Gjoa Haven

Last updated

Gjoa Haven
ᐅᖅᓱᖅᑑᖅ
Uqsuqtuuq
Gjoa.JPG
Main street of Gjoa Haven
Canada Nunavut location map-lambert proj3.svg
Red pog.svg
Gjoa Haven
Canada location map 2.svg
Red pog.svg
Gjoa Haven
Coordinates: 68°37′30″N95°52′40″W / 68.62500°N 95.87778°W / 68.62500; -95.87778 [1] Coordinates: 68°37′30″N95°52′40″W / 68.62500°N 95.87778°W / 68.62500; -95.87778 [1]
CountryCanada
Territory Nunavut
Region Kitikmeot
Electoral district Gjoa Haven
Government
  MayorMegan Porter
   MLA Tony Akoak
   MP Lori Idlout
Area
 (2021) [4] [5]
  Total28.55 km2 (11.02 sq mi)
   Population Centre 0.70 km2 (0.27 sq mi)
Elevation
[6]
47 m (154 ft)
Population
 (2021) [4] [5]
  Total1,349
  Density47.3/km2 (123/sq mi)
  Population Centre
1,110
  Population Centre density1,586.2/km2 (4,108/sq mi)
Time zone UTC−07:00 (MST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−06:00 (MDT)
Canadian Postal code
Area code 867
Website www.gjoahaven.net

Gjoa Haven ( /ˌˈhvən/ ; Inuktitut: Uqsuqtuuq, syllabics: ᐅᖅᓱᖅᑑᖅ [ pronunciation? ], meaning "lots of fat", referring to the abundance of sea mammals in the nearby waters; French pronunciation:  [ɡʒɔa avɑ̃] or [ɡʒɔa evən]) is an Inuit hamlet in Nunavut, above the Arctic Circle, located in the Kitikmeot Region, 1,056 km (656 mi) northeast of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. It is the only settlement on King William Island.

Contents

Etymology

The name Gjoa Haven is from the Norwegian Gjøahavn or "Gjøa's Harbour"; it was named by early 20th-century polar explorer Roald Amundsen after his ship Gjøa. This was derived from the old Norse name Gyða, a compressed compound form of Guðfríðr (guð "god" and fríðr "beautiful"').

History

Sled on the beach, September 2019 Sled, Gjoa Haven, September 2019.jpg
Sled on the beach, September 2019

In 1903, the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen had entered the area on his ship Gjøa in an expedition intending to travel through the Northwest Passage. By October the straits through which he was travelling began to ice up. Amundsen put Gjøa into a natural harbour on the southeast coast of King William Island. He stayed there, in what Amundsen called "the finest little harbor in the world", for nearly two years. He and his crew spent much of that time with the local Netsilik, learning from them the skills to live off the land and travel efficiently in the Arctic environment. This knowledge proved to be vital for Amundsen's later successful exploration to the South Pole. He explored the Boothia Peninsula, searching for the exact location of the north magnetic pole.

Sunset over the horizon, March 2016 Sunset Gjoa.jpg
Sunset over the horizon, March 2016

Some Inuit in Gjoa Haven with European ancestry have claimed to be descendants of Amundsen (or one of his six crew, whose names have not remained as well known). Accounts by members of the expedition told of their relations with Inuit women, and historians have speculated that Amundsen might also have taken a partner, [7] although he wrote a warning against this. [8] Specifically, half brothers Bob Konona and Paul Ikuallaq say that their father Luke Ikuallaq (b. 1904) told them on his deathbed that he was the son of Amundsen. Konona said that their father Ikuallaq was left out on the ice to die after his birth, as his European ancestry made him illegitimate to the Inuit, threatening their community. His Inuit grandparents saved him. In 2012, Y-DNA analysis, with the families' permission, showed that Ikuallaq (and his sons) was not a match to the direct male line of Amundsen. [8] Not all descendants claiming European ancestry have been tested for a match to Amundsen, nor has there been a comparison of Ikuallaq's DNA to that of other European members of Amundsen's crew. [8]

Permanent European-style settlement at Gjoa Haven started in 1927 when the Hudson's Bay Company opened a trading post. [9] In 1941 Henry Larsen reached the post from the west. The settlement has attracted the traditionally nomadic Inuit as they have adapted a more settled lifestyle.

In 1961, the town's population was 110. By 2001, the population was 960 according to the census, as most Inuit have moved from their traditional camps to be close to the healthcare and educational facilities available at Gjoa Haven.

