Rotorua (New Zealand electorate)

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Rotorua electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election Rotorua electorate, 2014.svg
Rotorua electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election

Rotorua is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives. It was first established in 1919, and has existed continuously since 1954. The current MP for Rotorua is Todd McClay of the National Party, [1] who won the electorate in the 2008 general election from incumbent Labour MP Steve Chadwick.

Contents

Population centres

In the 1918 electoral redistribution, the North Island gained a further three electorates from the South Island due to faster population growth. Only two existing electorates were unaltered, five electorates were abolished, two former electorate were re-established, and three electorates, including Rotorua, were created for the first time. [2]

The original electorate, which was formed through the 1918 electoral redistribution, had a long coastline along the Bay of Plenty, and incorporated, beside Rotorua, the towns and villages of Whakatane, Taupo, Tokoroa, Putaruru, Mangakino, Edgecumbe, Taneatua, and Murupara. [3] In the 1922 electoral redistribution, the electorate lost some area to the Bay of Plenty electorate, and a larger area to the Waikato electorate. [4] The 1927 electoral redistribution saw Rotorua become landlocked, with the Tauranga electorate taking the coastline including Taneatua and Edgecumbe, and Whakatane going to the Bay of Plenty electorate. The electorate moved south and took in Lake Taupo, with Turangi just beyond the southern boundary located in the Waimarino electorate. The electorate also grew in the north-west, gaining the town of Matamata. [5]

In the 1937 electoral redistribution, the electorate shifted further south again. Matamata was lost again, and the peaks of Tongariro, Ngauruhoe, and Ruapehu now formed the boundary to the Waimarino electorate. [6] The 1946 electoral redistribution saw the Rotorua electorate abolished, with the Bay of Plenty electorate moving west and incorporating the town of Rotorua, most of the southern area going to the Waimarino electorate including the town of Taupo, and some area in the north-west going to the Waikato electorate including Tokoroa. [7]

The First Labour Government was defeated in the 1949 election and the incoming National Government changed the Electoral Act, with the electoral quota once again based on total population as opposed to qualified electors, and the tolerance was increased to 7.5% of the electoral quota. There was no adjustments in the number of electorates between the South and North Islands, but the law changes resulted in boundary adjustments to almost every electorate through the 1952 electoral redistribution; only five electorates were unaltered. [8] Five electorates were reconstituted (including Rotorua) and one was newly created, and a corresponding six electorates were abolished; all of these in the North Island. [9] These changes took effect with the 1954 election. [10] The electorate was again landlocked and much smaller than prior to its abolition. Significant settlements included Rotorua, Tokoroa, Taupo, and Mangakino, with Lake Taupo forming the southern boundary. [11]

Demographics

Over forty per cent of the population of Rotorua is under the age of thirty, much of this because 37% of the electorate's residents are Māori, who are on the whole younger than the national average (22.7 years old versus a national average of 35.9). [12] There are also fewer voters earning over $30,000 per year, with the majority of workers coming from working class and semi-skilled professionals. Rotorua also has more unemployed people (6.5%) than most electorates, being ranked 52nd in the nation.

The country quota applied until 1945 and the Rotorua electorate was initially classed as fully rural. Based on the 1926 New Zealand census, the 1927 Electoral Redistribution determined that 24% of the electorate's population was urban. Based on the 1936 census, the 1937 Electoral Redistribution determined that 36% of the electorate's population was urban. [13]

The current Rotorua electorate is positioned in the Bay of Plenty region in the central North Island. It is dominated by the town of Rotorua, and also contains the Eastern Bay of Plenty towns of Kawerau, Murupara and Galatea, the last two of which are located on the outskirts of Te Urewera National Park. In 2008, its boundaries were extended to the geographical bay, with the addition of coastline stretching from a cluster of rural towns including Pukehina and Maketu to the outskirts of Te Puke.

