11th New Zealand Parliament

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11th Parliament of New Zealand
10th Parliament 12th Parliament
Overview
Legislative body New Zealand Parliament
Term23 January 1891 – 6 October 1893
Election 1890 New Zealand general election
Government Liberal Government
House of Representatives
11th New Zealand Parliament Seating.png
Members74
Speaker of the House William Steward
Premier Richard Seddon
John Ballance until 27 April 1893†
Leader of the Opposition William Rolleston
John Bryce until 31 August 1891
Legislative Council
Members46
Speaker of the Council Henry Miller
Harry Atkinson until 28 June 1892†
Sovereign
Monarch HM Victoria
Governor HE Rt. Hon. The Earl of Glasgow from 6 June 1892
— HE Rt. Hon. The Earl of Onslow until 25 February 1892

The 11th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand.

Contents

Elections for this term were held in 4 Māori electorates and 62 European electorates on 27 November and 5 December 1890, respectively. A total of 74 MPs were elected – a reduction on the 95 MPs of the previous Parliament.

Sessions

The 11th Parliament opened on 23 January 1891, following the 1890 general election. It sat for four sessions (with two sessions in 1891), and was prorogued on 8 November 1893. [1] [2]

SessionOpenedAdjourned
first23 January 189130 January 1891
second11 June 189125 September 1891
third23 June 189211 October 1892
fourth22 June 18936 October 1893

Party standings

Start of Parliament

PartyLeader(s)Seats at start
Liberal Party John Ballance 34
Conservative John Bryce 25
Independents 9
Liberal-Labour 5
Independent Liberal 2

End of Parliament

PartyLeader(s)Seats at end
Liberal Party Richard Seddon 34
Conservative William Rolleston 24
Independents 9
Liberal-Labour 6
Independent Liberal 2

Historical context

In December 1887, the House of Representatives voted to reduce its membership from general electorates from 91 to 70. The 1890 electoral redistribution used the same 1886 census data used for the 1887 electoral redistribution. In addition, three-member electorates were introduced in the four main centres. [3] This resulted in a major restructuring of electorates, with 12 new electorates created. Of those, four electorates were created for the first time: Te Aroha, Halswell, Dunedin Suburbs, and Palmerston. The remaining eight electorates had previously existed and were re-created through the 1890 electoral redistribution: City of Auckland, City of Christchurch, City of Dunedin, City of Wellington, Ellesmere, Franklin, Geraldine, and Westland.

The 11th Parliament was most significant, [4] as following the 1890 general election, it marked the beginning of party politics in New Zealand with the formation of the Liberal Government, which was to enact major welfare, labour and electoral reforms, including giving the vote to women.

Ministries

The fourth Atkinson Ministry, known as the Scarecrow Ministry , had been the government. The election had returned several "Independent" or "Labour" members as well as the Liberals. Some of Atkinson's conservative colleagues proposed schemes that would keep him in office, but Atkinson, who had been Premier on and off for 14 years, announced that the house would be called on 23 January 1891 to decide. On 21 January Atkinson told his colleagues that he was retiring on doctor's orders, resigned his seat and was sworn into the Legislative Council, and appointed Speaker. When William Rolleston lost the ministerial nomination for Speaker, Edwin Mitchelson announced the resignation of the government. The Governor asked John Ballance to form a government, which he did on 24 January. It was found to have a majority in the house. After a week of debate, the house went into recess until June. [5]

Atkinson was appointed to the Council with six colleagues, on 20 or 22 January 1891. He was widely regarded as having stacked the council before leaving office. There was a 5000-signature petition against the appointments, but they were approved by the Governor, The Earl of Onslow. [6] The seven appointments on 20 or 22 January to the Council were Atkinson himself plus Charles Bowen, James Fulton, Charles Johnston, John Davies Ormond, William Downie Stewart Sr and John Blair Whyte.

Ballance had considerable difficulty in achieving reform of the Legislative Council, with new appointments to be for seven years rather than life, and he had major disagreements with the Governor. Ballance's victory is seen as establishing an important precedent in the relationship between Governor and Prime Minister.

The Ballance Ministry was the beginning of the Liberal Government, which lasted until 1912. [7] [8] John Ballance died suddenly on 27 April 1893 [9] and whilst Ballance had favoured Robert Stout as his successor, the caucus selected Richard Seddon instead. The Seddon Ministry was in power from 1 May 1893 until 10 June 1906, when Seddon in turn died. [7] [10]

Initial composition of the 11th Parliament

74 seats were created across 66 electorates. [11] [12] [13]

While the Liberal party was the only established party structure at the time, many independent conservative MPs coalesced as a semi-formal conservative opposition under the leadership of John Bryce. Due to the loose nature of this grouping it is difficult to determine the affiliation of some Independent MPs.

