Bandwidth (computing)

Last updated

In computing, bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path. Bandwidth may be characterized as network bandwidth, [1] data bandwidth, [2] or digital bandwidth. [3] [4]

Contents

This definition of bandwidth is in contrast to the field of signal processing, wireless communications, modem data transmission, digital communications, and electronics [ citation needed ], in which bandwidth is used to refer to analog signal bandwidth measured in hertz, meaning the frequency range between lowest and highest attainable frequency while meeting a well-defined impairment level in signal power.

Electronics physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter

Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter.

Hertz SI unit for frequency

The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second. It is named after Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. Hertz are commonly expressed in multiples: kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), terahertz (1012 Hz, THz), petahertz (1015 Hz, PHz), exahertz (1018 Hz, EHz), and zettahertz (1021 Hz, ZHz).

However, the actual bit rate that can be achieved depends not only on the signal bandwidth but also on the noise on the channel.

Network bandwidth capacity

The term bandwidth sometimes defines the net bit rate 'peak bit rate', 'information rate,' or physical layer 'useful bit rate', channel capacity, or the maximum throughput of a logical or physical communication path in a digital communication system. For example, bandwidth tests measure the maximum throughput of a computer network. The maximum rate that can be sustained on a link are limited by the Shannon-Hartley channel capacity for these communication systems, which is dependent on the bandwidth in hertz and the noise on the channel.

Channel capacity, in electrical engineering, computer science, and information theory, is the tight upper bound on the rate at which information can be reliably transmitted over a communication channel.

Bandwidth (signal processing) difference between the upper and lower frequencies passed by a filter, communication channel, or signal spectrum

Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies. It is typically measured in hertz, and depending on context, may specifically refer to passband bandwidth or baseband bandwidth. Passband bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a band-pass filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum. Baseband bandwidth applies to a low-pass filter or baseband signal; the bandwidth is equal to its upper cutoff frequency.

Network bandwidth consumption

Bandwidth in bit/s may also refer to consumed bandwidth, corresponding to achieved throughput or goodput, i.e., the average rate of successful data transfer through a communication path. This sense applies to concepts and technologies such as bandwidth shaping, bandwidth management, bandwidth throttling, bandwidth cap, bandwidth allocation (for example bandwidth allocation protocol and dynamic bandwidth allocation), etc. A bit stream's bandwidth is proportional to the average consumed signal bandwidth in hertz (the average spectral bandwidth of the analog signal representing the bit stream) during a studied time interval.

In general terms, throughput is the rate of production or the rate at which something is processed.

In computer networks, goodput is the application-level throughput of a communication; i.e. the number of useful information bits delivered by the network to a certain destination per unit of time. The amount of data considered excludes protocol overhead bits as well as retransmitted data packets. This is related to the amount of time from the first bit of the first packet sent until the last bit of the last packet is delivered.

Bandwidth management is the process of measuring and controlling the communications on a network link, to avoid filling the link to capacity or overfilling the link, which would result in network congestion and poor performance of the network. Bandwidth is measured in bits per second (bit/s) or bytes per second (B/s).

Channel bandwidth may be confused with useful data throughput (or goodput). For example, a channel with x bps may not necessarily transmit data at x rate, since protocols, encryption, and other factors can add appreciable overhead. For instance, much internet traffic uses the transmission control protocol (TCP), which requires a three-way handshake for each transaction. Although in many modern implementations the protocol is efficient, it does add significant overhead compared to simpler protocols. Also, data packets may be lost, which further reduces the useful data throughput. In general, for any effective digital communication, a framing protocol is needed; overhead and effective throughput depends on implementation. Useful throughput is less than or equal to the actual channel capacity minus implementation overhead.

