Leader of the Opposition (New Zealand)

Last updated

Leader of the Opposition of New Zealand
Incumbent
Simon Bridges

since 27 February 2018
Official Opposition of New Zealand
Shadow Cabinet of Simon Bridges
Style The Honourable
(Formal)
Leader of the Opposition
(Spoken)
Member of
Reports to Parliament
Term length While leader of the largest political party not in government
Inaugural holder John Ballance
Formation2 July 1889
Salary$288,900 (As at 2016) [1]
Website Party profile
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
New Zealand
Constitution
New Zealandportal

In New Zealand, the Leader of the Opposition is the politician who commands the support of the Official Opposition. The Leader of the Opposition by convention leads the largest party not supporting the government: this is usually the parliamentary leader of the second largest caucus in the House of Representatives. [2] In the debating chamber the Leader of the Opposition sits directly opposite the Prime Minister. [3]

Contents

The Leader of the Opposition is elected by his or her party according to its rules. A new leader may be elected when the incumbent dies, resigns, or is challenged for the leadership. The current Leader of the Opposition is Simon Bridges, who was elected by the National Party caucus on 27 February 2018. [4]

Role

New Zealand has a parliamentary system based on the Westminster model. The term "Opposition" has a specific meaning in the parliamentary sense; it is an important component of the Westminster system, with the Opposition directing criticism at the Government and attempts to defeat and replace the Government. The Leader of the Opposition leads a Shadow Cabinet, which scrutinises the actions of the Cabinet led by the Prime Minister. [5] The Opposition leader may be viewed as an alternative prime minister. [6]

There are several ways in which the Leader of the Opposition participates directly in affairs of state. Often, these relate to national security matters, which are supposed to transcend party politics – the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service, for example, is required to brief the Leader of the Opposition as well as the Prime Minister on certain matters. [7]

Salary

The leader of the Opposition receives a higher salary than other members of the Opposition, being paid the same amount as a Cabinet Minister. [8] As at 2016 the Leader of the Opposition's salary is NZ$288,900. [9] [1] In addition, like all other members of parliament, the Leader of the Opposition receives annual allowances for travel and lodging.

History

For much of the country's early history, the role was not a formal one. For most of the 19th century, there was rarely any one person who could be considered Leader of the Opposition – those figures who took leading roles in opposing the government of the day were merely "first among equals", and had no formal office. It was only when the Liberal Party was formed that any unified leadership appeared in Parliament, and the role of Leader of the Opposition is generally traced from this point. John Ballance, leader of the Liberals (and later Premier) is usually considered the first Leader of the Opposition in the modern sense.

When Ballance led the Liberals into government in 1891, they faced no formal opposition in a party sense, though certain MPs were styled Leader of the Opposition. However, their opponents gradually coalesced around a leader, William Massey, who became Opposition leader in 1903, and in 1909 became the first leader of the new Reform Party. After this, the Leader of the Opposition would always be the parliamentary leader of the largest party in the House of Representatives that had not undertaken to support the Government of the day.

One notable exception to this was during World War I, when the opposition Liberal Party accepted the governing Reform Party's offer to form a wartime coalition. Prime Minister Massey also extended the offer to the new Labour Party who rejected it. This made Labour the largest party not in government, however their leader Alfred Hindmarsh was not officially recognised as the Leader of the Opposition. Joseph Ward, who became Deputy Prime Minister in the wartime cabinet still retained the title, albeit in name only. [10]

During the 1910s and 1920s, the role of Opposition alternated between the Liberal and Reform parties. However, the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s, together with a gradual weakening in support for the Liberals, led to a three-party situation by the mid-1920s, with the Labour and Liberal parties having a similar number of seats. After the 1925 Election there was no official Leader of the Opposition until Rex Mason of Labour won the seat of Eden in the by-election held on 15 April 1926. Labour superseded the Liberals as the official opposition and their leader Harry Holland became Leader of the Opposition. [11]

The 1928 general election put the United Party (a remnant of the Liberals) in government for the last time. Reform then became the Opposition, however in 1931 Reform entered into coalition with the Liberals, and Labour then became the Opposition, despite being the third party. The unity of the Coalition, culminating in the formation of the National Party in 1936, created a stable two-party system, with National and Labour alternating between Government and Opposition for much of the remainder of the century.

