Longwave

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The tuning dial on a 1946 Dynatron Merlin T.69 console radio receiver, showing long-wave wavelengths between 800 and 2000 metres, corresponding to frequencies between 375 and 150 kHz Harumphy.radio dial.jpg
The tuning dial on a 1946 Dynatron Merlin T.69 console radio receiver, showing long-wave wavelengths between 800 and 2000 metres, corresponding to frequencies between 375 and 150 kHz

In radio, longwave, long wave or long-wave, [1] and commonly abbreviated LW, [2] refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium-wave broadcasting band. The term is historic, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of longwave (LW), medium-wave (MW), and short-wave (SW) radio bands. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would then have been considered 'ultra-short'.

Radio spectrum part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 3 Hz to 3000 GHz (3 THz)

The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum with frequencies from 30 Hertz to 300 GHz. Electromagnetic waves in this frequency range, called radio waves, are extremely widely used in modern technology, particularly in telecommunication. To prevent interference between different users, the generation and transmission of radio waves is strictly regulated by national laws, coordinated by an international body, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

Wavelength spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the waves shape repeats, and thus the inverse of the spatial frequency

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats. It is thus the inverse of the spatial frequency. Wavelength is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves, as well as other spatial wave patterns. Wavelength is commonly designated by the Greek letter lambda (λ). The term wavelength is also sometimes applied to modulated waves, and to the sinusoidal envelopes of modulated waves or waves formed by interference of several sinusoids.

Medium wave

Medium wave (MW) is the part of the medium frequency (MF) radio band used mainly for AM radio broadcasting. For Europe the MW band ranges from 526.5 kHz to 1606.5 kHz, using channels spaced every 9 kHz, and in North America an extended MW broadcast band ranges from 525 kHz to 1705 kHz, using 10 kHz spaced channels. The term is a historic one, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was divided on the basis of the wavelength of the waves into long wave (LW), medium wave, and short wave (SW) radio bands.

Contents

In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely, and its intended meaning varies. It may be used for radio wavelengths longer than 1,000 m [2] i.e. frequencies [note 1] up to 300  kilohertz (kHz), [3] [4] including the International Telecommunications Union's (ITU's) low frequency (LF, 30–300 kHz) and very low frequency (VLF, 3–30 kHz) bands. Sometimes the upper limit is taken to be higher than 300 kHz, but not above the start of the medium wave broadcast band at 525 kHz. [5]

Low frequency or LF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 30 kilohertz (kHz) to 300 kHz. As its wavelengths range from ten kilometres to one kilometre, respectively, it is also known as the kilometre band or kilometre wave.

Very low frequency radio waves

Very low frequency or VLF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kilohertz (kHz), corresponding to wavelengths from 100 to 10 kilometers, respectively. The band is also known as the myriameter band or myriameter wave as the wavelengths range from one to ten myriameters. Due to its limited bandwidth, audio (voice) transmission is highly impractical in this band, and therefore only low data rate coded signals are used. The VLF band is used for a few radio navigation services, government time radio stations and for secure military communication. Since VLF waves can penetrate at least 40 meters (120 ft) into saltwater, they are used for military communication with submarines.

In Europe, Africa, and large parts of Asia (International Telecommunication Union Region 1), where a range of frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5  kHz is used for AM broadcasting [6] in addition to the medium-wave band, the term longwave usually refers specifically to this broadcasting band, which falls wholly within the low frequency band of the radio spectrum (30–300 kHz). The "Longwave Club of America" (United States) is interested in "frequencies below the AM broadcast band" [5] (i.e., all frequencies below 525 kHz).

AM broadcasting radio broadcasting using amplitude modulation

AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation (AM) transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, and is still used worldwide, primarily for medium wave transmissions, but also on the longwave and shortwave radio bands.

United States federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Propagation

Because of their long wavelength, radio waves in this frequency range can diffract over obstacles like mountain ranges and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth. This mode of propagation, called ground wave , is the main mode in the longwave band. [7] The attenuation of signal strength with distance by absorption in the ground is lower than at higher frequencies, and falls with frequency. Low frequency ground waves can be received up to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) from the transmitting antenna. Very low frequency waves below 30 kHz can be used to communicate at transcontinental distances, and can penetrate saltwater to depths of hundreds of feet, and is used by the military to communicate with submerged submarines.

Radio wave type of electromagnetic radiation

Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Radio waves have frequencies as high as 300 gigahertz (GHz) to as low as 30 hertz (Hz). At 300 GHz, the corresponding wavelength is 1 mm, and at 30 Hz is 10,000 km. Like all other electromagnetic waves, radio waves travel at the speed of light. They are generated by electric charges undergoing acceleration, such as time varying electric currents. Naturally occurring radio waves are emitted by lightning and astronomical objects.

Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit

Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit. It is defined as the bending of waves around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle. In classical physics, the diffraction phenomenon is described as the interference of waves according to the Huygens–Fresnel principle that treats each point in the wave-front as a collection of individual spherical wavelets. These characteristic behaviors are exhibited when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit that is comparable in size to its wavelength. Similar effects occur when a light wave travels through a medium with a varying refractive index, or when a sound wave travels through a medium with varying acoustic impedance. Diffraction has an impact on the acoustic space. Diffraction occurs with all waves, including sound waves, water waves, and electromagnetic waves such as visible light, X-rays and radio waves.

Communication with submarines is difficult because radio waves do not travel well through good electrical conductors like salt water.

Low frequency waves can also occasionally travel long distances by reflecting from the ionosphere (the actual mechanism is one of refraction), although this method, called skywave or "skip" propagation, is not as common as at higher frequencies. Reflection occurs at the ionospheric E layer or F layers. Skywave signals can be detected at distances exceeding 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the transmitting antenna. [8]

Ionosphere The ionized part of Earths upper atmosphere

The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about 60 km (37 mi) to 1,000 km (620 mi) altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere. The ionosphere is ionized by solar radiation. It plays an important role in atmospheric electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere. It has practical importance because, among other functions, it influences radio propagation to distant places on the Earth.

