N2°12′16.81″E / 47.1737056°N 2.2046694°E / 47.1737056; 2.2046694 (Allouis transmitter, mast 2)
Time signal phase-modulated; the frequency broadcast France Inter until the end of 2016. Now only the time signal for public clocks is transmitted. The ANFR is in charge of this.
164 MNB Radio 1 Mongolian Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Ulaanbaatar 259 metres (850 ft) tall cable-stayed steel truss mast [18] 500 47°47′54.67″N107°11′14.7″E / 47.7985194°N 107.187417°E / 47.7985194; 107.187417 (Ulaanbaatar transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
171 Médi 1 Arabic and FrenchFlag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Nador Directional aerial consisting of three guyed steel lattice masts, 380 metres (1,250 ft) tall1600 35°02′50.65″N2°55′22.81″W / 35.0474028°N 2.9230028°W / 35.0474028; -2.9230028 (Nador transmitter, mast 1)
35°02′30.27″N2°55′16.16″W / 35.0417417°N 2.9211556°W / 35.0417417; -2.9211556 (Nador transmitter, mast 2)
35°02′9.89″N2°55′9.52″W / 35.0360806°N 2.9193111°W / 35.0360806; -2.9193111 (Nador transmitter, mast 2)
Private and commercial Moroccan radio network
189 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2 Icelandic Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland Gufuskalar near Hellissandur Slight oval bi-directivity aerial, top loaded parallel connected triangular loops, mast as a common member, all guys insulated except two radiating diametrically opposed grounded top guys, loops closed by copper straps in the ground from two conducting guy grounding points to base of the guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height: 412 metres (1,352 ft)300 64°54′26″N23°55′19.5″W / 64.90722°N 23.922083°W / 64.90722; -23.922083 (Hellissandur long-wave mast) Iceland's national public service broadcaster
198 BBC Radio 4/BBC World Service English Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Droitwich (SFN)T-aerial on two guyed steel lattice masts insulated against ground with a height of 213 metres (699 ft)500 52°17′46.9″N2°6′24.32″W / 52.296361°N 2.1067556°W / 52.296361; -2.1067556 (Droitwich mast 1)
52°17′40.4″N2°6′20.62″W / 52.294556°N 2.1057278°W / 52.294556; -2.1057278 (Droitwich mast 2)
All four transmitters carry Radio teleswitch PSK data; Droitwich relays BBC World Service from 01:00 to 05:20 UTC
Burghead (SFN)Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 154 metres (505 ft)50 57°41′57.9″N3°28′4.78″W / 57.699417°N 3.4679944°W / 57.699417; -3.4679944 (Burghead Transmitter, main mast)
Westerglen (SFN)Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 152 metres (499 ft) 55°58′33″N3°48′58.8″W / 55.97583°N 3.816333°W / 55.97583; -3.816333 (Westerglen mast)
Dartford Tunnel (SFN)0.004
207 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2 IcelandicFlag of Iceland.svg  Iceland Eiðar near Egilsstaðir Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 221 metres (725 ft)100 65°22′22.93″N14°20′27.29″W / 65.3730361°N 14.3409139°W / 65.3730361; -14.3409139 (Eiðar long-wave mast) Iceland's national public service broadcaster
209 MNB Radio 1MongolianFlag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Choibalsan Cable-stayed steel truss mast, height: 275.84 metres (905.0 ft)75 48°00′17.27″N114°27′17.6″E / 48.0047972°N 114.454889°E / 48.0047972; 114.454889 (Choibalsan transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
Dalanzadgad 43°31′54.43″N104°24′41.4″E / 43.5317861°N 104.411500°E / 43.5317861; 104.411500 (Dalanzadgad transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
Olgii Omnidirectional antenna, 352.5 metres (1,156 ft) high guyed mast30 48°57′24.52″N89°58′13.15″E / 48.9568111°N 89.9703194°E / 48.9568111; 89.9703194 (Olgii transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
225 Polish Radio Programme One Polish Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Solec Kujawski Directional aerial, two guyed radio masts fed on the top, heights 330 metres (1,080 ft) and 289 metres (948 ft)1000 53°1′21.01″N18°15′32.63″E / 53.0225028°N 18.2590639°E / 53.0225028; 18.2590639 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 330 metres tall mast)
53°1′12.83″N18°15′44.06″E / 53.0202306°N 18.2622389°E / 53.0202306; 18.2622389 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 289 metres tall mast)
Earlier Konstantynów was used ( 52°22′3.91″N19°48′7.04″E / 52.3677528°N 19.8019556°E / 52.3677528; 19.8019556 (Konstantynów radio mast (the tallest structure in the world)) )
227 MNB Radio 1MongolianFlag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Altai Cable-stayed steel truss mast75 46°19′25.52″N96°15′31.2″E / 46.3237556°N 96.258667°E / 46.3237556; 96.258667 (Altai transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
234 RTL FrenchFlag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg Beidweiler Directional aerial, three guyed grounded steel lattice masts, 290 metres (950 ft) high, with vertical cage aerials 1500
/
2000
49°43′42.57″N6°19′4.29″E / 49.7284917°N 6.3178583°E / 49.7284917; 6.3178583 (Beidweiler radio mast)
49°43′49.2″N6°19′15.02″E / 49.730333°N 6.3208389°E / 49.730333; 6.3208389 (Beidweiler radio mast)
49°43′55.81″N6°19′25.67″E / 49.7321694°N 6.3237972°E / 49.7321694; 6.3237972 (Beidweiler radio mast)
Spare transmitter site Junglinster ( 49°43′0.35″N6°15′28.9″E / 49.7167639°N 6.258028°E / 49.7167639; 6.258028 (Junglinster Radio Tower) , 49°43′6.56″N6°15′40.27″E / 49.7184889°N 6.2611861°E / 49.7184889; 6.2611861 (Junglinster Radio Tower) , 49°43′12.75″N6°15′51.44″E / 49.7202083°N 6.2642889°E / 49.7202083; 6.2642889 (Junglinster Radio Tower) )
243 DR Langbølge Danish Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark Kalundborg Semi-directional Alexanderson antenna 153/333 degrees, two grounded 118 metres (387 ft) steel lattice radiating towers with interconnecting top wire capacitance50 55°40′39.27″N11°4′8.6″E / 55.6775750°N 11.069056°E / 55.6775750; 11.069056 (Kalundborg Transmitter long-wave tower 1)
55°40′32.91″N11°4′14.33″E / 55.6758083°N 11.0706472°E / 55.6758083; 11.0706472 (Kalundborg Transmitter long-wave tower 2)
Transmitting in time slots only
252 Radio Algeria
Chaîne 3
ArabicFlag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Tipaza Omnidirectional aerial, single guyed lattice steel mast, height 355 metres (1,165 ft)750
/
1500
36°33′58.14″N2°28′50.3″E / 36.5661500°N 2.480639°E / 36.5661500; 2.480639 (Tipaza long-wave transmitter) Half transmitter power during night
RTÉ Radio 1 English and IrishFlag of Ireland.svg  Ireland Clarkstown Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, insulated against ground, height 248 metres (814 ft)150
/
300
53°27′46″N6°40′39″W / 53.46278°N 6.67750°W / 53.46278; -6.67750 (Clarkstown long-wave mast) The only AM transmitter for RTÉ Radio 1, power is decreased at night to 100 kW, it was scheduled to cease broadcasting in June 2019 [19] In April 2019 it announced an antenna upgrade and the closure was postponed. [20]
270 ČRo Radiožurnál Czech Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic Topolná Directional aerial (maximum of radiation in east–west direction), two grounded 257 metres (843 ft) high guyed steel lattice mast with cage aerials 50 49°7′32.88″N17°30′45.97″E / 49.1258000°N 17.5127694°E / 49.1258000; 17.5127694 (Topolná transmitter, mast 1)
49°7′18.85″N17°30′41.78″E / 49.1219028°N 17.5116056°E / 49.1219028; 17.5116056 (Topolná transmitter, mast 2)
Broadcasting from Monday to Friday 05:00–24:00 CET and 06:00–24:00 CET at weekends