History

An electorate based around Rotorua has been a part of the New Zealand electoral landscape since the 1919 election, with a gap from 1946 to 1954. Previously the town of Rotorua was in the East Coast electorate (from 1871), then the East Coast electorate again (from 1890), then the Bay of Plenty electorate (from 1893), and then (just) in the Tauranga electorate again (from 1911 to 1919). [14]

William Henry Wackrow was nominated in March 1922 as the opposition candidate for that year's election. [15] Wackrow withdrew in November [16] and was replaced by Cecil Clinkard, who lost against the incumbent, Frank Hockly of the Reform Party. [17]

Geoffrey Sim of the National Party won the 1943 election. When the Rotorua electorate was abolished for the 1946 election, Sim successfully stood in Waikato electorate instead. [18]

After the electorate was re-established through the 1952 Electoral Redistribution, Ray Boord of the Labour Party won the 1954 election. [19] Boord served two parliamentary terms and was beaten by National's Harry Lapwood in the 1960 election. [20] Lapwood served for six parliamentary terms and retired in 1978. [21]

Lapwood was succeeded by his party colleague Paul East in the 1978 election. East also served six parliamentary terms until 1996. With the advent of Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) voting in 1996, the Rotorua electorate was greatly expanded to include areas previously part of the Eastern Bay of Plenty and Tarawera electorates. Both Tarawera and Rotorua were safe National Party electorates, and in the ensuing battle for the nomination, the two incumbents, East and Max Bradford, faced off for a Rotorua nomination eventually secured by Bradford, with East securing a high list position. [22]

Bradford won the 1996 election with a nearly 6,000 votes margin. [23] Despite both electorates being reasonably loyal to the National Party, Bradford's tenure as MP for Rotorua was just three years, before being ousted by Labour MP Steve Chadwick in the 1999 election. Chadwick's initial majority of 4,978 votes blew out to over 7,500 in 2002 before it was reined in to just 662 in 2005, as the National Party consolidated the centre-right vote, with its biggest gains being in the provincial North Island. In 2005, Chadwick's party was less popular than their candidate, coming 1,645 votes behind National.

In 2008 Chadwick was defeated by National candidate Todd McClay who won the electorate with a majority of 5,067 votes. In the 2011 election McClay again returned as the member for Rotorua, increasing his majority to 7,357 votes. In 2014, McClay was elected as MP for a third term beating television personality Tamati Coffey by a similar majority to that in the previous election.

Rotorua is also an electorate where the New Zealand First party does well, with its biggest appeal among provincial New Zealanders, and as results in 1996 indicate, Māori: in the three most recent elections, New Zealand First has polled around three per cent higher in Rotorua than it did in the rest of New Zealand.

Members of Parliament for Rotorua

Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

Key

  Reform     United     Labour     National   

ElectionWinner
1919 election Frank Hockly
1922 election
1925 election
1928 election Cecil Clinkard
1931 election
1935 election Alexander Moncur
1938 election
1943 election Geoffrey Sim
(Electorate abolished 1946–1954, see
Bay of Plenty, Waimarino, and Waikato)
1954 election Ray Boord
1957 election
1960 election Harry Lapwood
1963 election
1966 election
1969 election
1972 election
1975 election
1978 election Paul East
1981 election
1984 election
1987 election
1990 election
1993 election
1996 election Max Bradford
1999 election Steve Chadwick
2002 election
2005 election
2008 election Todd McClay
2011 election
2014 election
2017 election
2020 election

List MPs from Rotorua

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Rotorua electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

ElectionWinner
1999 election Max Bradford
2008 election Steve Chadwick
2014 election Fletcher Tabuteau
2017 election