Refraction refraction of light

In physics refraction is the change in direction of a wave passing from one medium to another or from a gradual change in the medium. Refraction of light is the most commonly observed phenomenon, but other waves such as sound waves and water waves also experience refraction. How much a wave is refracted is determined by the change in wave speed and the initial direction of wave propagation relative to the direction of change in speed.

Skywave an electrically charged layer of the upper atmosphere

In radio communication, skywave or skip refers to the propagation of radio waves reflected or refracted back toward Earth from the ionosphere, an electrically charged layer of the upper atmosphere. Since it is not limited by the curvature of the Earth, skywave propagation can be used to communicate beyond the horizon, at intercontinental distances. It is mostly used in the shortwave frequency bands.

Non-broadcast use

Non-directional beacons

Non-directional beacons transmit continuously for the benefit of radio direction finders in marine and aeronautical navigation. They identify themselves by a callsign in Morse code. They can occupy any frequency in the range 190–1750 kHz. In North America, they occupy 190–535 kHz. In ITU Region 1 the lower limit is 280 kHz.

Non-directional beacon radio transmitter which emits radio waves in all directions

A non-directional (radio) beacon (NDB) is a radio transmitter at a known location, used as an aviation or marine navigational aid. As the name implies, the signal transmitted does not include inherent directional information, in contrast to other navigational aids such as low frequency radio range, VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) and TACAN. NDB signals follow the curvature of the Earth, so they can be received at much greater distances at lower altitudes, a major advantage over VOR. However, NDB signals are also affected more by atmospheric conditions, mountainous terrain, coastal refraction and electrical storms, particularly at long range.

A radio direction finder (RDF) is a device for finding the direction, or bearing, to a radio source. The act of measuring the direction is known as radio direction finding or sometimes simply direction finding (DF). Using two or more measurements from different locations, the location of an unknown transmitter can be determined; alternately, using two or more measurements of known transmitters, the location of a vehicle can be determined. RDF is widely used as a radio navigation system, especially with boats and aircraft.

Morse code Transmission of language with brief pulses

Morse code is a character encoding scheme used in telecommunication that encodes text characters as standardized sequences of two different signal durations called dots and dashes or dits and dahs. Morse code is named for Samuel F. B. Morse, an inventor of the telegraph.

Time signals

There are institutional broadcast stations in the range that transmit coded time signals to radio clocks. For example:

Radio-controlled clocks receive their time calibration signals with built-in long-wave receivers. They use long-wave, rather than short-wave or medium-wave, because long-wave signals from the transmitter to the receiver always travel along the same direct path across the surface of the Earth, so the time delay correction for the signal travel time from the transmitting station to the receiver is always the same for any one receiving location.

Longwaves travel by groundwaves that hug the surface of the earth, unlike mediumwaves and shortwaves. Those higher-frequency signals do not follow the surface of the Earth beyond a few kilometers, but can travel as skywaves, ‘bouncing’ off different layers of the ionosphere at different times of day. These different propagation paths can make the time lag different for every signal received. The delay between when the long-wave signal was sent from the transmitter (when the coded time was correct) and when the signal is received by the clock (when the coded time is slightly late) depends on the overland distance between the clock and the transmitter and the speed of light through the air, which is also very nearly constant. Since the time lag is essentially the same, a single constant shift forward from the time coded in the signal can compensate for all long-wave signals received at any one location from the same time signal station.

Submarine communication

The militaries of the United Kingdom, Russian Federation, United States, Germany, India and Sweden use frequencies below 50 kHz to communicate with submerged submarines.

LowFER

In North America during the 1970s, the frequencies 167, 179 and 191 kHz were assigned to the short-lived Public Emergency Radio of the United States. Nowadays, in the United States, Part 15 of FCC regulations allow unlicensed use of 136 kHz and the 160–190 kHz band at output power up to 1 watt with up to a 15-meter antenna. This is called Low Frequency Experimental Radio (LowFER). The 190–435 kHz band is used for navigational beacons.

Historic

Swedish station SAQ, located at the Varberg Radio Station facility in Grimeton, is the last remaining operational Alexanderson alternator long-wave transmitter. Although the station ended regular service in 1996, it has been maintained as a World Heritage Site, and makes at least two demonstration transmissions yearly, on 17.2 kHz. [9]

Broadcasting

Longwave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1. The long-wave broadcasters are located in western, northern, central, and southeastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia, Algeria, and Morocco.

Typically, a larger geographic area can be covered by a long-wave broadcast transmitter compared to a medium-wave one. This is because ground-wave propagation suffers less attenuation due to limited ground conductivity at lower frequencies. [10]

Carrier frequencies

Long-wave carrier frequencies are exact multiples of 9 kHz; ranging from 153 to 279 kHz, except for a French-language station, Europe #1 in Germany. This station kept correctly spaced channels spacing for 4 months—only 7 years ago, and all Mongolian transmitters are 2 kHz above the internationally recognized channels.[ clarification needed ]

Until the 1970s, some long-wave stations in northern and eastern Europe and the Soviet Union operated on frequencies as high as 433 kHz. [11]

Some radio broadcasters, for instance Droitwich transmitting station in the UK, derive their carrier frequencies from an atomic clock, allowing their use as frequency standards. Droitwich also broadcasts a low bit-rate data channel, using narrow-shift phase-shift keying of the carrier, for Radio Teleswitch Services.