With the introduction of the MMP voting system, first used in the 1996 general election, the nature of opposition has changed. Now, though the leader of the largest non-Government party still becomes the Leader of the Opposition, there will usually be several parties who are "in opposition". An example of this arose after the 2002 general election, when the National Party gained only 27 seats, less than half the 58 seats held by opposition parties. This prompted calls from a number of parties, notably New Zealand First and the Greens, for the abolition or reform of the post. It was argued by these parties that the position had become an "anachronism" in the modern multi-party environment, and that the days of a united opposition bloc were gone. However, with the revival of the National Party in the 2005 general election, a more traditional relationship between Government and Opposition has been restored. According to Parliamentary Services, the Leader of the Opposition represents and speaks for all parties that are outside Government. [12]

List of Leaders of the Opposition

A table of Leaders of the Opposition is below. Those who also served as Prime Minister, either before or after being Leader of the Opposition, are indicated.

Colour key
(for political parties)
   Liberal
   Reform
   Labour
   United
   National
No.Leader
(Birth–Death)
Constituency
PortraitTerm of officePartyPrime Minister
1 John Ballance
(1839–1893)
MP for Wanganui
2 July 188923 January 1891 Liberal Atkinson 1887–91
2 John Bryce
(1833–1913)
MP for Waikato
23 January 189131 August 1891 Conservative Ballance 1891–93
3 William Rolleston
(1831–1903)
MP for Halswell
31 August 18918 November 1893 Conservative
Seddon 1893–1906
4 William Russell
(1838–1913)
MP for Hawkes Bay
26 June 18943 July 1901 Conservative
5 William Massey
(1856–1925)
MP for Franklin
11 September 1903February 1909 Conservative
Hall-Jones 1906
Ward 1906–12
February 190910 July 1912 Reform
Mackenzie 1912
6 Joseph Ward
(1856–1930)
MP for Awarua [1]
11 September 191327 November 1919 Liberal Massey 1912–25
7 William MacDonald
(1862–1920)
MP for Bay of Plenty
21 January 192031 August 1920 Liberal
8 Thomas Wilford
(1870–1939)
MP for Hutt
8 September 192013 August 1925 Liberal
Bell 1925
Coates 1925–28
9 George Forbes
(1869–1947)
MP for Hurunui
13 August 19254 November 1925 Liberal
Position vacant
from 1925 general election until after 1926 Eden by-election
4 November 192516 June 1926
10 Harry Holland
(1868–1933)
MP for Buller
16 June 192618 October 1928 Labour
(6) Joseph Ward
(1856–1930)
MP for Invercargill
4 December 192810 December 1928 United
11 Gordon Coates
(1878–1943)
MP for Kaipara
10 December 192822 September 1931 Reform Ward 1928–30
Forbes 1930–35
(10) Harry Holland
(1868–1933)
MP for Buller
22 September 19318 October 1933 Labour
12 Michael Joseph Savage
(1872–1940)
MP for Auckland West
12 October 19336 December 1935 Labour
(9) George Forbes
(1869–1947)
MP for Hurunui
6 December 1935May 1936 United Savage 1935–40
May 19362 November 1936 National
13 Adam Hamilton
(1880–1952)
MP for Wallace
2 November 193626 November 1940 National
14 Sidney Holland
(1893–1961)
MP for Christchurch North until 1946
MP for Fendalton from 1946
26 November 194013 December 1949 National Fraser 1940–49
15 Peter Fraser
(1884–1950)
MP for Brooklyn
13 December 194912 December 1950 Labour Holland 1949–57
16 Walter Nash
(1882–1968)
MP for Hutt
17 January 195112 December 1957 Labour
Holyoake 1957
17 Keith Holyoake
(1904–1983)
MP for Pahiatua
12 December 195712 December 1960 National Nash 1957–60
(16) Walter Nash
(1882–1968)
MP for Hutt
12 December 196031 March 1963 Labour Holyoake 1960–72