List of stations that have closed or are otherwise inactive

  Closed
Freq.
(kHz)
Station
name
CountryLocationAerial
type
Power
(kW)
CoordinatesNotes
153
Deutschlandfunk Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Donebach Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 363 m high, fed at the top500 49°33′40.25″N9°10′22.76″E / 49.5611806°N 9.1729889°E / 49.5611806; 9.1729889 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 1) ; 49°33′33.53″N9°10′50.82″E / 49.5593139°N 9.1807833°E / 49.5593139; 9.1807833 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 2) closed
Radio Mayak Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan Ashgabat 650closed
YuFMFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Taldom transmitter Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 257 m height300 56°45′30.04″N37°37′12.17″E / 56.7583444°N 37.6200472°E / 56.7583444; 37.6200472 (Taldom longwave transmitter, 153 kHz-mast) closed
NRK P1/P2 Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Ingøy Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast 352 metres (1,155 ft) tall, fed at the top, ex-Omega equipment100 71°4′17″N24°5′14″E / 71.07139°N 24.08722°E / 71.07139; 24.08722 (Ingøy long-wave transmitter) closed
Radio RossiiPopova near Komsomolsk-na-Amure1200 50°39′16.75″N136°54′46.9″E / 50.6546528°N 136.913028°E / 50.6546528; 136.913028 (Popova longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Algerie
Chaîne 1
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Kénadsa Three 357 metres (1,171 ft) tall guyed masts500inactive
162TRT Radyo 4Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Agri Two guyed lattice steel masts, height 250 m1000 39°46′23.11″N43°02′14.55″E / 39.7730861°N 43.0373750°E / 39.7730861; 43.0373750 (Agri transmitter, Mast 1) ; 39°46′25.86″N43°02′33.32″E / 39.7738500°N 43.0425889°E / 39.7738500; 43.0425889 (Agri transmitter, Mast 2) inactive
Kanal UzbekistanFlag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan Tashkent 150closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Norilsk Omnidirectional antenna, 205 m high antenna150 69°22′46″N87°6′26″E / 69.37944°N 87.10722°E / 69.37944; 87.10722 (Norilsk transmitter) ?closed
Radio Yuldash, Radio RossiiUfa 54°46′19.73″N56°0′17.02″E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E / 54.7721472; 56.0047278 (Ufa Radio Majak transmitter) closed
171
NPO Radio 1Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Lopik 500closed
Radio-1 Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus Lapichi?500/1000closed
Voice of Russia Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Oktyabrsky257 m metres tall antenna.1200closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Bolshakovo near Kaliningrad Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)600 54°54′42.62″N21°43′2.32″E / 54.9118389°N 21.7173111°E / 54.9118389; 21.7173111 (Bolshakovo longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Ukraine 1 Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Krasne near Lviv Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)150/75 49°54′12.85″N24°41′15.22″E / 49.9035694°N 24.6875611°E / 49.9035694; 24.6875611 (Krasne longwave transmitter) inactive
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia RadugaOmnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)250 55°29′16″N83°41′28″E / 55.48778°N 83.69111°E / 55.48778; 83.69111 (Raduga longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Murmansk Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)150 69°00′59.07″N32°55′57.17″E / 69.0164083°N 32.9325472°E / 69.0164083; 32.9325472 (Murmansk longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Noginsk Omnidirectional antenna, 242 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)150 55°50′0.89″N38°20′35.18″E / 55.8335806°N 38.3431056°E / 55.8335806; 38.3431056 (Noginsk longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Ezhva near Syktyvkar Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)150 61°49′09.34″N50°41′26.42″E / 61.8192611°N 50.6906722°E / 61.8192611; 50.6906722 (Zelenets longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Tulagino near Yakutsk Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 6 ring masts150 62°14′15.01″N129°48′10.4″E / 62.2375028°N 129.802889°E / 62.2375028; 129.802889 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, central mast) ; 62°14′22.82″N129°48′0.85″E / 62.2396722°N 129.8002361°E / 62.2396722; 129.8002361 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′15.06″N129°47′51.2″E / 62.2375167°N 129.797556°E / 62.2375167; 129.797556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′7.27″N129°48′0.82″E / 62.2353528°N 129.8002278°E / 62.2353528; 129.8002278 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′7.31″N129°48′20″E / 62.2353639°N 129.80556°E / 62.2353639; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′15.06″N129°48′29.7″E / 62.2375167°N 129.808250°E / 62.2375167; 129.808250 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′22.82″N129°48′20″E / 62.2396722°N 129.80556°E / 62.2396722; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) closed
177
Deutschlandradio Kultur Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Zehlendorf near Oranienburg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial mounted on 359.7 m high guyed mast, triangle aerial on 3 150 m high guyed steel lattice masts500 52°47′41.87″N13°23′9.5″E / 52.7949639°N 13.385972°E / 52.7949639; 13.385972 (Zehlendorf Longwave Mast) closed