In 2014 and 2015 Russia closed all of its LW broadcast transmitters. [12]

Long-distance reception

Because long-wave signals can travel very long distances, some radio amateurs and shortwave listeners engage in an activity called DXing. DXers attempt to listen in to far away transmissions, and they will often send a reception report to the sending station to let them know where they were heard. After receiving a report, the sending station may mail the listener a QSL card to acknowledge this reception.

Reception of long-wave signals at distances in excess of 17,000 kilometres (11,000 mi) have been verified. [13]

List of long-wave broadcasting transmitters

Height diagram1.gif
Height diagram of the antenna towers and antenna masts of long-wave broadcasting stations

List of stations currently operating

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap  
Download coordinates as: KML  ·  GPX
  Denotes non-standard frequency (not divisible by 9)

[14] [15] [16] [17]

freq.
(kHz)
station
name
languagecountrylocationaerial
type
power
(kW)
coordinatesnotes
153 Radio Antena Satelor Romanian Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Brașov T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 250 metres (820 ft)200 45°45′22.27″N25°36′26.77″E / 45.7561861°N 25.6074361°E / 45.7561861; 25.6074361 (Bod Transmitter, mast 1)
45°45′13.16″N25°36′25.15″E / 45.7536556°N 25.6069861°E / 45.7536556; 25.6069861 (Bod Transmitter, mast 2)
 
