28th New Zealand Parliament

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28th Parliament of New Zealand
27th Parliament 29th Parliament
Parliament House, Wellington, New Zealand (50).JPG
Overview
Term24 June 1947 – 21 October 1949
Election 1946 New Zealand general election
Government First Labour Government
House of Representatives
New Zealand 28th Parliament.png
Members80
Speaker of the House Robert McKeen
Prime Minister Peter Fraser
Leader of the Opposition Sidney Holland
Legislative Council
Members36 (at start)
33 (at end)
Speaker of the Council Bernard Martin from 29 June 1948
––Mark Fagan until 31 December 1947 †
Leader of the Council David Wilson
Sovereign
Monarch HM George VI
Governor-General HE Lt. Gen. The Lord Freyberg

The 28th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1946 general election in November of that year.

New Zealand Parliament legislative body of New Zealand

The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by her governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The New Zealand Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. It has met in Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, since 1865.

1946 New Zealand general election

The 1946 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 28th term. It saw the governing Labour Party re-elected, but by a substantially narrower margin than in the three previous elections. The National Party continued its gradual rise.

Contents

1946 general election

The 1946 general election was held on Tuesday, 26 November in the Māori electorates and on Wednesday, 27 November in the general electorates, respectively. [1] A total of 80 MPs were elected; 49 represented North Island electorates, 27 represented South Island electorates, and the remaining four represented Māori electorates. [2] 1,081,898 voters were enrolled and the official turnout at the election was 93.5%. [1]

Māori electorates

In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that gives reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; there are currently seven Māori electorates. Since 1967 candidates in Māori electorates have not needed to be Māori themselves, but to register as a voter in the Māori electorates people need to declare they are of Māori descent.

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title. Member of Congress is an equivalent term in other jurisdictions.

North Island The northern of the two main islands of New Zealand

The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait. The island's area is 113,729 square kilometres (43,911 sq mi), making it the world's 14th-largest island. It has a population of 3,702,300.

Sessions

The 28th Parliament sat for five sessions, and was prorogued on 3 November 1949: [3]

SessionOpenedAdjouned
first24 June 194727 November 1947
second22 June 19483 December 1948
third28 June 194921 October 1949

Ministries

Peter Fraser of the Labour Party had been Prime Minister since 27 March 1940. He had formed the first Fraser Ministry on 1 April 1940 and the second Fraser Ministry on 30 April 1940. [4] The second Fraser Ministry remained in power until its defeat by the National Party at the 1949 election. [5] [6]

Peter Fraser New Zealand politician

Peter Fraser was a New Zealand politician who served as the 24th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 27 March 1940 until 13 December 1949. Considered a major figure in the history of the New Zealand Labour Party, he was in office longer than any other Labour prime minister, and is to date New Zealand's fourth-longest-serving head of government.

New Zealand Labour Party Major New Zealand political party

The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism; observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. The party participates in the international Progressive Alliance.

1949 New Zealand general election

The 1949 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 29th term. It saw the governing Labour Party defeated by the opposition National Party. This marked the end of the First Labour government and the beginning of the First National government.

Party Standings

PartyLeader(s)Seats at start
Labour Party Peter Fraser 44
National Party Sidney Holland 38

Members

Initial MPs

The table below shows the results of the 1946 general election:

