Iqaluit

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Iqaluit
ᐃᖃᓗᐃᑦ (Inuktitut syllabics)
Iqaluit Montage.jpg
From top left: Cityscape from Joamie Hill, Iqaluit waterfront, Aurora borealis at night, Iqaluit Airport, St. Jude's Anglican Cathedral
Flag of Iqaluit, Nunavut.svg
Seal of Iqaluit Nunavut.svg
Canada Nunavut location map-lambert proj3.svg
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Iqaluit
Location of Iqaluit
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Iqaluit
Iqaluit (Canada)
Coordinates: 63°44′58″N68°31′18″W / 63.74944°N 68.52167°W / 63.74944; -68.52167 [1]
CountryCanada
Territory Nunavut
Region Qikiqtaaluk
Electoral districts Iqaluit-Manirajak
Iqaluit-Niaqunnguu
Iqaluit-Sinaa
Iqaluit-Tasiluk
Settled1942
Village status1974
Town status1980
City status19 April 2001
Founded by Nakasuk
Government
  Type Iqaluit City Council
  MayorSolomon Awa
   MLAs P.J. Akeeagok
Janet Brewster
George Hickes
Adam Lightstone
   MP Lori Idlout
Area
 (2021) [5] [6]
  Total51.58 km2 (19.92 sq mi)
   Population Centre 10.48 km2 (4.05 sq mi)
Elevation
[7]
30 m (110 ft)
Population
 (2021) [5] [6]
  Total7,429
  Density144.0/km2 (373/sq mi)
  Population Centre
7,082
  Population Centre density667.0/km2 (1,728/sq mi)
Demonym Iqalummiut
Time zone UTC−05:00 (EST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−04:00 (EDT)
Canadian Postal code
X0A 0A1, X0A 0H0, X0A 1H0, X0A 2H0, X0A 3H0
Area code 867
Telephone Exchanges 222 (mobile), 975, 979
NTS Map 25N10 Hill Island
GNBC CodeOATRP [1]
Website www.iqaluit.ca OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg

Iqaluit ( /iˈkæluɪt/ ee-KAL-oo-it; Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᖃᓗᐃᑦ, [iqaluit] , lit.'place of many fish'; [8] French: [i.ka.lu.it] ) is the capital of the Canadian territory of Nunavut. It is the territory's largest community and its only city. It was known as Frobisher Bay from 1942 to 1987, after the large bay on the coast on which the city is situated. The northernmost city in Canada, its traditional Inuktitut name was restored in 1987.

Contents

In 1999, Iqaluit was designated the capital of Nunavut after the division of the Northwest Territories into two separate territories. Before this event, Iqaluit was a small city and not well known outside the Canadian Arctic or Canada, with population and economic growth highly limited. This is due to the city's isolation and heavy dependence on expensive imported supplies, as the city, like the rest of Nunavut, has no road or rail, and only has ship connections for part of the year to the rest of Canada. The city has a polar climate, influenced by the cold deep waters of the Labrador Current just off Baffin Island this makes the city of Iqaluit cold, although it is well south of the Arctic Circle.

As of the 2021 Canadian census, the population was 7,429 [5] (population centre: 6,991 [6] ), a decrease of 4.0 percent from the 2016 census. Iqaluit has the lowest population of any capital city in Canada. Inhabitants of Iqaluit are called Iqalummiut (singular: Iqalummiuq).

History

Iqaluit has been a traditional fishing location used by Inuit and their predecessors, the Paleo-Eskimo (Dorset culture) and Thule, for thousands of years. [9] [10] The name, Iqaluit, comes from Inuktitut Iqaluit (ᐃᖃᓗᐃᑦ), which means place of many fish. [8]

World War II resulted in an influx of non-Inuit to the area in 1942, when the United States built Frobisher Bay Air Base there, on a long-term lease from the Government of Canada, in order to provide a stop-over and refuelling site for the short-range aircraft being ferried to Europe to support the war effort. Iqaluit's first permanent resident was Nakasuk, an Inuk guide who helped United States Army Air Forces planners to choose a site with a large flat area suitable for a landing strip. The wartime airstrip was known as Crystal Two, was part of the Crimson Route and operates today as Iqaluit Airport.

It had long been used as a campsite and fishing spot by the Inuit, who called it Iqaluit – "place of many fish" in Inuktitut. The US and Canadian authorities named it Frobisher Bay, after the name of the body of water it borders.

The Hudson's Bay Company moved its south Baffin operations to Apex in 1949 (pictured in 2005) to take advantage of the nearby airfield. GebaeudeHudsenBayCompanyApexFotoAndreKaiser.GIF
The Hudson's Bay Company moved its south Baffin operations to Apex in 1949 (pictured in 2005) to take advantage of the nearby airfield.

In 1949, after the war, the Hudson's Bay Company moved its south Baffin operations to the neighbouring valley of Niaqunngut, officially called Apex, in order to use the airfield. In the mid-1950s, the population of Frobisher Bay increased rapidly during the construction of the Distant Early Warning Line (DEW line), a system of defensive radar stations—see North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD).