NRK P1 Norwegian Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Ingøy Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast 352 metres (1,155 ft) tall, fed at the top, ex-Omega equipment100 71°4′17″N24°5′14″E / 71.07139°N 24.08722°E / 71.07139; 24.08722 (Ingøy long-wave transmitter) The transmitter is important for the fishing fleet in the Barents Sea
Radio Algeria
Chaîne 1
Arabic Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Kénadsa Three 357 metres (1,171 ft) tall guyed masts500Active with very low modulation and power [18]
162ANFR (TDF time signal) French Flag of France.svg  France Allouis Two guyed lattice steel masts, height: 350 metres (1,150 ft) fed on the top1000
/
2000
47°10′10.45″N2°12′16.75″E / 47.1695694°N 2.2046528°E / 47.1695694; 2.2046528 (Allouis transmitter, mast 1)
47°10′25.34″N2°12′16.81″E / 47.1737056°N 2.2046694°E / 47.1737056; 2.2046694 (Allouis transmitter, mast 2)
Time signal phase-modulated; the frequency broadcast France Inter until the end of 2016. Now only the time signal for public clocks is transmitted. The ANFR is in charge of this.
164 MNB Radio 1 Mongolian Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Ulaanbaatar 259 metres (850 ft) tall cable-stayed steel truss mast [19] 500 47°47′54.67″N107°11′14.7″E / 47.7985194°N 107.187417°E / 47.7985194; 107.187417 (Ulaanbaatar transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
171 Médi 1 Arabic and FrenchFlag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Nador Directional aerial consisting of three guyed steel lattice masts, 380 metres (1,250 ft) tall1600 35°02′50.65″N2°55′22.81″W / 35.0474028°N 2.9230028°W / 35.0474028; -2.9230028 (Nador transmitter, mast 1)
35°02′30.27″N2°55′16.16″W / 35.0417417°N 2.9211556°W / 35.0417417; -2.9211556 (Nador transmitter, mast 2)
35°02′9.89″N2°55′9.52″W / 35.0360806°N 2.9193111°W / 35.0360806; -2.9193111 (Nador transmitter, mast 2)
183 Europe 1 FrenchFlag of Germany.svg  Germany Felsberg-Berus Directional aerial, four ground insulated steel lattice masts 270 metres (890 ft), 276 metres (906 ft), 280 metres (920 ft) and 282 metres (925 ft) tall; spare aerial: two ground insulated steel lattice masts, height: 234 metres (768 ft)2000Main antenna:
49°17′4.2″N6°40′57.73″E / 49.284500°N 6.6827028°E / 49.284500; 6.6827028 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 1)
49°16′55.86″N6°40′46.16″E / 49.2821833°N 6.6794889°E / 49.2821833; 6.6794889 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 2)
49°16′47.55″N6°40′34.48″E / 49.2798750°N 6.6762444°E / 49.2798750; 6.6762444 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 3)
49°16′39.18″N6°40′22.72″E / 49.2775500°N 6.6729778°E / 49.2775500; 6.6729778 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 4)
Spare antenna:
49°17′8.93″N6°39′31.71″E / 49.2858139°N 6.6588083°E / 49.2858139; 6.6588083 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 1)
49°17′1.54″N6°39′23.6″E / 49.2837611°N 6.656556°E / 49.2837611; 6.656556 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 2)
DRM tests after 00:00 UTC
189 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2 Icelandic Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland Gufuskalar near Hellissandur Slight oval bi-directivity aerial, top loaded parallel connected triangular loops, mast as a common member, all guys insulated except two radiating diametrically opposed grounded top guys, loops closed by copper straps in the ground from two conducting guy grounding points to base of the guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height: 412 metres (1,352 ft)300 64°54′26″N23°55′19.5″W / 64.90722°N 23.922083°W / 64.90722; -23.922083 (Hellissandur long-wave mast)
198 BBC Radio 4/BBC World Service English Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Droitwich (SFN)T-aerial on two guyed steel lattice masts insulated against ground with a height of 213 metres (699 ft)500 52°17′46.9″N2°6′24.32″W / 52.296361°N 2.1067556°W / 52.296361; -2.1067556 (Droitwich mast 1)
52°17′40.4″N2°6′20.62″W / 52.294556°N 2.1057278°W / 52.294556; -2.1057278 (Droitwich mast 2)
All four transmitters carry Radio teleswitch PSK data; Droitwich relays BBC World Service from 01:00 to 05:20 UTC
Burghead (SFN)Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 154 metres (505 ft)50 57°41′57.9″N3°28′4.78″W / 57.699417°N 3.4679944°W / 57.699417; -3.4679944 (Burghead Transmitter, main mast)
Westerglen (SFN)Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 152 metres (499 ft) 55°58′33″N3°48′58.8″W / 55.97583°N 3.816333°W / 55.97583; -3.816333 (Westerglen mast)
Dartford Tunnel (SFN)0.004
207 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2 IcelandicFlag of Iceland.svg  Iceland Eiðar near Egilsstaðir Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 221 metres (725 ft)100 65°22′22.93″N14°20′27.29″W / 65.3730361°N 14.3409139°W / 65.3730361; -14.3409139 (Eiðar long-wave mast)
209 MNB Radio 1MongolianFlag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Choibalsan Cable-stayed steel truss mast, height: 275.84 metres (905.0 ft)75 48°00′17.27″N114°27′17.6″E / 48.0047972°N 114.454889°E / 48.0047972; 114.454889 (Choibalsan transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
Dalanzadgad 43°31′54.43″N104°24′41.4″E / 43.5317861°N 104.411500°E / 43.5317861; 104.411500 (Dalanzadgad transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
Olgii Omnidirectional antenna, 352.5 metres (1,156 ft) high guyed mast30 48°57′24.52″N89°58′13.15″E / 48.9568111°N 89.9703194°E / 48.9568111; 89.9703194 (Olgii transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
216 Radio Monte Carlo Info FrenchFlag of France.svg  France Roumoules Directional aerial, three 300 metres (980 ft) high guyed steel lattice masts, 330 metres (1,080 ft) high guyed steel lattice mast as backup aerial700
/
1400
43°47′41.45″N6°8′48.41″E / 43.7948472°N 6.1467806°E / 43.7948472; 6.1467806 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 1)
43°47′34.56″N6°8′59.09″E / 43.7929333°N 6.1497472°E / 43.7929333; 6.1497472 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 2)
43°47′27.7″N6°9′9.85″E / 43.791028°N 6.1527361°E / 43.791028; 6.1527361 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 3) ,
Backup antenna:
43°47′36.29″N6°9′30.61″E / 43.7934139°N 6.1585028°E / 43.7934139; 6.1585028 (Roumoules transmitter, long-wave backup mast)
Transmitter located in France, in operation from 5:30 to 23:00 CET
225 Polskie Radio Jedynka Polish Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Solec Kujawski Directional aerial, two guyed radio masts fed on the top, heights 330 metres (1,080 ft) and 289 metres (948 ft)1000 53°1′21.01″N18°15′32.63″E / 53.0225028°N 18.2590639°E / 53.0225028; 18.2590639 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 330 metres tall mast)
53°1′12.83″N18°15′44.06″E / 53.0202306°N 18.2622389°E / 53.0202306; 18.2622389 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 289 metres tall mast)
Earlier Konstantynów was used ( 52°22′3.91″N19°48′7.04″E / 52.3677528°N 19.8019556°E / 52.3677528; 19.8019556 (Konstantynów radio mast (destroyed)) )
227 MNB Radio 1MongolianFlag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Altai Cable-stayed steel truss mast75 46°19′25.52″N96°15′31.2″E / 46.3237556°N 96.258667°E / 46.3237556; 96.258667 (Altai transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
234 RTL FrenchFlag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg Beidweiler Directional aerial, three guyed grounded steel lattice masts, 290 metres (950 ft) high, with vertical cage aerials 1500
/
2000
49°43′42.57″N6°19′4.29″E / 49.7284917°N 6.3178583°E / 49.7284917; 6.3178583 (Beidweiler radio mast)
49°43′49.2″N6°19′15.02″E / 49.730333°N 6.3208389°E / 49.730333; 6.3208389 (Beidweiler radio mast)
49°43′55.81″N6°19′25.67″E / 49.7321694°N 6.3237972°E / 49.7321694; 6.3237972 (Beidweiler radio mast)
Spare transmitter site Junglinster ( 49°43′0.35″N6°15′28.9″E / 49.7167639°N 6.258028°E / 49.7167639; 6.258028 (Junglinster Radio Tower)
49°43′6.56″N6°15′40.27″E / 49.7184889°N 6.2611861°E / 49.7184889; 6.2611861 (Junglinster Radio Tower)
49°43′12.75″N6°15′51.44″E / 49.7202083°N 6.2642889°E / 49.7202083; 6.2642889 (Junglinster Radio Tower) )
243 DR Langbølge Danish Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark Kalundborg Semi-directional Alexanderson antenna 153/333 degrees, two grounded 118 metres (387 ft) steel lattice radiating towers with interconnecting top wire capacitance50 55°40′39.27″N11°4′8.6″E / 55.6775750°N 11.069056°E / 55.6775750; 11.069056 (Kalundborg Transmitter long-wave tower 1)
55°40′32.91″N11°4′14.33″E / 55.6758083°N 11.0706472°E / 55.6758083; 11.0706472 (Kalundborg Transmitter long-wave tower 2)
Transmitting in time slots only
252 Radio Algeria
Chaîne 3
ArabicFlag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Tipaza Omnidirectional aerial, single guyed lattice steel mast, height 355 metres (1,165 ft)750
/
1500
36°33′58.14″N2°28′50.3″E / 36.5661500°N 2.480639°E / 36.5661500; 2.480639 (Tipaza long-wave transmitter) Half transmitter power during night
RTÉ Radio 1 EnglishFlag of Ireland.svg  Ireland Clarkstown Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, insulated against ground, height 248 metres (814 ft)100
/
300
53°27′46″N6°40′39″W / 53.46278°N 6.67750°W / 53.46278; -6.67750 (Clarkstown long-wave mast) The only AM transmitter for RTÉ Radio 1, power is decreased at night to 100 kW, it is tentatively scheduled to cease broadcasting in June 2019 [20]
270 ČRo Radiožurnál Czech Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic Topolná Directional aerial (maximum of radiation in east-west direction), two grounded 257 metres (843 ft) high guyed steel lattice mast with cage aerials 50 49°7′32.88″N17°30′45.97″E / 49.1258000°N 17.5127694°E / 49.1258000; 17.5127694 (Topolná transmitter, mast 1)
49°7′18.85″N17°30′41.78″E / 49.1219028°N 17.5116056°E / 49.1219028; 17.5116056 (Topolná transmitter, mast 2)
Broadcasting from Monday to Friday 5:00-24:00 CET and 6:00-24:00 CET at weekends
279TR1 Watan Radio Turkmen Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan Ashgabat Cable-stayed steel truss mast150 37°51′14.89″N58°21′57.99″E / 37.8541361°N 58.3661083°E / 37.8541361; 58.3661083 (Ashgabat transmitter) Almost no modulation