180 TRT Radyo 1 Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Polatli Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed latice steel mast1200 39°45′22.46″N32°25′6.24″E / 39.7562389°N 32.4184000°E / 39.7562389; 32.4184000 (Polatli Longwave Mast) inactive
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Yelizovo near Petropavlovsk-KamchatskiyOmnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast150 53°11′4.92″N158°24′2.24″E / 53.1847000°N 158.4006222°E / 53.1847000; 158.4006222 (Yelizovo Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Mayak Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, 200 m high guyed lattice steel mast150 51°50′22.5″N113°44′8.9″E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E / 51.839583; 113.735806 (Chita Longwave Mast) inactive
Kazakh Radio 1 Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 250closed
Kazakh Radio 1 Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Aktyubinsk 150closed
Kazakh Radio 1 Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Chimkent 50closed
183
Europe 1 Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Felsberg-Berus Directional aerial, four ground insulated steel lattice masts 270 metres (890 ft), 276 metres (906 ft), 280 metres (920 ft) and 282 metres (925 ft) tall; spare aerial: two ground insulated steel lattice masts, height: 234 metres (768 ft)750Main antenna:
49°17′4.2″N6°40′57.73″E / 49.284500°N 6.6827028°E / 49.284500; 6.6827028 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 1)
49°16′55.86″N6°40′46.16″E / 49.2821833°N 6.6794889°E / 49.2821833; 6.6794889 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 2)
49°16′47.55″N6°40′34.48″E / 49.2798750°N 6.6762444°E / 49.2798750; 6.6762444 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 3)
49°16′39.18″N6°40′22.72″E / 49.2775500°N 6.6729778°E / 49.2775500; 6.6729778 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 4)
Spare antenna:
49°17′8.93″N6°39′31.71″E / 49.2858139°N 6.6588083°E / 49.2858139; 6.6588083 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 1)
49°17′1.54″N6°39′23.6″E / 49.2837611°N 6.656556°E / 49.2837611; 6.656556 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 2)
closed
189
Rai Radio 1 Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Caltanissetta Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 282 m10 37°29′53.05″N14°04′04.08″E / 37.4980694°N 14.0678000°E / 37.4980694; 14.0678000 (Caltanissetta transmitter) closed
Sveriges Radio P1 Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Orlunda, near Motala 300 58°25′37″N14°58′38″E / 58.42694°N 14.97722°E / 58.42694; 14.97722 (Orlunda radio transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Kostantinogradovka near Blagoveshchensk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)1200 50°30′23.58″N128°18′32.9″E / 50.5065500°N 128.309139°E / 50.5065500; 128.309139 (Blagoveschensk transmitter) closed
Sakartvelos RadioFlag of Georgia.svg  Georgia Dusheti250 42°03′1.76″N44°40′37.56″E / 42.0504889°N 44.6771000°E / 42.0504889; 44.6771000 (Dusheti transmitter) inactive
198
Polskie Radio Parlament/Radio Polonia Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Raszyn Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, 335 m high200 52°4′21.72″N20°53′2.15″E / 52.0727000°N 20.8839306°E / 52.0727000; 20.8839306 (Raszyn Radio Mast) closed [21]
Chaine 1Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Berkaoui2000closed
Radio Mayak Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Saint Petersburg – OlginoOmnidirectional aerial, 205 m high guyed steel lattice mast150 59°59′30.01″N30°07′38.81″E / 59.9916694°N 30.1274472°E / 59.9916694; 30.1274472 (Olgino Radio Mast) inactive
Radio MayakFlag of Russia.svg  Russia AngarskBefore 2001: T-antenna spun between 2 205 m tall guyed steel lattice mast250 52°31′51.95″N103°52′9.46″E / 52.5310972°N 103.8692944°E / 52.5310972; 103.8692944 (Angarsk Radio Mast) , possibly 52°26′10.17″N103°41′1.05″E / 52.4361583°N 103.6836250°E / 52.4361583; 103.6836250 (Irkutsk Radio Mast) closed
Radio MayakFlag of Russia.svg  Russia AvsyuninoOmnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)150 55°35′13.75″N39°09′57.84″E / 55.5871528°N 39.1660667°E / 55.5871528; 39.1660667 (Avsyunino Radio Mast) inactive
Radio MayakFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Ufa150 54°46′19.73″N56°0′17.02″E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E / 54.7721472; 56.0047278 (Ufa Radio Majak transmitter) closed
Radio 1 Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan Krasnaya Rechka near Bishkek 150 42°52′51.9″N74°59′43.79″E / 42.881083°N 74.9954972°E / 42.881083; 74.9954972 (Krasnorechenka transmitter) closed
207
RNE Radio 5 Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Logroño Directional antenna, 300 metres tall.>100closed
Radio Ukraine 1 Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Brovary Omnidirectional antenna, 259.6 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)600 50°29′48.8″N30°48′9.2″E / 50.496889°N 30.802556°E / 50.496889; 30.802556 (Brovary Longwave Mast) closed
Radio al-Urdunniya Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan Al Karanah? 31°45′55.47″N36°28′44.97″E / 31.7654083°N 36.4791583°E / 31.7654083; 36.4791583 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast) ; 31°45′29.66″N36°28′59.11″E / 31.7582389°N 36.4830861°E / 31.7582389; 36.4830861 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast) closed