18 Arnold Nordmeyer
(1901–1989)
MP for Island Bay
1 April 196316 December 1965 Labour
19 Norman Kirk
(1923–1974)
MP for Lyttelton until 1969
MP for Sydenham from 1969
16 December 19658 December 1972 Labour
Marshall 1972
20 Jack Marshall
(1912–1988)
MP for Karori
8 December 19724 July 1974 National Kirk 1972–74
21 Robert Muldoon
(1921–1992)
MP for Tāmaki
4 July 197412 December 1975 National
Rowling 1974–75
22 Bill Rowling
(1927–1995)
MP for Tasman
12 December 19753 February 1983 Labour Muldoon 1975–84
23 David Lange
(1942–2005)
MP for Māngere
3 February 198326 July 1984 Labour
(21) Robert Muldoon
(1921–1992)
MP for Tāmaki
26 July 198429 November 1984 National Lange 1984–89
24 Jim McLay
(born 1945)
MP for Birkenhead
29 November 198426 March 1986 National
25 Jim Bolger
(born 1935)
MP for King Country
26 March 19862 November 1990 National
Palmer 1989–90
Moore 1990
26 Mike Moore
(born 1949)
MP for Christchurch North
2 November 19901 December 1993 Labour Bolger 1990–97
27 Helen Clark
(born 1950)
MP for Mount Albert
1 December 19935 December 1999 Labour
Shipley 1997–99
28 Jenny Shipley
(born 1952)
MP for Rakaia
5 December 19998 October 2001 National Clark 1999–2008
29 Bill English
(born 1961)
MP for Clutha-Southland
8 October 200128 October 2003 National
30 Don Brash
(born 1940)
List MP
28 October 200327 November 2006 National
31 John Key
(born 1961)
MP for Helensville
27 November 200619 November 2008 National
32 Phil Goff
(born 1953)
MP for Mount Roskill
19 November 200813 December 2011 Labour Key 2008–16
33 David Shearer
(born 1957)
MP for Mount Albert
13 December 201115 September 2013 Labour
34 David Cunliffe
(born 1963)
MP for New Lynn
15 September 201327 September 2014 Labour
35 Andrew Little
(born 1965)
List MP
18 November 20141 August 2017 Labour
English 2016–17
36 Jacinda Ardern
(born 1980)
MP for Mount Albert
1 August 201726 October 2017 Labour
(29) Bill English
(born 1961)
List MP
26 October 201727 February 2018 National Ardern 2017–present
37 Simon Bridges
(born 1976)
MP for Tauranga
27 February 2018Incumbent National

1 From 4 August 1915 to 21 August 1919, the Reform Party and the Liberal Party formed a joint wartime coalition. Joseph Ward of the Liberals officially remained "Leader of the Opposition", even though he was actually part of the government.

See also

References

  1. 1 2 "MPs given 2.5 percent pay rise". Radio NZ. 8 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  2. "Glossary". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  3. "People in Parliament". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 21 January 2009.
  4. "Bridges' first speech as National leader outlines party future". TVNZ. 27 February 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  5. "The Relationship between the Government and the Opposition or Minority Parties in Selected Places" (PDF). 13 November 2002. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  6. "The Leader of the Opposition" (PDF). Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  7. "Overview". NZSIS. Archived from the original on 4 January 2009. Retrieved 21 January 2009.
  8. "Bill English admits pay rise 'a bit embarrassing'". New Zealand Herald. 21 November 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2009.
  9. "Parliamentary Salaries and Allowances Determination 2016" (PDF). New Zealand Parliament. 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  10. Bassett, Michael. "Ward, Joseph George". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  11. O'Farrell, Patrick. "Holland, Henry Edmund - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  12. "Who's who in Parliament?" . Retrieved 9 February 2018.