List of stations that have closed or are otherwise inactive

  Closed
freq.
kHz
station
name
countrylocationaerial
type
power
(kW)
coordinatesnotes
153
Deutschlandfunk Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Donebach Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 363 m high, fed at the top500 49°33′40.25″N9°10′22.76″E / 49.5611806°N 9.1729889°E / 49.5611806; 9.1729889 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 1) ; 49°33′33.53″N9°10′50.82″E / 49.5593139°N 9.1807833°E / 49.5593139; 9.1807833 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 2) closed
Radio Mayak Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan Ashgabat 650closed
YuFMFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Taldom transmitter Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 257 m height300 56°45′30.04″N37°37′12.17″E / 56.7583444°N 37.6200472°E / 56.7583444; 37.6200472 (Taldom longwave transmitter, 153 kHz-mast) closed
Radio RossiiPopova near Komsomolsk-na-Amure1200 50°39′16.75″N136°54′46.9″E / 50.6546528°N 136.913028°E / 50.6546528; 136.913028 (Popova longwave transmitter) closed
162TRT Radyo 4Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Agri Two guyed lattice steel masts, height 250 m1000 39°46′23.11″N43°02′14.55″E / 39.7730861°N 43.0373750°E / 39.7730861; 43.0373750 (Agri transmitter, Mast 1) ; 39°46′25.86″N43°02′33.32″E / 39.7738500°N 43.0425889°E / 39.7738500; 43.0425889 (Agri transmitter, Mast 2) inactive
Kanal UzbekistanFlag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan Tashkent 150closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Norilsk Omnidirectional antenna, 205 m high antenna150 69°22′46″N87°6′26″E / 69.37944°N 87.10722°E / 69.37944; 87.10722 (Norilsk transmitter) ?closed
Radio Yuldash, Radio RossiiUfa 54°46′19.73″N56°0′17.02″E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E / 54.7721472; 56.0047278 (Ufa Radio Majak transmitter) closed
171
-Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Lopik 500closed
Radio-1 Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus Lapichi?500/1000closed
Voice of Russia Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Oktyabrsky257 m metres tall antenna.1200closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Bolshakovo near Kaliningrad Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)600 54°54′42.62″N21°43′2.32″E / 54.9118389°N 21.7173111°E / 54.9118389; 21.7173111 (Bolshakovo longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Ukraine 1 Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Krasne near Lviv Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)150/75 49°54′12.85″N24°41′15.22″E / 49.9035694°N 24.6875611°E / 49.9035694; 24.6875611 (Krasne longwave transmitter) inactive
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia RadugaOmnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)250 55°29′16″N83°41′28″E / 55.48778°N 83.69111°E / 55.48778; 83.69111 (Raduga longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Murmansk Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)150 69°00′59.07″N32°55′57.17″E / 69.0164083°N 32.9325472°E / 69.0164083; 32.9325472 (Murmansk longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Noginsk Omnidirectional antenna, 242 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)150 55°50′0.89″N38°20′35.18″E / 55.8335806°N 38.3431056°E / 55.8335806; 38.3431056 (Noginsk longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Ezhva near Syktyvkar Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)150 61°49′09.34″N50°41′26.42″E / 61.8192611°N 50.6906722°E / 61.8192611; 50.6906722 (Zelenets longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Tulagino near Yakutsk Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 6 ring masts150 62°14′15.01″N129°48′10.4″E / 62.2375028°N 129.802889°E / 62.2375028; 129.802889 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, central mast) ; 62°14′22.82″N129°48′0.85″E / 62.2396722°N 129.8002361°E / 62.2396722; 129.8002361 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′15.06″N129°47′51.2″E / 62.2375167°N 129.797556°E / 62.2375167; 129.797556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′7.27″N129°48′0.82″E / 62.2353528°N 129.8002278°E / 62.2353528; 129.8002278 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′7.31″N129°48′20″E / 62.2353639°N 129.80556°E / 62.2353639; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′15.06″N129°48′29.7″E / 62.2375167°N 129.808250°E / 62.2375167; 129.808250 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′22.82″N129°48′20″E / 62.2396722°N 129.80556°E / 62.2396722; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) closed
177
Deutschlandradio Kultur Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Zehlendorf near Oranienburg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial mounted on 359.7 m high guyed mast, triangle aerial on 3 150 m high guyed steel lattice masts500 52°47′41.87″N13°23′9.5″E / 52.7949639°N 13.385972°E / 52.7949639; 13.385972 (Zehlendorf Longwave Mast) closed
180 TRT Radyo 2 Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Polatli Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed latice steel mast1200 39°45′22.46″N32°25′6.24″E / 39.7562389°N 32.4184000°E / 39.7562389; 32.4184000 (Polatli Longwave Mast) inactive
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Yelizovo near Petropavlovsk-KamchatskiyOmnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast150 53°11′4.92″N158°24′2.24″E / 53.1847000°N 158.4006222°E / 53.1847000; 158.4006222 (Yelizovo Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Mayak Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, 200 m high guyed lattice steel mast150 51°50′22.5″N113°44′8.9″E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E / 51.839583; 113.735806 (Chita Longwave Mast) inactive
Kazakh Radio 1 Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 250closed
Kazakh Radio 1 Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Aktyubinsk 150closed
Kazakh Radio 1 Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Chimkent 50closed
189
Rai Radio 1 Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Caltanissetta Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 282 m10 37°29′53.05″N14°04′04.08″E / 37.4980694°N 14.0678000°E / 37.4980694; 14.0678000 (Caltanissetta transmitter) closed