Radio MayakFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Tynda Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 244 m150 55°05′19.31″N124°43′9.7″E / 55.0886972°N 124.719361°E / 55.0886972; 124.719361 (Tynda Longwave Mast) closed
Deutschlandfunk Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Aholming Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 265 m high, fed at the top500 48°43′50.55″N12°55′47.04″E / 48.7307083°N 12.9297333°E / 48.7307083; 12.9297333 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 1) ; 48°43′38.46″N12°56′2.06″E / 48.7273500°N 12.9339056°E / 48.7273500; 12.9339056 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 2) closed
SNRT Al Idaâ Al-WataniaFlag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Azilal Demnate304.8 metres (1,000 ft) tall guyed mast400inactive
209
Radio Mayak Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Tynda 150closed
216
NRK P1 Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Lambertseter near Oslo 200closed
Radio Monte Carlo Info Flag of France.svg  France Roumoules Directional aerial, three 300 metres (980 ft) high guyed steel lattice masts, 330 metres (1,080 ft) high guyed steel lattice mast as backup aerial700
/
1400
43°47′41.45″N6°8′48.41″E / 43.7948472°N 6.1467806°E / 43.7948472; 6.1467806 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 1)
43°47′34.56″N6°8′59.09″E / 43.7929333°N 6.1497472°E / 43.7929333; 6.1497472 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 2)
43°47′27.7″N6°9′9.85″E / 43.791028°N 6.1527361°E / 43.791028; 6.1527361 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 3) ,
Backup antenna:
43°47′36.29″N6°9′30.61″E / 43.7934139°N 6.1585028°E / 43.7934139; 6.1585028 (Roumoules transmitter, long-wave backup mast)
closed
Azerbaijan RadioFlag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Baku 500closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia KrasnoyarskOmnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 210 m tall150 56°02′02.97″N92°45′32.31″E / 56.0341583°N 92.7589750°E / 56.0341583; 92.7589750 (Krasnoyarsk Longwave Transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia AtamanovkaDirectional antenna150 51°50′02″N113°43′10″E / 51.83389°N 113.71944°E / 51.83389; 113.71944 (Atamanovka Longwave Transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Birobidzhan 2 guyed masts, 260 m high30 48°44′19.37″N132°48′3.95″E / 48.7387139°N 132.8010972°E / 48.7387139; 132.8010972 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter) ; 48°44′14.71″N132°48′32.6″E / 48.7374194°N 132.809056°E / 48.7374194; 132.809056 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter) closed
225 TRT GAP Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Van Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed lattice steel mast600 38°35′11.47″N43°15′59.17″E / 38.5865194°N 43.2664361°E / 38.5865194; 43.2664361 (Van transmitter) inactive
Radio RossiiFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Surgut Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)1000 61°23′35″N72°53′20″E / 61.39306°N 72.88889°E / 61.39306; 72.88889 (Surgut transmitter) closed
234
Radio Moldova Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Grigoriopol 1000closed
Radio JamahiriyaFlag of Libya.svg  Libya Yafran near Tripoli 1000closed
Radio 1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Krasny Bor transmitter near Sankt-PeterburgOmnidirectional aerial, 271.5 metres tall guyed mast with cage antenna1200 59°39′12.32″N30°41′50.12″E / 59.6534222°N 30.6972556°E / 59.6534222; 30.6972556 (Krasny Bor transmitter) closed
Public Armenian RadioFlag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Kamo ?500?closed
Radio RossiiFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Koskovo near MurmanskOmnidirectional aerial, 210 m tall guyed mast250 64°21′35.83″N41°23′4.01″E / 64.3599528°N 41.3844472°E / 64.3599528; 41.3844472 (Koskovo transmitter) inactive
Radio 1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Novosemeykino near Samara Four 205 metres tall towers insulated against ground arranged in a square2000 53°22′59.44″N50°20′13.84″E / 53.3831778°N 50.3371778°E / 53.3831778; 50.3371778 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′59.53″N50°20′19.23″E / 53.3832028°N 50.3386750°E / 53.3832028; 50.3386750 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′56.2″N50°20′13.94″E / 53.382278°N 50.3372056°E / 53.382278; 50.3372056 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′56.31″N50°20′19.32″E / 53.3823083°N 50.3387000°E / 53.3823083; 50.3387000 (Novosemeykino transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Raduzhnyy near Magadan Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)1000 59°42′51.14″N150°11′29.9″E / 59.7142056°N 150.191639°E / 59.7142056; 150.191639 (Raduzhnyy transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Odinsk near Irkutsk Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)500 52°24′57.43″N103°42′0.29″E / 52.4159528°N 103.7000806°E / 52.4159528; 103.7000806 (Odinsk transmitter) closed
Radio 1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Koskovo near Arkhangelsk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)500 64°21′50.92″N41°24′41.8″E / 64.3641444°N 41.411611°E / 64.3641444; 41.411611 (Koskovo transmitter) closed
243TRT Radyo 4Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Erzurum Omnidirectional antenna, 185 m high guyed lattice steel mast200 39°59′53.59″N41°06′40.95″E / 39.9982194°N 41.1113750°E / 39.9982194; 41.1113750 (Erzurum Transmitter) inactive