Gjoa Haven has expanded to such an extent that a newer subdivision has been developed near the airport at 68°37′56″N095°52′04″W / 68.63222°N 95.86778°W / 68.63222; -95.86778 .

The community is served by the Gjoa Haven Airport and by annual supply sealift. The area is home to CAM-CB, a North Warning System site.

Demographics

Federal census population history of Gjoa Haven
YearPop.±%
1976420    
1981523+24.5%
1986650+24.3%
1991 783+20.5%
1996 879+12.3%
2001 960+9.2%
2006 1,064+10.8%
2011 1,279+20.2%
2016 1,324+3.5%
2021 1,349+1.9%
Source: Statistics Canada
[4] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]

In the 2021 Canadian census conducted by Statistics Canada, Gjoa Haven had a population of 1,349 living in 292 of its 339 total private dwellings, a change of

In the 2021 Canadian census, Gjoa Haven's Population Centre recorded 1,110 people living in an area of 0.70 km2 (0.27 sq mi), giving a population density of

Attractions

Nattilik Heritage Centre, September 2019 Nattilik Heritage Centre, Gjoa Haven, September 2019.jpg
Nattilik Heritage Centre, September 2019

Religion

Two churches are located in the hamlet:

Government services

All terrain vehicle (ATV), September 2019 All terrain vehicles are a common mode of transport in Gjoa Haven, September 2019.jpg
All terrain vehicle (ATV), September 2019
Sled on snow bank overlooking the Hamlet, April 2015 Sled and Town.jpg
Sled on snow bank overlooking the Hamlet, April 2015

Local

Territorial

Climate

Gjoa Haven has a tundra climate (ET) with short but cool summers and long cold winters.

Climate data for Gjoa Haven (Gjoa Haven Airport)
Climate ID: 2302335; coordinates 68°38′08″N95°51′01″W / 68.63556°N 95.85028°W / 68.63556; -95.85028 (Gjoa Haven Airport) ; elevation: 46.9 m (154 ft); 1981–2010 normals
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high humidex −7.4−11.3−6.60.22.619.426.723.016.04.2−1.4−1.926.7
Record high °C (°F)−6.0
(21.2)
−11.0
(12.2)
−5.0
(23.0)
1.0
(33.8)
6.5
(43.7)
20.8
(69.4)
24.1
(75.4)
22.5
(72.5)
15.4
(59.7)
4.5
(40.1)
−0.8
(30.6)
−8.3
(17.1)
24.1
(75.4)
Average high °C (°F)−30.4
(−22.7)
−30.7
(−23.3)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−16.0
(3.2)
−5.9
(21.4)
4.2
(39.6)
12.1
(53.8)
8.9
(48.0)
2.1
(35.8)
−6.7
(19.9)
−19.0
(−2.2)
−26.6
(−15.9)
−11.1
(12.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)−33.8
(−28.8)
−34.0
(−29.2)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−20.4
(−4.7)
−9.4
(15.1)
1.4
(34.5)
8.0
(46.4)
5.8
(42.4)
0.1
(32.2)
−9.5
(14.9)
−22.4
(−8.3)
−29.9
(−21.8)
−14.4
(6.1)
Average low °C (°F)−37.1
(−34.8)
−37.0
(−34.6)
−32.6
(−26.7)
−24.8
(−12.6)
−12.9
(8.8)
−1.5
(29.3)
3.8
(38.8)
2.7
(36.9)
−2.0
(28.4)
−12.3
(9.9)
−25.8
(−14.4)
−33.1
(−27.6)
−17.7
(0.1)
Record low °C (°F)−48.3
(−54.9)
−50.2
(−58.4)
−46.3
(−51.3)
−40.0
(−40.0)
−28.2
(−18.8)
−17.0
(1.4)
−1.1
(30.0)
−5.0
(23.0)
−14.3
(6.3)
−32.0
(−25.6)
−39.4
(−38.9)
−44.0
(−47.2)
−50.2
(−58.4)
Record low wind chill −64.2−65.3−64.5−54.0−38.1−21.90.0−12.9−21.2−48.1−55.0−62.5−65.3
Average precipitation mm (inches)8.3
(0.33)
7.8
(0.31)
12.9
(0.51)
13.5
(0.53)
15.0
(0.59)
14.7
(0.58)
21.2
(0.83)
28.4
(1.12)
24.2
(0.95)
25.0
(0.98)
11.4
(0.45)
8.8
(0.35)
191.0
(7.52)
Average rainfall mm (inches)0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.8
(0.07)
11.2
(0.44)
20.8
(0.82)
27.9
(1.10)
15.9
(0.63)
0.9
(0.04)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
78.4
(3.09)
Average snowfall cm (inches)9.7
(3.8)
8.8
(3.5)
15.8
(6.2)
15.4
(6.1)
15.2
(6.0)
3.9
(1.5)
0.4
(0.2)
0.5
(0.2)
8.8
(3.5)
28.2
(11.1)
13.4
(5.3)
10.4
(4.1)
130.4
(51.3)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)8.26.49.08.89.66.87.811.012.014.110.18.2112.0
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)0.00.00.00.00.85.37.810.67.40.50.00.032.5
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)8.26.49.08.89.31.90.20.65.814.110.48.282.7
Average relative humidity (%)62.663.970.377.785.981.970.775.882.387.776.766.775.2
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010 [20]