Hundreds of mostly non-Inuit construction workers, military personnel, and administrative staff moved into the community, and several hundred Inuit followed, to take advantage of the access to jobs and medical care provided by the base operations. By 1957, 489 of the town's 1,200 residents were reported to be Inuit. After 1959, the Canadian government established permanent services at Frobisher Bay, including full-time doctors, a school, and social services. The Inuit population grew rapidly in response, as the government encouraged Inuit to settle permanently in communities supported by government services.

Naval Radio Station (NRS) Frobisher Bay (HMCS Frobisher Bay), callsign CFI, was established in July 1954 as a result of the closure of NRS Chimo, Quebec. Station CFI was part of the Supplementary Radio network. Because of its remoteness and size, it was very expensive to operate. Renamed CFS Frobisher Bay in 1966, advancing technology eventually forced the closure of CFI later that year. [11]

The American military left Iqaluit in 1963, as their development of the intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) diminished the strategic value of the DEW line and Arctic airbases. Canada continued to operate an administrative and logistical centre for much of the eastern Arctic at Frobisher Bay. In 1964, the first local elections were held for a community council, and in 1979 for the first mayor. The founding of the Gordon Robertson Educational Centre, now Inuksuk High School, in the early 1970s at Iqaluit confirmed the government's commitment to the community as an administrative centre. At the time of its founding, this was the sole high school operating in what constituted more than one-seventh of Canadian territory.

On 1 January 1987, the name of the municipality was changed from "Frobisher Bay" to "Iqaluit" – aligning official usage with the name that the Inuit population had always used (Many documents were made that referred to Iqaluit as Frobisher Bay for several years after 1987). In the non-binding 1995 Nunavut capital plebiscite, held 11 December, the residents of what would become the new territory selected Iqaluit (over Rankin Inlet) to serve as the future capital. On 19 April 2001, it was designated a city.

Canada designated Iqaluit as the host city for the 2010 meeting of the Group of Seven finance ministers, held on 5–6 February. [12] The requirements for the international meeting strained the northern communications technology infrastructure and required supplemental investment. [13]

Timeline

Geography

Iqaluit is situated on the Everett Mountains Aerial view of Iqaluit, Nunavut (Quintin Soloviev).jpg
Iqaluit is situated on the Everett Mountains

Iqaluit is the northernmost city in Canada, at 63 degrees north of the Equator. Iqaluit is located in the Everett Mountains, which rise from Koojesse Inlet, [14] an inlet of Frobisher Bay, on the southeast part of Baffin Island. It is well to the east of Nunavut's mainland, and northeast of Hudson Bay.

Climate

Iqaluit has a tundra climate, featuring long, cold winters, and brief summers that are too cool to permit the growth of large trees. October nights in the Arctic (2).jpg
Iqaluit has a tundra climate, featuring long, cold winters, and brief summers that are too cool to permit the growth of large trees.

Iqaluit has a tundra climate (Köppen: ET) typical of the Arctic region, although it is well outside the Arctic Circle. The city features long, cold winters and brief, cool summers. Average monthly temperatures are below freezing for eight months of the year. [18] Iqaluit averages just over 400 mm (16 in) of precipitation annually, much wetter than many other localities in the Arctic Archipelago, with the summer being the wettest season. Temperatures of the winter months are comparable to other northern communities further west on the continent such as Yellowknife and to some extent even Fairbanks, Alaska, even though Iqaluit is a few degrees colder than the latter. Summer temperatures are, however, much colder due to its easterly maritime position affected by the waters of the cold Baffin Island Current. This means that the tree line is much further south in the eastern part of Canada, being as southbound, in spite of low elevation, as northern Labrador. [19]

Although it is north of the natural tree line, there are some short, south-facing imported black spruce (Picea mariana) specimens protected by snowdrifts in the winter, [20] in addition to a few shrubs, which are woody plants. These include the Arctic willow (Salix arctica). The Arctic willow may be up to around 7.6 m (25 ft) horizontally, but only 150 mm (6 in) tall.

The climate of Iqaluit is also colder than Gulf Stream locations on the same latitude. For example, the Norwegian city of Trondheim has an annual mean temperature that is 15.2 °C (27.4 °F) milder.

The lowest temperature ever recorded was −45.6 °C (−50.1 °F) on 10 February 1967. [18] The highest temperature ever recorded in Iqaluit was 26.8 °C (80.2 °F) on 21 July 2008. [21]