Election results

2020 election

2020 general election: Rotorua [24]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Todd McClay 16,21243.29-10.0810,95128.65-19.68
Labour Claire Mahon15,38741.09+10.1717,84546.68+14.38
Green Kaya Sparke1,8875.04+0.801,8164.75+0.61
NZ First Fletcher Tabuteau 1,4123.77-4.931,3833.62-6.28
ACT Pete Kirkwood1,0532.813,4639.06+8.73
New Conservative Alan Tāne Solomon5641.51+1.197031.84+1.57
Advance NZ Kiri Ward5631.505181.36
ONE Kari-Ann Varcoe3720.991770.46
Opportunities  6061.59-1.12
Māori  3470.91-0.35
Legalise Cannabis  1790.47+0.15
Vision NZ  1410.37
Outdoors  500.13+0.07
Sustainable NZ  210.05
Social Credit  160.04+0.02
TEA  80.02
Heartland  40.01
Informal votes701260
Total Valid votes37,45038,228
National holdMajority8252.20-20.25

2017 election

2017 general election: Rotorua [25]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Todd McClay 18,78853.37-2.4217,39048.33-3.54
Labour Ben Sandford 10,88730.92-2.7511,62232.3+11.21
NZ First Fletcher Tabuteau 3,0628.70+1.353,5619.90-2.26
Green Richard Gillies1,4914.241,4884.14-2.58
Māori Wendy Biddle7021.994541.26-0.17
Independent Rachel Clark1620.46
Conservative Owen Patterson1140.32-1.5970.27-3.73
Opportunities  9742.71
ACT  1200.33-0.09
Legalise Cannabis  1160.32-0.15
Ban 1080  660.18-0.12
People's Party  300.08
Outdoors  230.06
United Future  190.05-0.16
Democrats  80.02-0.03
Internet  80.02-0.78 [lower-alpha 1]
Mana  80.02-0.78 [lower-alpha 2]
Informal votes379133
Total Valid votes35,58536,117
National holdMajority7,90122.45+0.34

2014 election

2014 general election: Rotorua [26]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Todd McClay 18,14555.79−1.3817,66051.87+0.60
Labour Tamati Coffey 11,29733.67+1.547,18121.09−0.86
NZ First Fletcher Tabuteau 2,4667.35+0.284,13912.16+1.61
Conservative Michael Davidson6101.82−1.131,3614.00+0.99
ACT Lyall Russell1320.39+0.391420.42−0.43
Green  2,2896.72−1.85
Māori  4861.43+0.15
Internet Mana  2720.80−0.24
Legalise Cannabis  1600.47−0.03
Ban 1080  1010.30+0.30
United Future  720.21−0.61
Independent Coalition  330.10+0.10
Democrats  160.05+0.01
Civilian  110.03+0.03
Focus  40.01+0.01
Informal votes328122
Total Valid votes33,54834,049
National holdMajority7,41822.11−1.93

2011 election

2011 general election: Rotorua [27]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Todd McClay 17,18856.17+2.2616,15951.27+0.92
Labour Steve Chadwick 9,83132.13-6.356,91921.95-8.08
NZ First Fletcher Tabuteau 2,1667.08+7.083,32610.55+4.21
Conservative Daryl Smith9032.95+2.959483.01+3.01
Mana Grant Rogers5101.67+1.673271.04+1.04
Green  2,7008.57+3.58
Māori  4041.28-0.50
ACT  2690.85-1.78
United Future  2580.82-0.02
Legalise Cannabis  1590.50+0.06
Libertarianz  190.06+0.02
Alliance  150.05-0.05
Democrats  140.04+0.02
Informal votes835307
Total Valid votes30,59831,517
National holdMajority7,35724.04+8.62

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 42,886 [28]