Economy

Qikiqtaq Co-Op, April 2015 Co-Op.jpg
Qikiqtaq Co-Op, April 2015

Most employment in Gjoa Haven is with government services; there are a few commercial employers:

Wrecks of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror National Historic Site

Inuit guardians from Gjoa Haven on MS Ocean Endeavour as part of the trial visitor experience to the Wrecks of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror National Historic Site, 2019 Inuit guardians from Gjoa Haven on MS Ocean Endeavour as part of the trial visitor experience, 2019.jpg
Inuit guardians from Gjoa Haven on MS Ocean Endeavour as part of the trial visitor experience to the Wrecks of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror National Historic Site, 2019

The discovery of HMS Terror and HMS Erebus shipwrecks from the Franklin's lost expedition is expected to bring increased tourism to Gjoa Haven, the nearest community to the Wrecks of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror National Historic Site. [21] [22] Public access to the site is not allowed. To protect the site, Inuit from Gjoa Haven are employed as guardians, camping near the wreck sites to monitor access to the sites. [23] [24] The Nattilik Heritage Centre will be expanded to create a visitor centre for the historic site. [25] [26]

Education

Gjoa Haven has three schools:

Broadband communications

The community has been served by the Qiniq network since 2005. Qiniq is a fixed wireless service to homes and businesses, connecting to the outside world via a satellite backbone. The Qiniq network is designed and operated by SSi Canada. In 2017, the network was upgraded to 4G LTE technology, and 2G-GSM for mobile voice.

Culture

Moon Dance team performing square dancing at the Gjoa Haven community hall, 2019

Square dancing is very popular in Gjoa Haven with many teams competing in annual showdowns (square dance tournaments). [27] [28] Inuit learned square dancing from the Scottish and American whalers active in the area in the mid-1800s. It is generally accompanied by accordion (or concertina) and fiddles and has its roots in round dances from Great Britain rather than Western American square dance. A single dance can take from 40 minutes to over an hour. [29]

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Grise Fiord</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Grise Fiord is an Inuit hamlet on the southern tip of Ellesmere Island, in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada. It is one of three populated places on the island; despite its low population, it is the largest community on Ellesmere Island. The hamlet at Grise Fiord, created by the Canadian Government in 1953 through a relocation of Inuit families from Inukjuak, Quebec, is the northernmost public community in Canada. It is also one of the coldest inhabited places in the world, with an average yearly temperature of −16.5 °C (2.3 °F).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Igloolik</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Igloolik is an Inuit hamlet in Foxe Basin, Qikiqtaaluk Region in Nunavut, northern Canada. Because its location on Igloolik Island is close to Melville Peninsula, it is often mistakenly thought to be on the peninsula. The name "Igloolik" means "there is a house here". It derives from iglu, meaning house or building, and refers to the sod houses that were originally in the area, not to snow igloos. In Inuktitut the residents are called Iglulingmiut.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rankin Inlet</span> Place in Nunavut, Canada

Rankin Inlet is an Inuit hamlet on Kudlulik Peninsula in Nunavut, Canada. It is the largest hamlet and second-largest settlement in Nunavut, after the territorial capital, Iqaluit. On the northwestern Hudson Bay, between Chesterfield Inlet and Arviat, it is the regional centre for the Kivalliq Region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pangnirtung</span> Place in Nunavut, Canada