Climate data for Iqaluit (Iqaluit Airport)
WMO ID: 71909; coordinates 63°45′N68°33′W / 63.750°N 68.550°W / 63.750; -68.550 (Iqaluit Airport) ; elevation: 33.5 m (110 ft); 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1946–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high humidex 3.35.24.35.113.321.727.827.618.88.64.83.427.8
Record high °C (°F)3.9
(39.0)
5.7
(42.3)
4.2
(39.6)
7.2
(45.0)
13.3
(55.9)
22.7
(72.9)
26.8
(80.2)
25.5
(77.9)
18.4
(65.1)
9.1
(48.4)
5.6
(42.1)
3.8
(38.8)
26.8
(80.2)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)−22.0
(−7.6)
−22.9
(−9.2)
−17.6
(0.3)
−8.9
(16.0)
−0.3
(31.5)
7.0
(44.6)
12.0
(53.6)
11.1
(52.0)
5.6
(42.1)
−0.5
(31.1)
−7.5
(18.5)
−14.7
(5.5)
−4.9
(23.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)−26.0
(−14.8)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−22.4
(−8.3)
−13.5
(7.7)
−3.2
(26.2)
3.9
(39.0)
8.1
(46.6)
7.5
(45.5)
2.9
(37.2)
−3.2
(26.2)
−11.1
(12.0)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−8.6
(16.5)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)−29.9
(−21.8)
−31.0
(−23.8)
−27.2
(−17.0)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−6.1
(21.0)
0.7
(33.3)
4.2
(39.6)
3.8
(38.8)
0.2
(32.4)
−5.8
(21.6)
−14.7
(5.5)
−23.0
(−9.4)
−12.2
(10.0)
Record low °C (°F)−45.0
(−49.0)
−45.6
(−50.1)
−44.7
(−48.5)
−34.2
(−29.6)
−26.1
(−15.0)
−10.2
(13.6)
−2.8
(27.0)
−2.5
(27.5)
−12.8
(9.0)
−27.1
(−16.8)
−36.2
(−33.2)
−43.4
(−46.1)
−45.6
(−50.1)
Record low wind chill −64.0−65.6−62.1−53.1−36.0−18.8−7.2−8.6−18.6−42.9−56.8−60.1−65.6
Average precipitation mm (inches)16.3
(0.64)
14.0
(0.55)
21.4
(0.84)
22.7
(0.89)
21.0
(0.83)
48.7
(1.92)
39.8
(1.57)
61.7
(2.43)
50.8
(2.00)
30.2
(1.19)
18.5
(0.73)
16.2
(0.64)
361.2
(14.22)
Average rainfall mm (inches)0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.01)
3.1
(0.12)
23.8
(0.94)
51.9
(2.04)
68.6
(2.70)
42.2
(1.66)
6.8
(0.27)
0.6
(0.02)
0.0
(0.0)
197.2
(7.76)
Average snowfall cm (inches)21.7
(8.5)
21.0
(8.3)
21.6
(8.5)
31.5
(12.4)
27.6
(10.9)
9.3
(3.7)
0.0
(0.0)
0.9
(0.4)
13.2
(5.2)
29.4
(11.6)
29.7
(11.7)
23.4
(9.2)
229.3
(90.3)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)12.110.712.412.810.612.312.414.315.713.212.512.8151.5
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)0.00.10.00.31.47.412.716.710.62.20.30.051.6
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)12.211.612.713.412.03.90.10.57.213.713.812.3113.5
Average relative humidity (%)65.364.665.472.876.472.669.472.675.678.176.671.571.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 32.494.0172.2216.5180.5200.2236.8156.887.951.435.612.61,476.8
Percent possible sunshine 18.539.047.448.231.932.539.331.022.416.817.78.929.5
Average ultraviolet index 0012444321002
Source 1: Environment and Climate Change Canada [21] (rain/rain days, snow/snow days, humidex, wind chill, humidity 1981–2010) [18]
Source 2: Weather Atlas [22]

Cityscape

Skyline of Downtown, the central business district of Iqaluit. Iqaluit skyline.jpg
Skyline of Downtown, the central business district of Iqaluit.

Neighbourhoods

  • Downtown (central)
  • Happy Valley (north)
  • Lake Subdivision (north) – residential area
  • Lower Base (south)
  • Lower Iqaluit (southeast)
  • North 40 (northwest) – located on the north side of the airport
  • Plateau Subdivision (northwest) – residential area
  • Road To Nowhere (north)
  • Tundra Valley (west)
  • Tundra Ridge (west) – home to two of the city's schools and youth centre
  • West 40 (southwest) – commercial area
View of Apex, a suburban neighbourhood of Iqaluit. Apex Nunavut.JPG
View of Apex, a suburban neighbourhood of Iqaluit.

Suburbs

Apex (Niaqunngut), officially and functionally part of the City of Iqaluit, is a small community about 5 km (3.1 mi) southeast ( 63°43′20″N068°26′56″W / 63.72222°N 68.44889°W / 63.72222; -68.44889 (Apex) [23] ) from Iqaluit's centre and is known in Inuktitut as Niaqunngut. It is located on a small peninsula separating Koojesse Inlet from Tarr Inlet. There is a women's shelter, a church, a primary school (Nanook Elementary School), a design shop and a bed and breakfast in the community. Apex was where most Inuit lived when Iqaluit was a military site and off-limits to anyone not working at the base.

Architecture and attractions

The Legislative Building of Nunavut is a distinctive building in Iqaluit. Leg Building Iqaluit 2000-08-27.jpg
The Legislative Building of Nunavut is a distinctive building in Iqaluit.