Asymptotic bandwidth

The asymptotic bandwidth (formally asymptotic throughput) for a network is the measure of maximum throughput for a greedy source, for example when the message size (the number of packets per second from a source) approaches close to the maximum amount. [5]

A greedy source is a traffic generator that generates data at the maximum rate possible and at the earliest opportunity possible. Each source always has data to transmit, and is never in idle state due to congestion avoidance or other local host traffic shaping. One new data-packet is generated when the transmission of previous packet is completed, meaning that the sender side queue is never congested. A greedy session is a time-limited packet flow or data stream at maximum possible rate.

Asymptotic bandwidths are usually estimated by sending a number of very large messages through the network, measuring the end-to-end throughput. As other bandwidths, the asymptotic bandwidth is measured in multiples of bits per seconds. Since bandwidth spikes can skew the measurement, carriers often use the 95th percentile method. This method continuously measures bandwidth usage and then removes the top 5 percent. [6]

Multimedia bandwidth

Digital bandwidth may also refer to: multimedia bit rate or average bitrate after multimedia data compression (source coding), defined as the total amount of data divided by the playback time.

Due to the impractically high bandwidth requirements of uncompressed digital media, the required multimedia bandwidth can be significantly reduced with data compression. [7] The most widely used data compression technique for media bandwidth reduction is the discrete cosine transform (DCT), which was first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in the early 1970s. [8] DCT compression significantly reduces the amount of memory and bandwidth required for digital signals, capable of achieving a data compression ratio of up to 100:1 compared to uncompressed media. [9]

Bandwidth in web hosting

In Web hosting service, the term bandwidth is often incorrectly used to describe the amount of data transferred to or from the website or server within a prescribed period of time, for example bandwidth consumption accumulated over a month measured in gigabytes per month.[ citation needed ] The more accurate phrase used for this meaning of a maximum amount of data transfer each month or given period is monthly data transfer.

A similar situation can occur for end user ISPs as well, especially where network capacity is limited (for example in areas with underdeveloped internet connectivity and on wireless networks).

Internet connection bandwidth

This table shows the maximum bandwidth (the physical layer net bitrate) of common Internet access technologies. For more detailed lists see

56 kbit/sModem / Dialup
1.5 Mbit/s ADSL Lite
1.544 Mbit/s T1/DS1
2.048 Mbit/sE1 / E-carrier
4 Mbit/sADSL1
10 Mbit/s Ethernet
11 Mbit/sWireless 802.11b
24 Mbit/sADSL2+
44.736 Mbit/s T3/DS3
54 Mbit/sWireless 802.11g
100 Mbit/s Fast Ethernet
155 Mbit/s OC3
600 Mbit/sWireless 802.11n
622 Mbit/s OC12
1 Gbit/s Gigabit Ethernet
1.3 Gbit/sWireless 802.11ac
2.5 Gbit/s OC48
5 Gbit/s USB 3.0
7 Gbit/sWireless 802.11ad
9.6 Gbit/s OC192
10 Gbit/s 10 Gigabit Ethernet, USB 3.1
40 Gbit/s Thunderbolt 3
100 Gbit/s 100 Gigabit Ethernet

Edholm's law

Edholm's law, proposed by and named after Phil Edholm in 2004, [10] holds that the bandwidth of telecommunication networks double every 18 months, which has proven to be true since the 1970s. [10] [11] The trend is evident in the cases of Internet, [10] cellular (mobile), wireless LAN and wireless personal area networks. [11]

The MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) is the most important factor enabling the rapid increase in bandwidth. [12] The MOSFET (MOS transistor) was invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959, [13] [14] [15] and went on to become the basic building block of modern telecommunications technology. [16] [17] [18] Continuous MOSFET scaling, along with various advances in MOS technology, has enabled both Moore's law (transistor counts in integrated circuit chips doubling every two years) and Edholm's law (communication bandwidth doubling every 18 months). [12]

Related Research Articles

Telecommunications network network to enable telecommunication between different terminals