Pangnirtung is an Inuit hamlet, in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of the Canadian territory of Nunavut, located on Baffin Island. Pangnirtung is situated on a coastal plain at the coast of Pangnirtung Fjord, a fjord which eventually merges with Cumberland Sound. As of January 2022, the mayor is Stevie Komoartok.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sanikiluaq</span> Place in Nunavut, Canada

Sanikiluaq is a municipality and Inuit community located on the north coast of Flaherty Island in Hudson Bay, on the Belcher Islands. Despite being geographically much closer to the shores of Ontario and Quebec, the community and the Belcher Islands lie within the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arctic Bay</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Arctic Bay is an Inuit hamlet located in the northern part of the Borden Peninsula on Baffin Island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada. Arctic Bay is located in the Eastern Time Zone although it is quite close to the time zone boundary. The predominant languages are Inuktitut and English. Arctic Bay is notable for being the birthplace of the former Premier of Nunavut and, as of 2021, the Commissioner of Nunavut, Eva Aariak. It is the northern most public community in Canada, not formed from forced relocation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kitikmeot Region</span> Region in Nunavut, Canada

Kitikmeot Region is an administrative region of Nunavut, Canada. It consists of the southern and eastern parts of Victoria Island with the adjacent part of the mainland as far as the Boothia Peninsula, together with King William Island and the southern portion of Prince of Wales Island. The regional centre is Cambridge Bay.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">King William Island</span> Island in Nunavut, Canada

King William Island is an island in the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut, which is part of the Arctic Archipelago. In area it is between 12,516 km2 (4,832 sq mi) and 13,111 km2 (5,062 sq mi) making it the 61st-largest island in the world and Canada's 15th-largest island. Its population, as of the 2021 census, was 1,349, all of whom live in the island's only community, Gjoa Haven.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arviat</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Arviat is a predominantly Inuit hamlet located on the western shore of Hudson Bay in the Kivalliq Region of Nunavut, Canada. Arviat is derived from the Inuktitut word arviq meaning "Bowhead whale". Earlier in history, its name was Tikirajualaaq, and Ittaliurvik,.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cambridge Bay</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Cambridge Bay is a hamlet located on Victoria Island in the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut, Canada. It is the largest settlement on Victoria Island. Cambridge Bay is named for Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, while the traditional Inuinnaqtun name for the area is Ikaluktutiak or Iqaluktuuttiaq meaning "good fishing place".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baker Lake, Nunavut</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Baker Lake is a hamlet in the Kivalliq Region, in Nunavut on mainland Canada. Located 320 km (200 mi) inland from Hudson Bay, it is near the nation's geographical centre, and is notable for being Nunavut's sole inland community. The hamlet is located at the mouth of the Thelon River on the shore of Baker Lake. The community was given its English name in 1761 from Captain William Christopher who named it after Sir William Baker, the 11th Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kinngait</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Kinngait, formerly known as Cape Dorset until 27 February 2020, is an Inuit hamlet located on Dorset Island near Foxe Peninsula at the southern tip of Baffin Island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Qikiqtarjuaq</span> Place in Nunavut, Canada

Qikiqtarjuaq is a community located on Broughton Island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada. The island is known for Arctic wildlife, bird watching, and as the northern access point for Auyuittuq National Park

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ulukhaktok</span> Hamlet in Northwest Territories, Canada

Ulukhaktok is a small hamlet on the west coast of Victoria Island, in the Inuvik Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Clyde River, Nunavut</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Clyde River is an Inuit hamlet located on the shore of Baffin Island's Patricia Bay, off Kangiqtugaapik, an arm of Davis Strait in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, of Nunavut, Canada. It lies in the Baffin Mountains which in turn form part of the Arctic Cordillera mountain range. The community is served by air and by annual supply sealift.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chesterfield Inlet, Nunavut</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Chesterfield Inlet is a hamlet located on the western shore of Hudson Bay, Kivalliq Region, in Nunavut, Canada, at the mouth of Chesterfield Inlet. Igluligaarjuk is the Inuktitut word for "place with few houses", it is the oldest community in Nunavut. The community is served by air, Chesterfield Inlet Airport, and by an annual supply known as sealift.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kugaaruk</span> Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Kugaaruk, formerly known as Pelly Bay until 3 December 1999, is located on the shore of Pelly Bay, just off the Gulf of Boothia, Simpson Peninsula, Kitikmeot, in Canada's Nunavut territory. Access is by air by the Kugaaruk Airport and by annual supply sealift. Kugaaruk means "little stream", the traditional name of the brook that flows through the hamlet.

