The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its territories. It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) to promote the standardization of feature names.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory used in conjunction with a map or atlas. It typically contains information concerning the geographical makeup, social statistics and physical features of a country, region, or continent. Content of a gazetteer can include a subject's location, dimensions of peaks and waterways, population, gross domestic product and literacy rate. This information is generally divided into topics with entries listed in alphabetical order.
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility.
The database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited. Variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are also recorded. Each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier.The database never removes an entry, "except in cases of obvious duplication."
The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U.S. geographical features. The general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals.
The Geographical Names Board of Canada (GNBC) is a national committee with a secretariat in Natural Resources Canada, part of the Government of Canada, which authorizes the names used on official federal government maps of Canada created since 1897. The board consists of 27 members, one from each of the provinces and territories, and others from departments of the Government of Canada. The board also is involved with names of areas in the Antarctic through the Antarctic Treaty.
The GEOnet Names Server (GNS) provides access to the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency's (NGA) and the U.S. Board on Geographic Names's (BGN) database of geographic feature names and locations for locations outside the United States. The database is the official repository of foreign place-name decisions approved by the US BGN. Approximately 20,000 of the database's features are updated monthly. The database never removes an entry, "except in cases of obvious duplication".
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the United States federal government for use in computer systems by non-military government agencies and government contractors.
Casco Township is a civil township of Allegan County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 2,823 at the 2010 census.
Beaver Township is a civil township of Bay County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The township's population was 2,885 as of the 2010 census. It is included in the Bay City Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Fraser Township is a civil township of Bay County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The township's population was 3,192 as of the 2010 census. It is included in the Bay City Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Garfield Township is a civil township of Bay County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The township's population was 1,743 as of the 2010 census. It is included in the Bay City Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Gibson Township is a civil township of Bay County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The township's population was 1,210 as of the 2010 census. It is included in the Bay City Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Merritt Township is a civil township of Bay County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The township's population was 1,441 as of the 2010 census. It is included in the Bay City Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Highland Township, officially the Charter Township of Highland, is a charter township of west Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 19,202 at the 2010 census. Highland is a suburb of Detroit.
The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is a federal body operating under the United States Secretary of the Interior. The purpose of the board is to establish and maintain uniform usage of geographic names throughout the federal government of the United States.
Geocoding is the computational process of transforming a physical address description to a location on the Earth's surface. Reverse geocoding, on the other hand, converts geographic coordinates to a description of a location, usually the name of a place or an addressable location. Geocoding relies on a computer representation of address points, the street / road network, together with postal and administrative boundaries.
Perry Township is one of the fourteen townships of Carroll County, Ohio, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 996.
South Lake is an unincorporated community in the Kern River Valley, in Kern County, California. It is located 4.5 miles (7.2 km) west-southwest of Weldon, at an elevation of 2,887 feet (880 m).
Ryan Park is a census-designated place (CDP) in Carbon County, Wyoming, United States. The name was collected by the United States Geological Survey between 1976 and 1979, and entered into the Geographic Names Information System on June 5, 1979. "Ryan Park" is designated as an acceptable place name by the United States Postal Service for mailing addresses and is assigned the ZIP code (82331) of Saratoga, the nearest incorporated town. The population was 38 at the 2010 census.
Laurel Run is a 4.5-mile-long (7.2 km) tributary stream of Georges Creek in Allegany County, Maryland. The creek rises about 3 miles (4.8 km) northwest of Lonaconing and empties into Georges Creek north of Barton.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.