A telecommunications network is a collection of terminal nodes in which links are connected so as to enable telecommunication between the terminals. The transmission links connect the nodes together. The nodes use circuit switching, message switching or packet switching to pass the signal through the correct links and nodes to reach the correct destination terminal. Each terminal in the network usually has a unique address so messages or connections can be routed to the correct recipients. The collection of addresses in the network is called the address space. Examples of telecommunications networks include:

CMOS Technology for constructing integrated circuits

Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS), also known as complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor (COS-MOS), is a type of MOSFET fabrication process that uses complementary and symmetrical pairs of p-type and n-type MOSFETs for logic functions. CMOS technology is used for constructing integrated circuits (ICs), including microprocessors, microcontrollers, memory chips, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS technology is also used for analog circuits such as image sensors, data converters, RF circuits, and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication.

Digital signal processor specialized microprocessor optimized for digital signal processing

A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor chip, with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing. DSPs are fabricated on MOS integrated circuit chips, and are widely used in audio signal processing, telecommunications, digital image processing, radar, sonar and speech recognition systems.

Communication channel a physical or logical connection used for transmission of information

A communication channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking. A channel is used to convey an information signal, for example a digital bit stream, from one or several senders to one or several receivers. A channel has a certain capacity for transmitting information, often measured by its bandwidth in Hz or its data rate in bits per second.

Wireless kind of telecommunication that does not require the use of physical wires; the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor

Wireless communication is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor. The most common wireless technologies use radio waves. With radio waves distances can be short, such as a few meters for Bluetooth or as far as millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications. It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable applications, including two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of applications of radio wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers, wireless computer mouse, keyboards and headsets, headphones, radio receivers, satellite television, broadcast television and cordless telephones. Somewhat less common methods of achieving wireless communications include the use of other electromagnetic wireless technologies, such as light, magnetic, or electric fields or the use of sound.

In telecommunications and computing, bit rate is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.

Internet access individual connection to the internet

Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web. Internet access is sold by Internet service providers (ISPs) delivering connectivity at a wide range of data transfer rates via various networking technologies. Many organizations, including a growing number of municipal entities, also provide cost-free wireless access.


Throughput of a network can be measured using various tools available on different platforms. This page explains the theory behind what these tools set out to measure and the issues regarding these measurements.

Spectral efficiency, spectrum efficiency or bandwidth efficiency refers to the information rate that can be transmitted over a given bandwidth in a specific communication system. It is a measure of how efficiently a limited frequency spectrum is utilized by the physical layer protocol, and sometimes by the media access control.

In computer networking, wire speed or wirespeed refers to the hypothetical peak physical layer net bitrate of a cable combined with a certain digital communication device, interface, or port. For example, the wire speed of Fast Ethernet is 100 Mbit/s also known as the peak bitrate, connection speed, useful bit rate, information rate, or digital bandwidth capacity. The wire speed is the data transfer rate that a telecommunications standard provides at a reference point between the physical layer and the datalink layer.

History of telecommunication aspect of history relating to telecommunications

The history of telecommunication began with the use of smoke signals and drums in Africa, the Americas and parts of Asia. In the 1790s, the first fixed semaphore systems emerged in Europe. However, it was not until the 1830s that electrical telecommunication systems started to appear. This article details the history of telecommunication and the individuals who helped make telecommunication systems what they are today. The history of telecommunication is an important part of the larger history of communication.

Computer network collection of autonomous computers interconnected by a single technology

A computer network is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections between nodes. These data links are established over cable media such as wires or optic cables, or wireless media such as Wi-Fi.