Much of Iqaluit's architecture is functionaldesigned to minimize material costs, while retaining heat and withstanding the climate. Early architecture runs from the 1950s military barracks of the original DEW line installation, through the 1970s white hyper-modernist fibreglass block of the Nakasuk School and Municipal Offices and Arena, to the lines of the steel-reinforced concrete high-rise complex on the hill above it. A number of older Hudson's Bay Company and early 1950s buildings have been retained and restored in Apex (the former nursing station has been revived as the Rannva Bed and Breakfast, the HBC buildings as an art gallery). The newer buildings are more colourful and diverse, and closer to the norms of southern architecture.

The principal exception is the Nunavut Legislative Assembly Building, which is remarkable for its colourful interior, adorned with some of the very best in Inuit art. A new legislative building is in planning to be developed and built outside the city on the Apex Road.

Shaped like an igloo, St. Jude's Cathedral is the seat of the Anglican Diocese of The Arctic. Iqaluit St. Jude's Anglican Cathedral 2012.JPG
Shaped like an igloo, St. Jude's Cathedral is the seat of the Anglican Diocese of The Arctic.

Another distinctive building was St. Jude's Anglican Cathedral, see of the Anglican Diocese of The Arctic, which was a white building shaped like an igloo. The altar was built by the parishioners, under the guidance of Markoosie Peter, a traditional master carpenter. It was shaped like a traditional Inuit sled, and the cross composed of two crossed narwhal tusks. An incident of arson severely affected the Cathedral structure and interior on 5 November 2005, [24] and it was demolished on 1 June 2006. The cathedral is slowly being rebuilt (foundation 2008 superstructure 2010) and fund-raising continues locally and internationally. In December 2010, the exterior of a similarly shaped replacement cathedral was completed, and interior work was planned for 2011 with a potential opening for Christmas 2011. The current building, informally referred to as the Igloo Cathedral, was opened on 3 June 2012. The unique building, in the shape of an igloo, has traditionally been a landmark and tourist attraction in Iqaluit, besides its important spiritual role for Iqalummiut (people of Iqaluit).

On a ridge overlooking the city is the distinctive blue and white Inuksuk High School. The school is made up of four square sections joined that give a cloverleaf shape when viewed from the air.

The city is also the location of the Nunatta Sunakkutaangit Museum, which houses a large collection of Inuit and Arctic objects. The museum is housed in a restored and extended Hudson's Bay Company building, clad in the HBC signature red and white, transported to Iqaluit from its original site on the Apex Beach.

Sylvia Grinnell River in Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park. The territorial park is located just outside the city limits. River at Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park.JPG
Sylvia Grinnell River in Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park. The territorial park is located just outside the city limits.

Just west of Iqaluit is the Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park. This park is dominated by the valley of the Sylvia Grinnell River. A small visitor's centre with viewing platform is located on top of a hill overlooking scenic waterfalls, tidal flats and traditional fishing sites.

Nearby on an island near Peterhead Inlet, is the Qaummaarviit Territorial Park. It is a site with a long Inuit history and numerous artifacts have been recovered, including the remains of 11 semi-buried sod houses.

A little farther, across Frobisher Bay, are the Katannilik Territorial Park Reserve and the Soper River, a Canadian Heritage River, forming a park corridor linking Iqaluit along traditional overland travel routes with Kimmirut (formerly Lake Harbour). Frobisher Bay extends for almost 110 km (70 mi) to the east, with moderate hills, glaciers and traditional and summer camp sites, opening into the Davis Strait, which divides Nunavut from Greenland.

Iqaluit, like many Nunavut communities, has a volunteer-run annual spring festival. Called Toonik Tyme it involves a combination of traditional Inuit activities combined with more modern events, while the Alianait Music and Arts Festival is held for a week each 21 June. [25] The festival has attracted Canadian and international artists such as Joshua Haulli, [26] Quantum Tangle, [27] Washboard Hank [28] and Namgar. [29]

Demographics

Federal census population history of Iqaluit
YearPop.±%
19712,050    
19762,320+13.2%
19812,333+0.6%
19862,947+26.3%
1991 3,552+20.5%
1996 4,220+18.8%
2001 5,236+24.1%
2006 6,184+18.1%
2011 6,699+8.3%
2016 7,740+15.5%
2021 7,429−4.0%
Source: Statistics Canada
[5] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38]

In the 2021 Canadian census conducted by Statistics Canada, Iqaluit had a population of 7,429 living in 2,708 of its 3,297 total private dwellings, a change of

The median value of these dwellings is $376,639, quite a bit higher than the national median at $280,552. The average household has about 2.8 people living in it, and the average family has 1.4 children living at home with them. The median (after-tax) household income in Iqaluit is quite high, $98,921, almost double the national rate at $54,089. The median income for an individual in the city, is also high, $60,688. 5.9 per cent of people (over 15 years old) are either divorced or separated, which is quite a bit lower than the national rate at 8.6 per cent. Also, 53.3 per cent of the population is either married or living with a common law partner.

Iqaluit has quite a young population, the median age of the population is more than 10 years younger than the national rate, 30.1 years old compared to 40.6 years old.