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Razdolnoye near Ussuriysk Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)1000 43°32′18″N131°55′46″E / 43.53833°N 131.92944°E / 43.53833; 131.92944 (Razdoly'ne Transmitter) closed
Kazakh Radio 2 Shalkar Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Karaganda Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 254 m height1000 49°47′32.45″N73°01′40.15″E / 49.7923472°N 73.0278194°E / 49.7923472; 73.0278194 (Karaganda Transmitter) closed
Kazakh Radio 2 Shalkar Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 1000closed
252
Armenian Radio 1Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Kamo 150?closed
Yle Radio 1Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Lahti 200 60°58′48″N25°38′39″E / 60.980137°N 25.644195°E / 60.980137; 25.644195 (Lahti longwave transmitter) , 60°58′43″N25°38′57″E / 60.978747°N 25.649155°E / 60.978747; 25.649155 (Lahti longwave transmitter) closed
Radio TojikstonFlag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan Dushanbe 150closed
Radio RossiiFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Kazan Omnidirectional aerial, 152 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)100 55°49′6.3″N49°10′24.64″E / 55.818417°N 49.1735111°E / 55.818417; 49.1735111 (Kazan longwave mast) closed (9 January 2014) [22]
261
Radioropa Info Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Burg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial on 324 m high guyed, grounded steel lattice mast, 210 m high steel tube mast, insulated against ground200 52°17′12.93″N11°53′50.52″E / 52.2869250°N 11.8973667°E / 52.2869250; 11.8973667 (Burg transmitter, main mast) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Taldom Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 5 ring masts, height of central mast 275 m2500 56°43′59.86″N37°39′47.51″E / 56.7332944°N 37.6631972°E / 56.7332944; 37.6631972 (Taldom transmitter, Central Mast) ; 56°44′10.32″N37°39′46.53″E / 56.7362000°N 37.6629250°E / 56.7362000; 37.6629250 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°44′2.54″N37°39′29.17″E / 56.7340389°N 37.6581028°E / 56.7340389; 37.6581028 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°43′51.09″N37°39′37.2″E / 56.7308583°N 37.660333°E / 56.7308583; 37.660333 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°43′51.76″N37°39′59.6″E / 56.7310444°N 37.666556°E / 56.7310444; 37.666556 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°44′3.64″N37°40′5.34″E / 56.7343444°N 37.6681500°E / 56.7343444; 37.6681500 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 260 m high150 51°50′22.5″N113°44′8.9″E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E / 51.839583; 113.735806 (Chita Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Tyumen Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high150closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Vorkuta Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high50closed
Radio Horizont Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Vakarel One of the few Blaw-Knox Towers in Europe, 215 m high75 42°34′35.18″N23°41′55.52″E / 42.5764389°N 23.6987556°E / 42.5764389; 23.6987556 (Vakarel Transmitter) closed
270
Radio RossiiFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Orenburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 137 m height25 51°46′44.37″N55°06′23.01″E / 51.7789917°N 55.1063917°E / 51.7789917; 55.1063917 (Orenburg transmitter) closed
Radio 1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Khabarovsk 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 164 m150 48°30′43.48″N135°07′02.24″E / 48.5120778°N 135.1172889°E / 48.5120778; 135.1172889 (Chabarovsk transmitter) ; 48°30′48.75″N135°07′18.15″E / 48.5135417°N 135.1217083°E / 48.5135417; 135.1217083 (Chabarovsk transmitter) closed
Radio SlovoFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Novosibirsk ?150?closed
279
Radio RossiiFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Gorno-Altaisk Omnidirectional antenna, 143m high guyed lattice steel mast50 51°58′1.12″N85°54′54.68″E / 51.9669778°N 85.9151889°E / 51.9669778; 85.9151889 (Gorno-Altaisk transmitter) closed
Radio RossiiFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Selenginsk Omnidirectional aerial, 260 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna (ARRT-antenna)150 52°02′17.52″N106°56′25.6″E / 52.0382000°N 106.940444°E / 52.0382000; 106.940444 (Selenginsk transmitter) closed
Radio RossiiFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Vestochka near Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 258 m high1000 46°50′35″N142°53′44″E / 46.84306°N 142.89556°E / 46.84306; 142.89556 (Vestochka transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Yekaterinburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 256 m height, fed at the top150 56°53′22.46″N60°41′30.22″E / 56.8895722°N 60.6917278°E / 56.8895722; 60.6917278 (Yekaterinburg longwave transmitter) closed
BR Pershy Kanal/BR Radyjo StalitsaFlag of Belarus.svg  Belarus Sasnovy353.5 metres tall guyed mast500 53°24′31″N28°31′57″E / 53.40861°N 28.53250°E / 53.40861; 28.53250 (Sasnovy transmitter) closed
TR1 Watan RadioFlag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan Ashgabat Cable-stayed steel truss mast150 37°51′14.89″N58°21′57.99″E / 37.8541361°N 58.3661083°E / 37.8541361; 58.3661083 (Ashgabat transmitter) inactive
MusicMann 279Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Isle of Man Crossed fieldnever launched