2008 election

2008 general election: Rotorua [29]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Todd McClay 17,70053.91+15.3116,83650.35+8.46
Labour Red x.svgN Steve Chadwick 12,63538.48-2.2910,04430.04-6.63
Green Raewyn Saville1,6655.07+1.361,6664.98+1.21
Kiwi Daryl Smith3651.11+1.111830.55+0.55
United Future Arthur Solomon2410.73-6.222820.84-2.12
RAM Grant Rogers1450.44+0.44240.07+0.07
Libertarianz Fred Stevens820.25+0.25150.04+0.01
NZ First  2,1226.35-2.89
ACT  8792.63+1.44
Māori  5961.78+0.22
Progressive  2000.60-0.26
Family Party  1930.58+0.58
Bill and Ben  1860.56+0.56
Legalise Cannabis  1470.44+0.18
Alliance  330.10+0.03
Pacific  130.04+0.04
Workers Party  80.02+0.02
Democrats  70.02-0.03
RONZ  40.01-0.02
Informal votes364154
Total Valid votes32,83333,438
National gain from Labour Majority5,06515.43+13.25

2005 election

2005 general election: Rotorua [30]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Green check.svgY Steve Chadwick 12,42040.77-10.6311,35036.67-0.96
National Gil Stehbens11,75838.60+14.8812,96541.89+21.46
United Future Russell Judd2,1196.96+1.639162.96-4.12
NZ First Fletcher Tabuteau 2,0556.75-2.532,8609.24-7.21
Green Raewyn Saville1,1313.71-0.141,1683.77-2.13
Destiny Elaine Herbert6041.98+1.983971.28+1.28
ACT Carl Peterson3781.24+1.243671.19-4.15
Māori  4841.56+1.56
Progressive  2670.86-0.69
Legalise Cannabis  830.23-0.66
Alliance  200.06-0.83
Christian Heritage  160.05-1.18
Democrats  160.05+0.05
Libertarianz  100.03+0.03
Family Rights  90.03+0.03
RONZ  90.03+0.03
Direct Democracy  70.02+0.02
One NZ  50.02-0.05
99 MP  40.01+0.01
Informal votes326125
Total Valid votes30,46530,950
Labour holdMajority6622.17-25.51

2002 election

2002 general election: Rotorua [31]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Green check.svgY Steve Chadwick 1438051.40+1.701070037.63-0.80
National Malcolm Short663623.72-8.88580920.43-10.30
NZ First Fletcher Tabuteau 25959.28+5.60467716.45+10.64
United Future Russell Judd14905.33+5.3320147.08+7.08
Green Richard Kake10783.85-0.3716795.90+0.61
NZ Equal Rights PartyCliff Lee8062.88+0.07
Christian Heritage Ross Prichard3911.40-0.863501.23-1.19
Independent Reg Turner2320.83+0.83
Progressive David Espin1940.69+0.694421.55+1.55
Alliance Julie Poupard1750.63-1.752520.89-5.98
ACT  15185.34-0.48
ORNZ  7912.78+2.78
Legalise Cannabis  1560.55-0.53
Mana Māori  280.10-0.09
One NZ  190.07-0.03
NMP  10.00-0.01
Informal votes335114
Total Valid votes2797728436
Labour holdMajority774427.68+10.59

1999 election

1999 general election: Rotorua [32] [33]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Steve Chadwick 1447449.70+35.671129938.42+15.21
National Red x.svgN Max Bradford 949632.60-8.38903730.73-5.41
Green Lynne Dempsey12304.22+4.2215575.29+5.29
NZ First Robert Dixon10703.67-13.3217085.81-12.43
NZ Equal Rights PartyCliff Lee8192.81+2.81
Alliance Pirihira Kaio6922.38-18.6820186.86-2.93
Christian Heritage Ross Prichard6572.26+2.267132.42+2.42
Future NZ Andrew James Parr6192.13+2.135361.82+1.82
Natural Law Martin Sharp680.23+0.11270.09+0.02
ACT  17105.82+1.10
Legalise Cannabis  3161.07-0.33
United NZ  1440.49-0.10
Libertarianz  1270.43+0.42
Animals First  550.19+0.01
Mana Māori  540.18+0.11
McGillicuddy Serious  420.14-0.20
One NZ  290.10+0.10
Mauri Pacific  160.05+0.05
The People's Choice  90.03+0.03
NMP  40.01+0.01
South Island  30.01+0.01
Freedom Movement  10.00+0.00
Republican  10.00+0.00
Informal votes545264
Total Valid votes2912529406
Labour gain from National Majority497817.09

Refer to Candidates in the New Zealand general election 1999 by electorate#Rotorua for a list of candidates.