For those over the age of 25:

The 2021 census reported that immigrants (individuals born outside Canada) comprise 750 persons or 10.3% of the total population of Iqaluit. Of the total immigrant population, the top countries of origin were Philippines (195 persons or 26.0%), Cameroon (50 persons or 6.7%), United Kingdom (40 persons or 5.3%), Nigeria (40 persons or 5.3%), Zimbabwe (40 persons or 5.3%), United States of America (35 persons or 4.7%), India (25 persons or 3.3%), Pakistan (20 persons or 2.7%), China (20 persons or 2.7%), Jamaica (20 persons or 2.7%), and Ethiopia (20 persons or 2.7%). [39]

Ethnicity

As of 2016, Iqaluit has the most Inuit in both numbers (3,900) and per centages (59.1 per cent), of all Canadian cities with populations greater than 5,000. [40] [41]

Panethnic groups in the City of Iqaluit (2001–2021)
Panethnic group2021 [39] 2016 [42] 2011 [43] 2006 [44] 2001 [45]
Pop. %Pop.%Pop.%Pop.%Pop.%
Indigenous 4,0554,5054,0403,6503,065
European [lower-alpha 1] 2,3502,5002,2652,2352,030
African 395225704525
Southeast Asian [lower-alpha 2] 235165703515
South Asian 10065553015
East Asian [lower-alpha 3] 5560606525
Latin American 4025151010
Middle Eastern [lower-alpha 4] 3530101010
Other [lower-alpha 5] 401010100
Total responses7,3107,5906,6006,0855,195
Total population7,4297,7406,6996,1845,236
Note: Totals greater than 100% due to multiple origin responses
A stop sign in Iqaluit. The sign features the two most-spoken languages in the city, English and Inuktitut. Iqaluit stop sign.jpg
A stop sign in Iqaluit. The sign features the two most-spoken languages in the city, English and Inuktitut.
Catholic Church IqaluitCatholicChurch.jpg
Catholic Church

Language

There is no "majority mother tongue" in Iqaluit, as 45.4 percent reported their mother tongue as being English, and 45.4 percent also reported their mother tongue as Inuktitut. English is spoken by 97.2 percent of Iqaluit residents, however, whereas only 53.1 percent can speak Inuktitut. French was the mother tongue of 4.8 percent of the population, which is the same figure of the population who can speak the language. As of 2012, "Pirurvik, Iqaluit's Inuktitut language training centre, has a new goal: to train instructors from Nunavut communities to teach Inuktitut in different ways and in their own dialects when they return home." [46]

Religion

According to the 2021 census, religious groups in Iqaluit included: [39]

Education

Nakasuk School is one of six publicly funded schools in the city. Nakasuk Elementary School, Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada.jpg
Nakasuk School is one of six publicly funded schools in the city.
Nunatta Sunakkutaangit Museum IqaluitMuseum.jpg
Nunatta Sunakkutaangit Museum
Joamie Ilinniarvik School IqaluitSchool.jpg
Joamie Ilinniarvik School

The Qikiqtani School Operations based in Pond Inlet operates five schools in the area. Nanook Elementary School, located in Apex, Nakasuk School and Joamie Ilinniarvik School offer kindergarten to grade 5. Aqsarniit Ilinniarvik School offers grades 6 to 8 and Inuksuk High School offers grades 9 to 12. [47]

The Commission scolaire francophone du Nunavut runs École des Trois-Soleils and offers kindergarten to grade 12. [48]

At the post-secondary level there are two, Nunavut Arctic College (Nunatta Campus) and Akitsiraq Law School.

Infrastructure

Emergency services

Royal Canadian Mounted Police during a Canada Day parade in 1999. Policing is provided by the RCMP's V Division. Mounties Iqaluit Canada Day 19990701.jpg
Royal Canadian Mounted Police during a Canada Day parade in 1999. Policing is provided by the RCMP's V Division.
Iqaluit Hospital IqaluitHospital.jpg
Iqaluit Hospital

Emergency services (fire and ambulance) are provided by city from a single station on Niaqunngusiariaq. [49]

The emergency services fleet consists of:

Iqaluit Airport Emergency Services is responsible for fire services at the airport. Following a fire at the airport in 1998, the Government of Nunavut re-opened the fire station at the airport. [50] Their fleet consists of:

Policing in Iqaluit, as with the rest of Nunavut, is contracted to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) V Division [51] and the city is home to the divisional headquarters. [52]

Medical services

Qikiqtani General Hospital is the primary care facility in the city. There is also a Family Practice Clinic providing primary care services by Nurse Practitioners. Two dental clinics exist in the city.

Sports facilities

Iqaluit features two arenas, the Arctic Winter Games Arena and Arnaitok, the Iqaluit Aquaplex, a curling rink, the Timmianut Pikiuqarvik disc golf course, the Frobisher Inn Fitness Centre, in the W.G. Brown Building/Astro Hill Complex, [53] a golf course, outdoor basketball courts, soccer nets, seasonal outdoor ice rinks, a shooting range, a skatepark, and more. [54]

Transportation

Iqaluit is the smallest Canadian capital in terms of population, and the only capital that is not connected to other settlements by a highway. Located on an island remote from the Canadian highway system, Iqaluit is generally only accessible by aircraft and, subject to ice conditions, by boat.