See also

Notes

  1. Wave length and frequency are inversely related, with lower frequencies corresponding to longer wavelengths; 300 kHz corresponds to 1,000 m.

Related Research Articles

Shortwave radio radio frequencies in the range of 1.6-30 megahertz (ITU region 1) or 1.7-30 megahertz (ITU region 2)

Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies. There is no official definition of the band, but the range always includes all of the high frequency band (HF), which extends from 3–30 MHz ; above the medium frequency band (MF), to the bottom of the VHF band.

Radio wave Type of electromagnetic radiation

Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Radio waves have frequencies as high as 300 gigahertz (GHz) to as low as 30 hertz (Hz). At 300 GHz, the corresponding wavelength is 1 mm, and at 30 Hz is 10,000 km. The wavelength of a radio wave can be anywhere from shorter than a grain of rice to longer than the radius of the Earth. Like all other electromagnetic waves, radio waves travel at the speed of light in vacuum. They are generated by electric charges undergoing acceleration, such as time varying electric currents. Naturally occurring radio waves are emitted by lightning and astronomical objects.

Medium wave Part of the medium frequency radio band

Medium wave (MW) is the part of the medium frequency (MF) radio band used mainly for AM radio broadcasting. The spectrum provides about 120 channels with limited sound quality. During daytime, only local stations can be received. Propagation in the night allows strong signals within a range of about 2000 km. This can cause massive interference because on most channels, about 20 to 50 transmitters operate simultaneously worldwide. In addition to that, amplitude modulation (AM) is prone to interference by all sorts of electronic devices, especially power supplies and computers. Strong transmitters cover larger areas than on the FM broadcast band but require more energy. Digital modes are possible but have not reached the momentum yet.