Sveriges Radio P1 Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Orlunda 300 58°25′37″N14°58′38″E / 58.42694°N 14.97722°E / 58.42694; 14.97722 (Orlunda radio transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Kostantinogradovka near Blagoveshchensk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)1200 50°30′23.58″N128°18′32.9″E / 50.5065500°N 128.309139°E / 50.5065500; 128.309139 (Blagoveschensk transmitter) closed
Sakartvelos RadioFlag of Georgia.svg  Georgia Dusheti250 42°03′1.76″N44°40′37.56″E / 42.0504889°N 44.6771000°E / 42.0504889; 44.6771000 (Dusheti transmitter) inactive
198
Polskie Radio Parlament/Radio Polonia Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Raszyn Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, 335 m high200 52°4′21.72″N20°53′2.15″E / 52.0727000°N 20.8839306°E / 52.0727000; 20.8839306 (Raszyn Radio Mast) closed [21]
Chaine 1Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Berkaoui2000closed
Radio Mayak Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Saint Petersburg - OlginoOmnidirectional aerial, 205 m high guyed steel lattice mast150 59°59′30.01″N30°07′38.81″E / 59.9916694°N 30.1274472°E / 59.9916694; 30.1274472 (Olgino Radio Mast) inactive
Radio MayakFlag of Russia.svg  Russia AngarskBefore 2001: T-antenna spun between 2 205 m tall guyed steel lattice mast250 52°31′51.95″N103°52′9.46″E / 52.5310972°N 103.8692944°E / 52.5310972; 103.8692944 (Angarsk Radio Mast) , possibly 52°26′10.17″N103°41′1.05″E / 52.4361583°N 103.6836250°E / 52.4361583; 103.6836250 (Irkutsk Radio Mast) closed
Radio MayakFlag of Russia.svg  Russia AvsyuninoOmnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)150 55°35′13.75″N39°09′57.84″E / 55.5871528°N 39.1660667°E / 55.5871528; 39.1660667 (Avsyunino Radio Mast) inactive
Radio MayakFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Ufa150 54°46′19.73″N56°0′17.02″E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E / 54.7721472; 56.0047278 (Ufa Radio Majak transmitter) closed
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan Krasnaya Rechka near Bishkek Radio-1150 42°52′51.9″N74°59′43.79″E / 42.881083°N 74.9954972°E / 42.881083; 74.9954972 (Krasnorechenka transmitter) closed
207
RNE Radio 5 Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Logroño Directional antenna, 300 metres tall.>100closed
Radio Ukraine 1 Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Brovary Omnidirectional antenna, 259.6 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)600 50°29′48.8″N30°48′9.2″E / 50.496889°N 30.802556°E / 50.496889; 30.802556 (Brovary Longwave Mast) closed
Jordan Radio Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan Al Karanah? 31°45′55.47″N36°28′44.97″E / 31.7654083°N 36.4791583°E / 31.7654083; 36.4791583 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast) ; 31°45′29.66″N36°28′59.11″E / 31.7582389°N 36.4830861°E / 31.7582389; 36.4830861 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast) closed
Radio MayakFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Tynda Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 244 m150 55°05′19.31″N124°43′9.7″E / 55.0886972°N 124.719361°E / 55.0886972; 124.719361 (Tynda Longwave Mast) closed
Deutschlandfunk Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Aholming Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 265 m high, fed at the top500 48°43′50.55″N12°55′47.04″E / 48.7307083°N 12.9297333°E / 48.7307083; 12.9297333 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 1) ; 48°43′38.46″N12°56′2.06″E / 48.7273500°N 12.9339056°E / 48.7273500; 12.9339056 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 2) closed
SNRT Al Idaâ Al-WataniaFlag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Azilal Demnate304.8 metres (1,000 ft) tall guyed mast400inactive
209
Radio Mayak Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Tynda 150closed
216
NRK P1 Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Lambertseter near Oslo 200closed
Azerbaijan RadioFlag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Baku 500closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia KrasnoyarskOmnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 210 m tall150 56°02′02.97″N92°45′32.31″E / 56.0341583°N 92.7589750°E / 56.0341583; 92.7589750 (Krasnoyarsk Longwave Transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia AtamanovkaDirectional antenna150 51°50′02″N113°43′10″E / 51.83389°N 113.71944°E / 51.83389; 113.71944 (Atamanovka Longwave Transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Birobidzhan 2 guyed masts, 260 m high30 48°44′19.37″N132°48′3.95″E / 48.7387139°N 132.8010972°E / 48.7387139; 132.8010972 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter) ; 48°44′14.71″N132°48′32.6″E / 48.7374194°N 132.809056°E / 48.7374194; 132.809056 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter) closed
225 TRT GAP Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Van Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed lattice steel mast600 38°35′11.47″N43°15′59.17″E / 38.5865194°N 43.2664361°E / 38.5865194; 43.2664361 (Van transmitter) inactive
Radio RossiiFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Surgut Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)1000 61°23′35″N72°53′20″E / 61.39306°N 72.88889°E / 61.39306; 72.88889 (Surgut transmitter) closed
234
Radio Moldova Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Grigoriopol 1000closed
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya Yafran near Tripoli 1000closed
Radio 1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Krasny Bor transmitter near Sankt-PeterburgOmnidirectional aerial, 271.5 metres tall guyed mast with cage antenna1200 59°39′12.32″N30°41′50.12″E / 59.6534222°N 30.6972556°E / 59.6534222; 30.6972556 (Krasny Bor transmitter) closed
Public Armenian RadioFlag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Kamo ?500?closed
Radio RossiiFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Koskovo near MurmanskOmnidirectional aerial, 210 m tall guyed mast250 64°21′35.83″N41°23′4.01″E / 64.3599528°N 41.3844472°E / 64.3599528; 41.3844472 (Koskovo transmitter) inactive