RF power amplifier

A radio frequency power amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier that converts a low-power radio-frequency signal into a higher power signal. Typically, RF power amplifiers drive the antenna of a transmitter. Design goals often include gain, power output, bandwidth, power efficiency, linearity, input and output impedance matching, and heat dissipation.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to information technology:

In computing, computer performance is the amount of useful work accomplished by a computer system. Outside of specific contexts, computer performance is estimated in terms of accuracy, efficiency and speed of executing computer program instructions. When it comes to high computer performance, one or more of the following factors might be involved:

Digital Revolution change from analog, mechanical, and electronic technology to digital technology

The Digital Revolution is the shift from mechanical and analogue electronic technology to digital electronics which began anywhere from the late 1950s to the late 1970s with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record keeping that continues to the present day. Implicitly, the term also refers to the sweeping changes brought about by digital computing and communication technology during the latter half of the 20th century. Analogous to the Agricultural Revolution and Industrial Revolution, the Digital Revolution marked the beginning of the Information Age.

Edholm's law, proposed by and named after Phil Edholm, refers to the observation that the three categories of telecommunication, namely wireless (mobile), nomadic and wired networks (fixed), are in lockstep and gradually converging. Edholm's law also holds that data rates for these telecommunications categories increase on similar exponential curves, with the slower rates trailing the faster ones by a predictable time lag. Edholm's law predicts that the bandwidth and data rates double every 18 months, which has proven to be true since the 1970s. The trend is evident in the cases of Internet, cellular (mobile), wireless LAN and wireless personal area networks.

Telecommunication Transmission of information between locations using electromagnetics

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology. It is transmitted through a transmission media, such as over physical media, for example, over electrical cable, or via electromagnetic radiation through space such as radio or light. Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is often used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies.

References

  1. Douglas Comer, Computer Networks and Internets, page 99 ff, Prentice Hall 2008.
  2. Fred Halsall, to data+communications and computer networks, page 108, Addison-Wesley, 1985.
  3. Cisco Networking Academy Program: CCNA 1 and 2 companion guide, Volym 1–2, Cisco Academy 2003
  4. Behrouz A. Forouzan, Data communications and networking, McGraw-Hill, 2007
  5. Chou, C. Y.; et al. (2006). "Modeling Message Passing Overhead". In Chung, Yeh-Ching; Moreira, José E. (eds.). Advances in Grid and Pervasive Computing: First International Conference, GPC 2006. pp. 299–307. ISBN   3540338098.
  6. "What is Bandwidth? - Definition and Details". www.paessler.com. Retrieved 2019-04-18.
  7. Lee, Jack (2005). Scalable Continuous Media Streaming Systems: Architecture, Design, Analysis and Implementation. John Wiley & Sons. p. 25. ISBN   9780470857649.
  8. Stanković, Radomir S.; Astola, Jaakko T. (2012). "Reminiscences of the Early Work in DCT: Interview with K.R. Rao" (PDF). Reprints from the Early Days of Information Sciences. 60. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  9. Lea, William (1994). Video on demand: Research Paper 94/68. 9 May 1994: House of Commons Library . Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  10. 1 2 3 Cherry, Steven (2004). "Edholm's law of bandwidth". IEEE Spectrum. 41 (7): 58–60. doi:10.1109/MSPEC.2004.1309810.
  11. 1 2 Deng, Wei; Mahmoudi, Reza; van Roermund, Arthur (2012). Time Multiplexed Beam-Forming with Space-Frequency Transformation. New York: Springer. p. 1. ISBN   9781461450450.
  12. 1 2 Jindal, Renuka P. (2009). "From millibits to terabits per second and beyond - Over 60 years of innovation". 2009 2nd International Workshop on Electron Devices and Semiconductor Technology: 1–6. doi:10.1109/EDST.2009.5166093.
  13. "1960 - Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Transistor Demonstrated". The Silicon Engine. Computer History Museum.
  14. Lojek, Bo (2007). History of Semiconductor Engineering. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 321–3. ISBN   9783540342588.
  15. "Who Invented the Transistor?". Computer History Museum . 4 December 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  16. "Triumph of the MOS Transistor". YouTube . Computer History Museum. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  17. Raymer, Michael G. (2009). The Silicon Web: Physics for the Internet Age. CRC Press. p. 365. ISBN   9781439803127.
  18. "Transistors - an overview". ScienceDirect . Retrieved 8 August 2019.