Very low frequency The range 3-30 kHz of the electromagnetic spectrum

Very low frequency or VLF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3–30 kHz, corresponding to wavelengths from 100 to 10 km, respectively. The band is also known as the myriameter band or myriameter wave as the wavelengths range from one to ten myriameters. Due to its limited bandwidth, audio (voice) transmission is highly impractical in this band, and therefore only low data rate coded signals are used. The VLF band is used for a few radio navigation services, government time radio stations and for secure military communication. Since VLF waves can penetrate at least 40 meters (120 ft) into saltwater, they are used for military communication with submarines.

Low frequency (LF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 30–300 kHz. Since its wavelengths range from 10–1 km, respectively, it is also known as the kilometre band or kilometre wave.

Medium frequency The range 300-3000 kHz of the electromagnetic spectrum

Medium frequency (MF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 300 kilohertz (kHz) to 3 megahertz (MHz). Part of this band is the medium wave (MW) AM broadcast band. The MF band is also known as the hectometer band as the wavelengths range from ten to one hectometer. Frequencies immediately below MF are denoted low frequency (LF), while the first band of higher frequencies is known as high frequency (HF). MF is mostly used for AM radio broadcasting, navigational radio beacons, maritime ship-to-shore communication, and transoceanic air traffic control.

High frequency The range 3-30 MHz of the electromagnetic spectrum

High frequency (HF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves between 3 and 30 megahertz (MHz). It is also known as the decameter band or decameter wave as its wavelengths range from one to ten decameters. Frequencies immediately below HF are denoted medium frequency (MF), while the next band of higher frequencies is known as the very high frequency (VHF) band. The HF band is a major part of the shortwave band of frequencies, so communication at these frequencies is often called shortwave radio. Because radio waves in this band can be reflected back to Earth by the ionosphere layer in the atmosphere – a method known as "skip" or "skywave" propagation – these frequencies are suitable for long-distance communication across intercontinental distances and for mountainous terrains which prevent line-of-sight communications. The band is used by international shortwave broadcasting stations (2.31–25.82 MHz), aviation communication, government time stations, weather stations, amateur radio and citizens band services, among other uses.

Radio propagation behavior of radio waves as they travel, or are propagated, from one point to another, or into various parts of the atmosphere

Radio propagation is the behavior of radio waves as they travel, or are propagated, from one point to another, or into various parts of the atmosphere. As a form of electromagnetic radiation, like light waves, radio waves are affected by the phenomena of reflection, refraction, diffraction, absorption, polarization, and scattering. Understanding the effects of varying conditions on radio propagation has many practical applications, from choosing frequencies for international shortwave broadcasters, to designing reliable mobile telephone systems, to radio navigation, to operation of radar systems.

Digital Radio Mondiale Digital radio broadcasting standard

Digital Radio Mondiale is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for analogue radio broadcasting including AM broadcasting, particularly shortwave, and FM broadcasting. DRM is more spectrally efficient than AM and FM, allowing more stations, at higher quality, into a given amount of bandwidth, using xHE-AAC audio coding format. Various other MPEG-4 and Opus codecs are also compatible, but the standard now specifies xHE-AAC.

Skywave propagation of radio waves via the ionosphere

In radio communication, skywave or skip refers to the propagation of radio waves reflected or refracted back toward Earth from the ionosphere, an electrically charged layer of the upper atmosphere. Since it is not limited by the curvature of the Earth, skywave propagation can be used to communicate beyond the horizon, at intercontinental distances. It is mostly used in the shortwave frequency bands.

CHU is the call sign of a shortwave time signal radio station operated by the Institute for National Measurement Standards of the National Research Council of Canada.

Non-directional beacon radio transmitter which emits radio waves in all directions

A non-directional (radio) beacon (NDB) is a radio transmitter at a known location, used as an aviation or marine navigational aid. As the name implies, the signal transmitted does not include inherent directional information, in contrast to other navigational aids such as low frequency radio range, VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) and TACAN. NDB signals follow the curvature of the Earth, so they can be received at much greater distances at lower altitudes, a major advantage over VOR. However, NDB signals are also affected more by atmospheric conditions, mountainous terrain, coastal refraction and electrical storms, particularly at long range.

Warsaw radio mast former radio mast in Poland

The Warsaw Radio Mast was a telecommunications tower located near the town of Gąbin, central Poland, and the world's tallest structure at 646.38 metres (2,120.7 ft) from 1974 until its collapse on 8 August 1991. It was the second tallest structure ever built, being surpassed as the tallest by the Burj Khalifa tower in the United Arab Emirates, completed in 2009.

RTÉ Radio 1 is the principal radio channel of Irish public-service broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann and is the direct descendant of Dublin radio station 2RN, which began broadcasting on a regular basis on 1 January 1926. The station is a rare modern example of a mixed radio channel, offering a wide spectrum of programming which is mainly speech-based but also includes a fair amount of music.

Roumoules radio transmitter

The Roumoules transmitter is the main broadcasting facility for longwave and mediumwave broadcasting of Radio Monte Carlo near Roumoules, France and is owned by Monaco Media Diffusion. The 1000 and 2000kW transmitters installed are among the most powerful in the world and can be received well at nighttime throughout Europe.