PartyNameElectorateTerm
Liberal John Joyce Akaroa
Conservative Edward George Ashburton
Liberal Richard Meredith Ashley
Liberal William Rees
Liberal John Shera
Liberal Thomas Thompson
Liberal Edwin Blake Avon
Liberal Joseph Ward Awarua
Liberal Robert Houston Bay of Islands
Conservative James Thomson Bruce
Independent Eugene O'Conor Buller
Liberal Westby Perceval
Liberal William Reeves
Independent Richard Taylor
Liberal Thomas Mackenzie Clutha
Liberal Henry Fish
Liberal William Hutchison
Liberal–Labour David Pinkerton
Liberal William Dawson Dunedin Suburbs
Liberal William Kelly East Coast
Conservative Edwin Mitchelson Eden
Conservative Harry Atkinson Egmont
Conservative John Hall Ellesmere
Conservative Ebenezer Hamlin Franklin
Conservative Arthur Rhodes Geraldine
Liberal Arthur Guinness Grey
Conservative William Rolleston Halswell
Conservative William Russell Hawke's Bay
Liberal–Labour William Tanner Heathcote
Conservative Alfred Newman Hutt
Liberal Richard Reeves Inangahua
Liberal–Labour James Kelly Invercargill
Conservative Richard Moore Kaiapoi
Conservative Frank Buckland Manukau
Conservative Robert Thompson Marsden
Liberal Alexander Hogg Masterton
Conservative George Richardson Mataura
Conservative Scobie Mackenzie Mount Ida
Conservative George Swan Napier
Conservative Joseph Harkness
Liberal Edward Smith New Plymouth
Liberal David Goldie Newton
Liberal Thomas Duncan Oamaru
Conservative James Wilson Palmerston
Conservative Frank Lawry [nb 1] Parnell
Liberal–Labour William Earnshaw Peninsula
Independent James Mills Port Chalmers
Conservative Douglas Macarthur Rangitikei
Independent Alfred Saunders Selwyn
Liberal Walter Carncross Taieri
Independent William Allen Te Aroha
Liberal Alfred Cadman Thames
Independent Liberal William Hall-Jones Timaru
Conservative Hugh Valentine Tuapeka
Conservative John Bryce Waikato
Liberal William Steward Waimate
Liberal Charles H Mills Waimea-Picton
Liberal William Smith Waipawa
Conservative Walter Buchanan Wairarapa
Liberal–Labour Lindsay Buick Wairau
Liberal John McKenzie Waitaki
Independent Liberal Jackson Palmer Waitemata
Conservative George Hutchinson Waitotara
Conservative Thomas Fergus Wakatipu
Liberal James Mackintosh Wallace
Liberal John Ballance Wanganui
Conservative John Duthie
Liberal George Fisher
Liberal Kennedy Macdonald
Liberal Richard Seddon Westland
Independent James Carroll
Independent Sydney Taiwhanga
Liberal Tame Parata
Independent Hoani Taipua

Table footnotes:

  1. Lawry stood in support of the Atkinson Ministry but changed allegiance to the Liberals in 1891

Changes during 11th Parliament

There were a number of changes during the term of the 11th Parliament.

Electorate and by-electionDateIncumbentCauseWinner
Northern Maori 1891 7 February Sydney Taiwhanga Death [14] [15] Eparaima Te Mutu Kapa
Egmont 1891 17 February   Harry Atkinson [16] Appointed to Legislative Council Felix McGuire [17]
Newton 1891 31 March David Goldie ResignationSir George Grey
Te Aroha 1891 9 July William Allen Disallowed on petition William Fraser
Waikato 1891 6 October John Bryce Resignation Edward Lake
City of Christchurch 1891 9 October Westby Perceval Appointed Agent General Ebenezer Sandford
City of Wellington 1892 15 January Kennedy Macdonald Resignation William McLean
Bruce 1892 4 May James Thomson Resignation James Allen
Rangitikei 1892 8 July Douglas Macarthur Death Robert Bruce
Inangahua 1893 8 June Richard Reeves BankruptcySir Robert Stout
Wanganui 1893 9 June John Ballance Death Archibald Willis
Thames 1893 26 July Alfred Cadman Resignation James McGowan
City of Auckland 1893 4 August William Rees Resignation Alfred Cadman
PersonYearSeatFromTo
Frank Lawry 1891 Parnell Conservative Liberal

Notes

  1. Scholefield 1950, p. 68.
  2. McRobie 1989, p. 55.
  3. McRobie 1989, pp. 54ff.
  4. Atkinson 2003, p. 81.
  5. Bassett 1982, p. 2.
  6. McIvor 1989, p. 179-180.
  7. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 40.
  8. McLintock 2009.
  9. McIvor, Tim. "Ballance, John – Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  10. Hamer, David. "Seddon, Richard John – Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  11. "General elections 1853–2005 – dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
  12. "General Elections". The Wanganui Herald . Vol. XXIV, no. 7283. 6 December 1890. p. 2. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
  13. "The New House". The Evening Post . 8 December 1890. p. 2. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  14. "Obituary". The Star . No. 7022. 28 November 1890. p. 3. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  15. "The Maori Elections". Northern Advocate. 6 December 1890. p. 2. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  16. Scholefield 1950, p. 93.
  17. Scholefield 1950, p. 122.

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