Iqaluit Airport hosts a number of scheduled flights to Ottawa, Montreal, Rankin Inlet, Kuujjuaq, and smaller communities throughout Nunavut. Iqaluit airport (6869460992).jpg
Iqaluit Airport hosts a number of scheduled flights to Ottawa, Montreal, Rankin Inlet, Kuujjuaq, and smaller communities throughout Nunavut.

Iqaluit Airport is a modern facility with a runway long enough for most modern jet aircraft. A new, larger passenger terminal building north of the old terminal was completed in 2018.

Canadian North serves Iqaluit from Ottawa, Yellowknife, and several communities in Nunavut. Locally based airlines Air Nunavut, Canadian Helicopters, Nunasi Helicopters, and Unaalik Aviation provide air charters, and Air Nunavut and Keewatin Air provide MEDIVAC/air ambulance service. Air Canada Jazz provided daily service to Iqaluit from Ottawa in 2010 and 2011, but cancelled service due to rising fuel costs, which prevented the route from being profitable. [55] [56]

Iqaluit shared its runway with the Royal Canadian Air Force until the Canadian Forces stopped using Iqaluit as a Canadian NORAD Region Forward Operating Location. The barracks and CF-188 hangars are maintained. The airport has been a centre for cold-weather testing of new aircraft, such as the Airbus A380 in February 2006.

Rumours that Iqaluit was an emergency landing site for the Space Shuttle are false.[ citation needed ]

In the middle of summer, a few ships—generally no larger than a Liberty-class vessel—transport bulk and heavy goods to the city. Cargo is currently off-loaded onto barges as the harbour is not deep enough; however, the city is currently constructing a deep-seaport that is expected to open in 2023. [57] The deep-seaport, which will cost approximately $85 million, will provide all-tide access to ships and will have space for one ship to dock and unload, with the ability to offload a second using a barge-and-ramp method. [58] [59] Initial plans for the port included facilities for a vehicle ferry connection to Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, however these plans were dropped due to high cost. [60] Experienced locals also cross the Hudson Strait from the Canadian mainland when it freezes over, either on foot or by dog sled or snowmobile, a distance of over 100 km (62 mi).

Iqaluit has a local road system that does not extend far beyond the city limits. During the winter, remote areas near the city are only accessible by snowmobiles, dog sled, or foot. Traffic on the Road to Nowhere.JPG
Iqaluit has a local road system that does not extend far beyond the city limits. During the winter, remote areas near the city are only accessible by snowmobiles, dog sled, or foot.

Iqaluit has a local road system only stretching from the nearby community of Apex to the Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park, 1 km (0.62 mi) west of town. Iqaluit has no public transportation, although there is citywide taxi service. Iqaluit Public Transit used to offer bus service in the city, but the service was cancelled due to low ridership. Motor cars are increasing in number, to the extent of causing occasional traffic jams known locally as "the rush minute". The cost of shipping automobiles and the wear-and-tear of the harsh Arctic climate combined with its notoriously rough roadways mean that snowmobiles remain the preferred form of personal transportation. All-terrain vehicles are also common in most of the Canadian Arctic. Snowmobiles are used to travel within the city and in the surrounding area. In winter, dog sleds are still used, but primarily for recreation. In winter, the nearby Qaummaarviit Territorial Park and the more remote Katannilik Territorial Park Reserve are only accessible by snowmobile, dog sled or foot. In the summer, both are accessible by boat. Most major roads within Iqaluit are paved with asphalt, but local and smaller roads are gravel. Roads do not have traffic signals, but use stop signs to control intersections.

Residents and businesses identify their locations mostly by building number, and occasionally by the name of a prominent structure. Residents know where in the city certain series of building numbers are located; numbers tend to be aggregated in blocks, so someone might say that they live in the 2600s. Around 2003, street names were developed, although there were delays in finalizing them and posting the signs. Street numbers have not been assigned, and building numbers continue to be used. Iqaluit is the only Canadian capital city not to have traffic signals, [61] although some have been installed on a temporary basis. [62]

Waste and water treatment

The city's infrastructure is stressed by growth and lack of means to upgrade. Waste from the city is disposed of into an open air dump on Akilliq Drive (West 40) located south of the city. [63]

Although the city has water treatment facilities, raw sewage from the city is often dumped untreated into nearby Frobisher Bay. [63]

As the dump has reached capacity, the city plans to open a second dump 9 km (5.6 mi) north of the city. [64] Iqaluit does not have a recycling program in place; all recyclable materials are sent into the waste stream.

In October 2021, residents of Iqaluit, experienced a water crisis when their tap water was found to be contaminated with fuel. The contamination was traced to a decades-old underground fuel tank that had leaked into the city's water supply. The crisis led to a state of emergency, with residents relying on bottled water and water from nearby rivers for drinking, cooking, and other daily needs. The situation highlighted the challenges of providing safe and reliable water services in remote and Arctic communities.