Radio 1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Novosemeykino near Samara Four 205 metres tall towers insulated against ground arranged in a square2000 53°22′59.44″N50°20′13.84″E / 53.3831778°N 50.3371778°E / 53.3831778; 50.3371778 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′59.53″N50°20′19.23″E / 53.3832028°N 50.3386750°E / 53.3832028; 50.3386750 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′56.2″N50°20′13.94″E / 53.382278°N 50.3372056°E / 53.382278; 50.3372056 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′56.31″N50°20′19.32″E / 53.3823083°N 50.3387000°E / 53.3823083; 50.3387000 (Novosemeykino transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Raduzhnyy near Magadan Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)1000 59°42′51.14″N150°11′29.9″E / 59.7142056°N 150.191639°E / 59.7142056; 150.191639 (Raduzhnyy transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Odinsk near Irkutsk Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)500 52°24′57.43″N103°42′0.29″E / 52.4159528°N 103.7000806°E / 52.4159528; 103.7000806 (Odinsk transmitter) closed
Radio 1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Koskovo near Arkhangelsk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)500 64°21′50.92″N41°24′41.8″E / 64.3641444°N 41.411611°E / 64.3641444; 41.411611 (Koskovo transmitter) closed
243TRT Radyo 4Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Erzurum Omnidirectional antenna, 185 m high guyed lattice steel mast200 39°59′53.59″N41°06′40.95″E / 39.9982194°N 41.1113750°E / 39.9982194; 41.1113750 (Erzurum Transmitter) inactive
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Razdolnoye near Ussuriysk Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)1000 43°32′18″N131°55′46″E / 43.53833°N 131.92944°E / 43.53833; 131.92944 (Razdoly'ne Transmitter) closed
Kazakh Radio 2 Shalkar Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Karaganda Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 254 m height1000 49°47′32.45″N73°01′40.15″E / 49.7923472°N 73.0278194°E / 49.7923472; 73.0278194 (Karaganda Transmitter) closed
Kazakh Radio 2 Shalkar Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 1000closed
252
Armenian Radio 1Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Kamo 150?closed
Yle Radio 1Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Lahti 200 60°58′48″N25°38′39″E / 60.980137°N 25.644195°E / 60.980137; 25.644195 (Lahti longwave transmitter) , 60°58′43″N25°38′57″E / 60.978747°N 25.649155°E / 60.978747; 25.649155 (Lahti longwave transmitter) closed
Radio TojikstonFlag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan Dushanbe 150closed
Radio RossiiFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Kazan Omnidirectional aerial, 152 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna)100 55°49′6.3″N49°10′24.64″E / 55.818417°N 49.1735111°E / 55.818417; 49.1735111 (Kazan longwave mast) closed (9 January 2014) [22]
261
Radioropa Info Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Burg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial on 324 m high guyed, grounded steel lattice mast, 210 m high steel tube mast, insulated against ground200 52°17′12.93″N11°53′50.52″E / 52.2869250°N 11.8973667°E / 52.2869250; 11.8973667 (Burg transmitter, main mast) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Taldom Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 5 ring masts, height of central mast 275 m2500 56°43′59.86″N37°39′47.51″E / 56.7332944°N 37.6631972°E / 56.7332944; 37.6631972 (Taldom transmitter, Central Mast) ; 56°44′10.32″N37°39′46.53″E / 56.7362000°N 37.6629250°E / 56.7362000; 37.6629250 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°44′2.54″N37°39′29.17″E / 56.7340389°N 37.6581028°E / 56.7340389; 37.6581028 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°43′51.09″N37°39′37.2″E / 56.7308583°N 37.660333°E / 56.7308583; 37.660333 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°43′51.76″N37°39′59.6″E / 56.7310444°N 37.666556°E / 56.7310444; 37.666556 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°44′3.64″N37°40′5.34″E / 56.7343444°N 37.6681500°E / 56.7343444; 37.6681500 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 260 m high150 51°50′22.5″N113°44′8.9″E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E / 51.839583; 113.735806 (Chita Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Tyumen Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high150closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Vorkuta Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high50closed
Radio Horizont Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Vakarel One of the few Blaw-Knox Towers in Europe, 215 m high75 42°34′35.18″N23°41′55.52″E / 42.5764389°N 23.6987556°E / 42.5764389; 23.6987556 (Vakarel Transmitter) closed
270
Radio RossiiFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Orenburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 137 m height25 51°46′44.37″N55°06′23.01″E / 51.7789917°N 55.1063917°E / 51.7789917; 55.1063917 (Orenburg transmitter) closed
Radio 1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Khabarovsk 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 164 m150 48°30′43.48″N135°07′02.24″E / 48.5120778°N 135.1172889°E / 48.5120778; 135.1172889 (Chabarovsk transmitter) ; 48°30′48.75″N135°07′18.15″E / 48.5135417°N 135.1217083°E / 48.5135417; 135.1217083 (Chabarovsk transmitter) closed
Radio SlovoFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Novosibirsk ?150?closed
279
Radio RossiiFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Gorno-Altaisk Omnidirectional antenna, 143m high guyed lattice steel mast50 51°58′1.12″N85°54′54.68″E / 51.9669778°N 85.9151889°E / 51.9669778; 85.9151889 (Gorno-Altaisk transmitter) closed
Radio RossiiFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Selenginsk Omnidirectional aerial, 260 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna (ARRT-antenna)150 52°02′17.52″N106°56′25.6″E / 52.0382000°N 106.940444°E / 52.0382000; 106.940444 (Selenginsk transmitter) closed
Radio RossiiFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Vestochka near Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 258 m high1000 46°50′35″N142°53′44″E / 46.84306°N 142.89556°E / 46.84306; 142.89556 (Vestochka transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Yekaterinburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 256 m height, fed at the top150 56°53′22.46″N60°41′30.22″E / 56.8895722°N 60.6917278°E / 56.8895722; 60.6917278 (Yekaterinburg longwave transmitter) closed
BR Pershy Kanal/BR Radyjo StalitsaFlag of Belarus.svg  Belarus Sasnovy353.5 metres tall guyed mast500 53°24′31″N28°31′57″E / 53.40861°N 28.53250°E / 53.40861; 28.53250 (Sasnovy transmitter) closed