Key

  Labour     National     Independent   

Electorate results for the 1946 New Zealand general election [7] [8]
ElectorateIncumbentWinnerMajorityRunner up
General electorates
Arch Hill New electorate Bill Parry [9] 6,585Edward James Clark
Ashburton New electorate Richard Geoffrey Gerard 1,453 Mabel Newlands
Auckland Central Bill Parry [9] Bill Anderton [10] 3,478 Leon Götz [11]
Avon Dan Sullivan 5,180Robert Alexander McDowell
Awarua George Richard Herron 2,588Gilbert Gregory Mitchell
Bay of Plenty Bill Sullivan [12] 1,634 Ray Boord [13] [7]
Brooklyn New electorate Peter Fraser [14] 3,935Stewart Hardy
Buller Paddy Webb Jerry Skinner 2,912Phil McDonald
Central Otago William Bodkin 2,909Claude Charles Capell
Christchurch Central New electorate Robert Macfarlane 4,420Alan J. Wills
Clutha James Roy 2,140John Patrick Thompson
Dunedin Central Peter Neilson Phil Connolly 2,000 Stuart Sidey [15] [7]
Dunedin North Robert Walls 1,630 Norman Jones [16]
Eden Bill Anderton [10] Wilfred Fortune [17] 1,281 Warren Freer [18] [7]
Egmont Ernest Corbett [19] 3,398Clarence Robert Parker
Fendalton New electorate Sidney Holland 3,004Alan Williams
Franklin Jack Massey 4,023Alex Gunn
Gisborne David Coleman 2,015 Harry Barker [20]
Grey Lynn Fred Hackett 5,910Harold Stapleton Barry
Hamilton Hilda Ross 327John Granville
Hastings New electorate Ted Cullen 483Eric Pryor [21]
Hauraki Andrew Sutherland 2,891John William Neate
Hawke's Bay Ted Cullen Cyril Harker 2,014Henry Edward Beattie
Hobson New electorate Sidney Walter Smith 3,580Hubert Knox Hatrick
Hurunui William Gillespie 1,440 John Mathison
Hutt Walter Nash 2,587Jim Vogel
Invercargill William Denham Ralph Hanan 224William Denham
Island Bay New electorate Robert McKeen 3,958Herbert Edward Childs
Karori New electorate Charles Bowden 2,042Patrick Connolly McGavin
Lyttelton Terry McCombs 1,543 Ted Taylor [22]
Manawatu Matthew Oram 2,467 Phil Holloway
Marlborough Ted Meachen Tom Shand 179Ted Meachen
Marsden Alfred Murdoch 2,149 John Stewart
Miramar New electorate Bob Semple 2,482Leonard Theodor Jacobsen [23]
Mornington New electorate Wally Hudson 4,681Lewis Donald McIver
Mount Albert New electorate Arthur Shapton Richards 1,857Frederick Ashley Hosking
Mount Victoria New electorate Jack Marshall 911Eugene Casey
Napier Tommy Armstrong 1,845Alan John Price
Nelson vacant [nb 1] Edgar Neale 585Cyril Harold Goodman
New Plymouth Ernest Aderman 405George Nimmo
North Shore New electorate Martyn Finlay 249 Henry Thorne Morton [24]
Oamaru Arnold Nordmeyer 232Thomas Ross Beatty
Onehunga Arthur Osborne 3,424William Kenneth King
Onslow New electorate Harry Combs 1,578Philip Patrick Lynch
Otahuhu Charles Robert Petrie 220Albert Murdoch
Otaki Leonard Lowry James Joseph Maher 44 Jim Thorn
Pahiatua Keith Holyoake 3,697Otto Ernest Niederer
Palmerston North Joe Hodgens Ormond Wilson 928 Gus Mansford
Parnell New electorate Duncan Rae 206 Bill Schramm
Patea William Sheat 870Richard John O'Dea
Petone New electorate Mick Moohan 4,019George London
Piako New electorate William Goosman 5,101 Ben Waters
Ponsonby New electorate Ritchie Macdonald 3,431Peter E Dempsey [25]
Raglan Hallyburton Johnstone Alan Baxter 13 Hallyburton Johnstone
Rangitikei Edward Gordon 2,307John Capstick
Remuera Ronald Algie 4,410James Freeman
Riccarton Jack Watts Angus McLagan 3,875Vic Wilson
Rodney New electorate Clifton Webb 2,850Alexander Boyd Dixon
Roskill Arthur Shapton Richards Frank Langstone 155 Roy McElroy [26]
St Albans New electorate Jack Watts 86 Morgan Williams [27]
St Kilda New electorate Fred Jones 1,248Leonard James Tobin Ireland
Selwyn New electorate John McAlpine 472Alan Sharp
Sydenham New electorate Mabel Howard 6,746Ruric Hunter
Tamaki New electorate Tom Skinner 231John George Concanon Wales
Tauranga Frederick Doidge 2,704Dudley Alexander Hill
Timaru Clyde Carr 520 Jack Acland [28]
Waikato William Goosman Geoffrey Sim 4,385John Dwyer
Waimarino Frank Langstone Paddy Kearins 681Norman Robert Hill
Waimate New electorate David Campbell Kidd 789William Roy Davison
Wairarapa Ben Roberts Garnet Hercules Mackley 235George Anders Hansen
Waitakere New electorate Rex Mason 2,797Archibald Morrison Laing
Waitomo Walter Broadfoot 3,951Alan George Goldsmith
Wallace Adam Hamilton Tom Macdonald 3,716David Johnston Munro
Wanganui Joe Cotterill 1,934Eric Merewether
Wellington Central Peter Fraser Charles Henry Chapman 1,680 Agnes Louisa Weston [nb 2]
Westland James O'Brien 4,716E Frank Chivers [31] [32]
Māori electorates
Eastern Maori Tiaki Omana 1,517 Āpirana Ngata
Northern Maori Tapihana Paraire Paikea 2,555 James Henare [33]
Southern Maori Eruera Tirikatene 581Vernon Ohaia Mason Thomas
Western Maori Matiu Ratana 6,491 Hoeroa Marumaru [34]