Media

Offices for the Nunatsiaq News. Nunatsiaq News is one of two weekly newspapers that circulate in Iqaluit. Nunatsiaq News - Nunavut Tourism - Ayaya Communications Offices.jpg
Offices for the Nunatsiaq News. Nunatsiaq News is one of two weekly newspapers that circulate in Iqaluit.
Harbour view IqaluitHarbourView.jpg
Harbour view
Harbour view IqaluitHarbourView2.jpg
Harbour view

Communications

Landline services in Iqaluit (established in 1958 by Bell Canada) and throughout northern Canada (established by Northwestel in five western Nunavut communities, and by Bell Canada elsewhere in Nunavut), are provided since 1992 by Northwestel. [65]

Cell service is provided by Ice Wireless, [66] Bell Mobility, [67] and Qiniq. [68]

Internet service is available through Northwestel, Ice Wireless, Qiniq, Xplornet and Meshnet. [69] Meshnet Community WiFi is a free community WiFi and paid service available in most areas of the city. Free services include access to Isuma.tv, and many other resources.

Press

Broadcast studio for CFFB radio, and the regional network centre for Nunavut for CBC North. CBC North studio Iqaluit.JPG
Broadcast studio for CFFB radio, and the regional network centre for Nunavut for CBC North.

Radio

FrequencyCall signBrandingFormatOwnerNotes
AM 1230 & FM 91.1 CFFB CBC Radio One Talk radio, public radio Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Part of CBC North; broadcasts English and Inuktitut programming
FM 88.3 CBM-FM-3 CBC Music Assorted music, public radio Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Rebroadcaster of CBM-FM (Montreal)
FM 93.3 CIQA-FM Weatheradio Canada Weather radio Meteorological Service of Canada Rebroadcaster of VEV284 (Iqaluit Airport)
FM 99.9 CKIQ-FM Ice FM Classic rock Northern Lights Entertainment
FM 103.5 CKGC-FM Capital FM Oldies Northern Lights Entertainment
FM 107.3 CFRT-FM 107.3 CFRT Community radio Association des Francophones du Nunavut French language community radio

Television

OTA channelCall signNetworkNotes
10 (VHF) CH4161 Aboriginal Peoples Television Network Eastern Time Zone feed
12 (VHF) CH2260 Ici Radio-Canada Télé Community-owned rebroadcaster of CBFT-DT (Montreal)

Iqaluit was served by CFFB-TV channel 8, a CBC Television/CBC North repeater of CFYK-DT (Yellowknife) until 31 July 2012 when it was closed because of budget cuts at the CBC. [70] [71]

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. Statistic includes all persons that did not make up part of a visible minority or an indigenous identity.
  2. Statistic includes total responses of "Filipino" and "Southeast Asian" under visible minority section on census.
  3. Statistic includes total responses of "Chinese", "Korean", and "Japanese" under visible minority section on census.
  4. Statistic includes total responses of "West Asian" and "Arab" under visible minority section on census.
  5. Statistic includes total responses of "Visible minority, n.i.e." and "Multiple visible minorities" under visible minority section on census.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baffin Island</span> Largest Arctic island in Nunavut, Canada

Baffin Island, in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the largest island in Canada and the fifth-largest island in the world. Its area is 507,451 km2 (195,928 sq mi) with a population density of 0.03/km2; the population was 13,039 according to the 2021 Canadian census; and it is located at 68°N70°W. It also contains the city of Iqaluit, which is the capital of Nunavut.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Frobisher Bay</span> Inlet of the Davis Strait in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada

Frobisher Bay is an inlet of the Davis Strait in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada. It is located in the southeastern corner of Baffin Island. Its length is about 230 km (140 mi) and its width varies from about 40 km (25 mi) at its outlet into the Davis Strait to roughly 20 km (12 mi) towards its inner end.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Grise Fiord</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Grise Fiord is an Inuit hamlet on the southern tip of Ellesmere Island, in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada. It is one of three populated places on the island; despite its low population, it is the largest community on Ellesmere Island. Created by the Canadian Government in 1953 through a relocation of Inuit families from Inukjuak, Quebec, it is Canada's northernmost public community. It is also one of the coldest inhabited places in the world, with an average yearly temperature of −16.5 °C (2.3 °F).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pond Inlet</span> Place in Nunavut, Canada

Pond Inlet is a small, predominantly Inuit community in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada, located on northern Baffin Island. To the Inuit the name of the place "is and always has been Mittimatalik." The Scottish explorer Sir John Ross had named an arm of the sea that separates Bylot Island from Baffin Island as Pond's Bay, and the hamlet now shares that name. On 29 August 1921, the Hudson's Bay Company opened its trading post near the Inuit camp and named it Pond Inlet, marking the expansion of its trading empire into the High Arctic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Qikiqtaaluk Region</span> Region of Nunavut, Canada