The Northwest Passage Territorial Park is located at Gjoa Haven, on King William Island, Kitikmeot Region, Nunavut, Canada. The park consists of six areas that show in part the history of the exploration of the Northwest Passage and the first successful passage by Roald Amundsen in the Gjøa.

Wrecks of HMS <i>Erebus</i> and HMS <i>Terror</i> National Historic Site National Historic Site of Canada in Nunavut

The Wrecks of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror National Historic Site is a National Historic Site of Canada near King William Island in the northern Nunavut territory. It protects the wrecks of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, the two ships of the last expedition of Sir John Franklin, lost in the 1840s during their search for the Northwest Passage and then re-discovered in 2014 and 2016. The site is jointly managed by Parks Canada and the local Inuit. Public access to the site is not permitted.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nattilik Heritage Centre</span> Museum in Nunavut, Canada

Nattilik Heritage Centre is a museum in Gjoa Haven, King William Island, Nunavut, Canada. It presents the history and culture of the local Inuit.

References

  1. 1 2 "Gjoa Haven". Geographical Names Data Base . Natural Resources Canada.
  2. "Nunavummiut vie for council positions in upcoming hamlet elections". www.nunatsiaqonline.ca.
  3. Results for the constituency of Gjoa Haven Archived 14 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine at Elections Nunavut
  4. 1 2 3 4 "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Profile table Gjoa Haven, Hamlet (HAM) Nunavut [Census subdivision]". Statistics Canada. 26 April 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  5. 1 2 3 "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Profile table Gjoa Haven Nunavut [Population centre]". Statistics Canada. 26 April 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  6. Elevation at airport. Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 16 July 2020 to 0901Z 10 September 2020.
  7. "Vi er Amundsens etterkommere" Archived 4 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine , Aften Posten
  8. 1 2 3 "Roald Amundsen Descendants in Gjoa Haven?" Archived 16 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine , Fram Museum, 27 January 2012
  9. Gjoa Haven [ permanent dead link ], The Canadian Encyclopedia
  10. "1981 Census of Canada: Census subdivisions in decreasing population order" (PDF). Statistics Canada. May 1992. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  11. "1986 Census: Population - Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions" (PDF). Statistics Canada. September 1987. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  12. "91 Census: Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions - Population and Dwelling Counts" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 1992. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  13. "96 Census: A National Overview - Population and Dwelling Counts" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 1997. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  14. "Population and Dwelling Counts, for Canada, Provinces and Territories, and Census Subdivisions (Municipalities), 2001 and 1996 Censuses - 100% Data (Nunavut)". Statistics Canada. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  15. "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data (Nunavut)". Statistics Canada. 20 August 2021. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  16. "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses (Nunavut)". Statistics Canada. 25 July 2021. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  17. "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Nunavut)". Statistics Canada. 8 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  18. "Nattilik heritage centre opens its doors, Nunatsiaq Online
  19. "Nunavut provides more care closer to home", Nunatsiaq Online
  20. "Gjoa Haven A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Climate ID: 2302335. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  21. "As Franklin's lure brings people North, Gjoa Haven seeks its share of tourism dollars". The Canadian Press. 17 September 2017.
  22. Watson, Paul (23 March 2015). "Franklin wreck could help float fortunes of Arctic community". Toronto Star.
  23. Parks Canada Agency, Government of Canada (6 June 2019). "Wrecks of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror National Historic Site". www.pc.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  24. "Inuit guardians program". Wrecks of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror National Historic Site. Parks Canada. 27 May 2019. Archived from the original on 8 October 2019. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  25. DeGeorge, Krestia (18 October 2018). "Inuit, Parks Canada close to deal on Franklin wrecks national historic site". Arctic Today. Archived from the original on 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  26. George, Jane (18 October 2018). "Inuit, Parks Canada close to deal on Franklin wrecks national historic site". Arctic Today. Archived from the original on 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  27. Neary, Derek (3 March 2018). "Square dance showdowns compete for participants". News/North . Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  28. Neary, Derek (23 October 2018). "Preparing for the 10th square dance showdown". News/North . Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  29. "Modern Inuit Music". Pulaarvik Kablu Friendship Centre. Archived from the original on 8 October 2019. Retrieved 8 October 2019.

Further reading