1943 election

1943 general election: Rotorua [34] [35]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Geoffrey Sim 5,304 49.74
Labour Alexander Moncur 4,58943.03-14.23
Democratic Labour William Henry Tong5214.88
Real Democracy Tom Godfrey Burnham1641.53
Informal votes850.79+0.12
Majority7156.70
Turnout 10,66392.29+0.62
Registered electors 11,553

1938 election

1938 general election: Rotorua [36]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Alexander Moncur 6,211 57.26 +14.12
National Henry William Nixon4,56342.06
Informal votes730.67+0.11
Majority1,64815.19+2.39
Turnout 10,84791.67+3.03
Registered electors 11,832

1935 election

1935 general election: Rotorua [37]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Alexander Moncur 4,894 43.14 +10.60
Independent Frederick Doidge 3,44230.34
United Cecil Clinkard 2,78524.55-8.60
Democrat H. Hugh Corbin [38] 2231.97
Majority1,45212.80+12.19
Informal votes640.56-0.08
Turnout 11,40888.64+8.81
Registered electors 12,870

1931 election

1931 general election: Rotorua [39]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
United Cecil Clinkard 3,117 33.15 -10.34
Labour Alexander Moncur 3,06032.54
Independent Edward Earle Vaile 1,81519.30
Country Party D R F Campbell [40] 1,41115.01
Majority570.61-1.80
Informal votes610.64-0.84
Turnout 9,46479.83-4.27
Registered electors 11,855

1928 election

1928 general election: Rotorua [41]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
United Cecil Clinkard [42] 3,617 43.49 +21.59
Reform Frank Hockly 3,41741.08-18.61
Labour A. G. Christopher [42] 6597.92
Country Party S. H. Judd6247.50
Majority2002.40-35.39
Informal votes1251.48+0.91
Turnout 8,44284.10-5.34
Registered electors 10,038

1925 election

1925 general election: Rotorua [43]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform Frank Hockly 4,384 59.69 +6.54
Liberal Cecil Clinkard 1,60821.90-24.95
Labour John William Sumner [44] 1,14815.63
Country Party Frank Colbeck [mb 1] 2042.78
Majority2,77637.80+31.50
Informal votes420.57-0.53
Turnout 7,38689.44-1.11
Registered electors 8,258

Table footnotes:

  1. For biographical details of Frank Colbeck, please refer to his father's article

1922 election

1922 general election: Rotorua [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform Frank Hockly 3,407 53.15 +2.70
Liberal Cecil Clinkard [45] 3,00346.85
Majority4046.30-20.53
Informal votes711.10-0.22
Turnout 6,48190.55+8.83
Registered electors 7,157

1919 election

1919 general election: Rotorua [46]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform Frank Hockly 3,258 50.45
Liberal Malcolm Larney [47] 1,52523.61
Labour George Thomas Jones85413.22
Independent W. C. Hewitt4977.70
Independent Patrick Keegan [48] [nb 1] 3245.02
Majority1,73326.83
Informal votes861.31
Turnout 6,54481.73
Registered electors 8,007

Table footnotes:

  1. Some sources list Keegan as an Independent Reform Party supporter

Notes

  1. 2017 Internet Party swing is relative to the votes for Internet-Mana in 2014; it shared a party list with Mana Party in the 2014 election
  2. 2017 Mana Party swing is relative to the votes for Internet-Mana in 2014; it shared a party list with the Internet Party in the 2014 election

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References

  1. Profile of Todd McClay on New Zealand Parliament website.
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