The Qikiqtaaluk Region, Qikiqtani Region or the Baffin Region is the easternmost, northernmost, and southernmost administrative region of Nunavut, Canada. Qikiqtaaluk is the traditional Inuktitut name for Baffin Island. Although the Qikiqtaaluk Region is the most commonly used name in official contexts, several notable public organizations, including Statistics Canada prior to the 2021 Canadian census, use the older term Baffin Region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Inuktitut</span> Name of several Inuit languages spoken in Canada

Inuktitut, also known as Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada. It is spoken in all areas north of the North American tree line, including parts of the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec, to some extent in northeastern Manitoba as well as the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. It is one of the aboriginal languages written with Canadian Aboriginal syllabics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arctic Bay</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Arctic Bay is an Inuit hamlet located in the northern part of the Borden Peninsula on Baffin Island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada. Arctic Bay is located in the Eastern Time Zone although it is quite close to the time zone boundary. The predominant languages are Inuktitut and English. Arctic Bay is notable for being the birthplace of the former Premier of Nunavut and, as of 2021, the Commissioner of Nunavut, Eva Aariak. It is the northernmost public community in Canada not formed from forced relocation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arviat</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Arviat is a predominantly Inuit hamlet located on the western shore of Hudson Bay in the Kivalliq Region of Nunavut, Canada. Arviat is derived from the Inuktitut word arviq meaning "Bowhead whale". Earlier in history, its name was Tikirajualaaq, and Ittaliurvik,.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kinngait</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Kinngait, known as Cape Dorset until 27 February 2020, is an Inuit hamlet located on Dorset Island near Foxe Peninsula at the southern tip of Baffin Island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Iqaluit Airport</span> Airport serving Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada

Iqaluit Airport serves Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada and is located adjacent to the city. It hosts scheduled passenger service from Ottawa, Montreal, Rankin Inlet, and Kuujjuaq on carriers such as Canadian North, and from smaller communities throughout eastern Nunavut. It is also used as a forward operating base by the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). In 2011, the terminal handled more than 120,000 passengers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Qikiqtarjuaq</span> Place in Nunavut, Canada

Qikiqtarjuaq is a community located on Broughton Island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada. The island is known for Arctic wildlife, bird watching at the Qaqulluit National Wildlife Area. The community serves as the northern access point for Auyuittuq National Park and Pangnirtung is the southern access point.

Qulliq Energy Corporation is a Canadian territorial corporation which is the sole electricity utility and distributor in Nunavut. It is wholly owned by the Government of Nunavut. Its name is derived from the qulliq, a traditional oil lamp used by Inuit and other Arctic indigenous peoples. It is headquartered in Baker Lake, Nunavut.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Clyde River, Nunavut</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Clyde River is an Inuit hamlet located on the shore of Baffin Island's Patricia Bay, off Kangiqtugaapik, an arm of Davis Strait in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, of Nunavut, Canada. It lies in the Baffin Mountains which in turn form part of the Arctic Cordillera mountain range. The community is served by air and by annual supply sealift.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nunavut</span> Territory of Canada

Nunavut is the largest and northernmost territory of Canada. It was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act, which provided this territory to the Inuit for independent government. The boundaries had been drawn in 1993. The creation of Nunavut resulted in the first major change to Canada's political map in half a century since the province of Newfoundland was admitted in 1949.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bryan Pearson (politician)</span> Canadian politician

Bryan Pearson, nicknamed Sedluk or Salluk, meaning skinny in Inuktitut, was a territorial level politician from the Northwest Territories, in what is now Nunavut, Canada.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Apex, Iqaluit</span>

Apex is a small community in Iqaluit located on Baffin Island in Nunavut, Canada. It is about 5 km (3.1 mi) southeast of Iqaluit on a small peninsula separating Koojesse (Kuujussi) Inlet from Tarr Inlet. Historically Apex was the place where most Inuit lived when Iqaluit was a military site and off-limits to anyone not working at the base. The community is accessed by bridge or causeway, and bordered by a local creek (kuujuusi) and waterfall (kugluktuk). Located here are the women's shelter, a church, Nanook Elementary School, and a bed-and-breakfast, along with housing for about 60 families.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Inuit Nunangat</span> Inuit regions of Canada

Inuit Nunangat refers to the land, water, and ice of the homeland of Inuit in Canada. This Arctic homeland consists of four northern Canadian regions called the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, the territory Nunavut (ᓄᓇᕗᑦ), Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) in northern Quebec, and Nunatsiavut of Newfoundland and Labrador.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park</span> Territorial park in Nunavut, Canada

Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park is a Canadian territorial park on Baffin Island in the territory of Nunavut.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Simonie Michael</span> Canadian Inuit politician (1933–2008)

Simonie Michael was a Canadian politician from the eastern Northwest Territories who was the first Inuk elected to a legislature in Canada. Before becoming involved in politics, Michael worked as a carpenter and business owner, and was one of very few translators between Inuktitut and English. He became a prominent member of the Inuit co-operative housing movement and a community activist in Iqaluit, and was appointed to a series of governing bodies, including the precursor to the Iqaluit City Council.

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Further reading