See also

Notes

  1. Wave length and frequency are inversely related, with lower frequencies corresponding to longer wavelengths; 300 kHz corresponds to 1,000 m.

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The Droitwich transmitting station is a large broadcasting facility for long-wave and medium-wave transmissions, established in 1934 in the civil parish of Dodderhill, just outside the village of Wychbold, near Droitwich in Worcestershire, England. The site is the location of the British Broadcasting Corporation's most powerful long-wave transmitter, which together with the two Scottish long-wave transmitters at Burghead and Westerglen forms a network broadcasting on the same frequency. The masts can be seen to the east from the M5 motorway, between Droitwich and Bromsgrove, as well as to the west from the Herefordshire/Worcestershire border. At night, the two sets of aircraft warning lights are visible from a long distance. Due to the bright red lights illuminated at night, some locals have renamed the site "the devil horns of Wychbold". The station is owned and operated by Arqiva.

Grimeton Radio Station working life museum in Varberg Municipality, Sweden

Grimeton Radio Station in southern Sweden, close to Varberg in Halland, is an early longwave transatlantic wireless telegraphy station built in 1922-1924, that has been preserved as a historical site. From the 1920s through the 1940s it was used to transmit telegram traffic by Morse code to North America and other countries, and during World War 2 was Sweden's only telecommunication link with the rest of the world. It is the only remaining example of an early pre-electronic radio transmitter technology called an Alexanderson alternator. It was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2004, with the statement: "Grimeton Radio Station, Varberg is an outstanding monument representing the process of development of communication technology in the period following the First World War." The radio station is also an anchor site for the European Route of Industrial Heritage. The transmitter is still in operational condition, and each year on a day called Alexanderson Day is started up and transmits brief Morse code test transmissions, which can be received all over Europe.

Mainflingen transmitter architectural structure

The Mediumwave transmitter Mainflingen is a mediumwave transmission facility south of the A3 motorway near Mainflingen, Hesse, Germany. Mainflingen was the first mediumwave transmitter for the radio station Deutschlandfunk. It went into service in 1962 with a transmission power of 50 kW, on a frequency of 1538 kHz, at the upper end of the mediumwave band. This frequency has a bad groundwave propagation and therefore a low range at daytime, but an excellent skywave propagation with a long range at night.

Orfordness transmitting station

The Orfordness transmitting station was a major radio broadcasting facility at Orford Ness on the Suffolk coast in the United Kingdom. It closed in May 2012 after more than 30 years of service.

A broadcast transmitter is a transmitter used for broadcasting, an electronic device which radiates radio waves modulated with information content intended to be received by the general public. Examples are a radio broadcasting transmitter which transmits audio (sound) to broadcast radio receivers (radios) owned by the public, or a television transmitter, which transmits moving images (video) to television receivers (televisions). The term often includes the antenna which radiates the radio waves, and the building and facilities associated with the transmitter. A broadcasting station consists of a broadcast transmitter along with the production studio which originates the broadcasts. Broadcast transmitters must be licensed by governments, and are restricted to specific frequencies and power levels. Each transmitter is assigned a unique identifier consisting of a string of letters and numbers called a callsign, which must be used in all broadcasts.

Near vertical incidence skywave, or NVIS, is a skywave radio-wave propagation path that provides usable signals in the range between groundwave and conventional skywave distances—usually 30–400 miles (50–650 km). It is used for military and paramilitary communications, broadcasting, especially in the tropics, and by radio amateurs for nearby contacts circumventing line-of-sight barriers. The radio waves travel near-vertically upwards into the ionosphere, where they are refracted back down and can be received within a circular region up to 650 km from the transmitter. If the frequency is too high, refraction fails to occur and if it is too low, absorption in the ionospheric D layer may reduce the signal strength.

MW DX, short for mediumwave DXing, is the hobby of receiving distant mediumwave radio stations. MW DX is similar to TV and FM DX in that broadcast band (BCB) stations are the reception targets. However, the nature of the lower frequencies used by mediumwave radio stations is very much different from that of the VHF and UHF bands used by FM and TV broadcast stations, and therefore involves different receiving equipment, signal propagation, and reception techniques.

Umbrella antenna

An umbrella antenna is a top-loaded electrically lengthened monopole antenna, consisting in most cases of a mast fed at the ground end, to which a number of radial wires are connected at the top, sloping downwards. They are used as transmitting antennas below 1 MHz, in the LF and particularly the VLF bands, at frequencies sufficiently low that it is impractical or infeasible to build a full size quarter-wave monopole antenna.

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