Droitwich Transmitting Station transmitting station

The Droitwich transmitting station is a large broadcasting facility for long-wave and medium-wave transmissions, established in 1934 in the civil parish of Dodderhill, just outside the village of Wychbold, near Droitwich in Worcestershire, England. The site is the location of the British Broadcasting Corporation's most powerful long-wave transmitter, which together with the two Scottish long-wave transmitters at Burghead and Westerglen forms a network broadcasting on the same frequency. The masts can be seen to the east from the M5 motorway, between Droitwich and Bromsgrove, as well as to the west from the Herefordshire/Worcestershire border. At night, the two sets of aircraft warning lights are visible from a long distance. Due to the bright red lights illuminated at night, some locals have renamed the site "the devil horns of Wychbold". The station is owned and operated by Arqiva.

Grimeton Radio Station working life museum in Varberg Municipality, Sweden

Grimeton Radio Station in southern Sweden, close to Varberg in Halland, is an early longwave transatlantic wireless telegraphy station built in 1922-1924, that has been preserved as a historical site. From the 1920s through the 1940s it was used to transmit telegram traffic by Morse code to North America and other countries, and during World War 2 was Sweden's only telecommunication link with the rest of the world. It is the only remaining example of an early pre-electronic radio transmitter technology called an Alexanderson alternator. It was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2004, with the statement: "Grimeton Radio Station, Varberg is an outstanding monument representing the process of development of communication technology in the period following the First World War." The radio station is also an anchor site for the European Route of Industrial Heritage. The transmitter is still in operational condition, and each year on a day called Alexanderson Day is started up and transmits brief Morse code test transmissions, which can be received all over Europe.

Mainflingen transmitter mediumwave transmission facility in Germany

The Mainflingen mediumwave transmitter is a mediumwave transmission facility south of the A3 motorway near Mainflingen, Hesse, Germany. Mainflingen was the first mediumwave transmitter for the radio station Deutschlandfunk. It went into service in 1962 with a transmission power of 50 kW, on a frequency of 1538 kHz, at the upper end of the mediumwave band. This frequency has a bad groundwave propagation and therefore a low range at daytime, but an excellent skywave propagation with a long range at night.

Near vertical incidence skywave, or NVIS, is a skywave radio-wave propagation path that provides usable signals in the distances range — usually 0–650 km (0–400 miles). It is used for military and paramilitary communications, broadcasting, especially in the tropics, and by radio amateurs for nearby contacts circumventing line-of-sight barriers. The radio waves travel near-vertically upwards into the ionosphere, where they are refracted back down and can be received within a circular region up to 650 km from the transmitter. If the frequency is too high, refraction fails to occur and if it is too low, absorption in the ionospheric D layer may reduce the signal strength.

MW DX, short for mediumwave DXing, is the hobby of receiving distant mediumwave radio stations. MW DX is similar to TV and FM DX in that broadcast band (BCB) stations are the reception targets. However, the nature of the lower frequencies used by mediumwave radio stations is very much different from that of the VHF and UHF bands used by FM and TV broadcast stations, and therefore involves different receiving equipment, signal propagation, and reception techniques.

References

  1. Graf, Rudolf F. (1999). "1000+meters&q=longwave#v=snippet&q=longwave&f=false Modern Dictionary of Electronics, 7th Ed. US: Newnes. p. 23. ISBN   0750698667.
  2. 1 2 "long wave". Macmillan Online Dictionary. Macmillan Publishers Limited. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  3. "long wave". Cambridge Online Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016 via Cambridge.org.
  4. Graf, Rudolf F. (1999). Modern Dictionary of Electronics (7th ed.). Newnes. p. 437. ISBN   0750698667.
  5. 1 2 "About LWCA". Longwave Club of America. Archived from the original on 27 June 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  6. Barun Roy (September 2009). Enter The World of Mass Media. Pustak Mahal. p. 21. ISBN   81-223-1080-X.
  7. Seybold, John S. (2005). Introduction to RF Propagation. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 55–58. ISBN   0471743682.
  8. Alan Melia, G3NYK. "Understanding LF Propagation". Radcom. Bedford, UK: Radio Society of Great Britain. 85 (9): 32.
  9. SAQ Transmission. Archived 7 April 2015 at Wikiwix Radiostation Grimeton SAQ. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  10. Ground-wave propagation curves for frequencies between 10 kHz and 30 MHz. Archived 24 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine ITU-R Recommendation P.368-9
  11. Guide to Broadcasting Stations (17th ed.). Butterworth. 1973. p. 18. ISBN   0-592-00081-8.
  12. "Russia says 'So long, long-wave'". 7 May 2018. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018 via www.bbc.co.uk.
  13. http://www.classaxe.com/dx/ndb/rww/stats#top Archived 16 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  14. de:Langwellenrundfunk [ better source needed ]
  15. World Radio TV Handbook
  16. "MWLIST quick and easy: Europe, Africa and Middle East". www.mwlist.org. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
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