Table footnotes:

  1. Harry Atmore, the previous holder of the Nelson electorate, died on 20 August 1946
  2. Claude Weston died suddenly on 10 November 1946 and was replaced by his wife [29] [30]

By-elections during 28th Parliament

There were a number of changes during the term of the 28th Parliament.

Electorate and by-electionDateIncumbentCauseWinner
Avon 1947 28 May Dan Sullivan Death Jock Mathison
Mount Albert 1947 24 September Arthur Richards Death Warren Freer
Westland 1947 3 December James O'Brien Death Jim Kent

Notes

  1. 1 2 "General elections 1853–2005 - dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  2. Scholefield 1950, p. 90.
  3. Scholefield 1950, p. 70.
  4. Scholefield 1950, p. 50.
  5. Scholefield 1950, pp. 50–51.
  6. Beaglehole, Tim. "Fraser, Peter". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  7. 1 2 3 4 "The General Election, 1946". National Library. 1947. pp. 1–11, 14. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  8. "The Lists Close" (25951). Evening Star. 16 November 1946. p. 9.
  9. 1 2 Wilson 1985, p. 225.
  10. 1 2 Wilson 1985, p. 180.
  11. Gustafson 1986, p. 315.
  12. Wilson 1985, p. 237.
  13. Norton 1988, p. 200.
  14. Wilson 1985, p. 198.
  15. Norton 1988, p. 212.
  16. Gustafson 1986, pp. 323f.
  17. Wilson 1985, p. 197.
  18. Norton 1988, p. 220.
  19. Wilson 1985, p. 190.
  20. Milton-Tee, Ann. "Harry Heaton Barker". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  21. Gustafson 1986, p. 382.
  22. Gustafson 1986, p. 387.
  23. "Public Notices". The Evening Post . CXXXVI (136). 6 December 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  24. Gustafson 1986, p. 334.
  25. Gustafson 1986, pp. 360f.
  26. Gustafson 1986, p. 375.
  27. Wilson 1985, p. 245.
  28. Wilson 1985, p. 179.
  29. Gustafson 1986, p. 389.
  30. "Claude Horace Weston". Auckland War Memorial Museum . Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  31. "General Election". Auckland Star . LXXIV (203). 27 August 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  32. "Chivers, E Frank, DSM, MID". Torpedo Bay Navy Museum . Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  33. Gustafson 1986, p. 367.
  34. Gustafson 1986, p. 377.

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References

Barry Selwyn Gustafson is a New Zealand political scientist and historian, and a leading political biographer. He served for nearly four decades as Professor of Political Studies at the University of Auckland, and as Acting Director of the New Zealand Asia Institute from 2004 to 2006. He has contested various general elections, first for the Labour Party and later for the National Party, coming second each time.

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