2016 Canadian census

Last updated

2016 Canadian census

  2011 May 10, 2016 2021  

Canada Census 2016.png

Statistics Canada's visual identifier for
its 2016 Census of Population
Statistics Canada logo.svg
General information
Total population35,151,728 (Increase2.svg 5.0%)
Most populous province or territory Ontario (13,448,494)
Least populous province or territory Yukon (35,874)

The 2016 Canadian census was an enumeration of Canadian residents, which counted a population of 35,151,728, a



Consultation with census data users, clients, stakeholders and other interested parties closed in November 2012. Qualitative content testing, which involved soliciting feedback regarding the questionnaire and tests responses to its questions, was scheduled for the fall of 2013, with more extensive testing occurring in May 2014. Statistics Canada was scheduled to submit its census content recommendations for review by the Parliament of Canada in December 2014 for subsequent final approval by the Cabinet of Canada. [6]

On November 5, 2015, during the first Liberal caucus meeting after forming a majority government, the party announced that it would reinstate the mandatory [7] long-form census, [8] starting in 2016. By early January 2016, Statistics Canada had announced a need for 35,000 people to complete this survey to commence in May. [9]

Data release schedule

The release dates for geography products from the 2016 census were: [10]

The release dates for data by release topic from the 2016 census are: [10]


Portions of Canada's three territories and remote areas within Alberta, Labrador, Manitoba, Quebec and Saskatchewan were subject to early enumeration between February 1, 2016, and March 31, 2016. [11] Enumeration of the balance of Canada began on May 2, 2016, with the unveiling of the online census questionnaire, [12] eight days prior to the official census day of May 10, 2016. [13] Because of a wildfire in early May in northeast Alberta, Statistics Canada suspended enumeration efforts in the Fort McMurray area with alternate means to collect data from its evacuated residents to be determined at a later date. [14] Shortly after re-entry, residents were encouraged to complete their census form online or over the phone; however door-to-door enumeration remained suspended. [15]

Public response

Non-binary activists expressed concern that the choice between "male" and "female" on the "sex" question left them with no valid options. [16] In response, Statistics Canada stated that "Respondents who cannot select one category ... can leave the question blank and indicate, in the Comments section at the end of the questionnaire, the reason(s) for which they've chosen to leave this question unanswered." [17] Statistics Canada stated that they intend to analyze these comments but that because of the technical difficulties of analyzing free-form text, this analysis will not be released on the same schedule as the binary gender data. [17]


In the 2016 Census of Population, Canada recorded a population of 35,151,728 living in 14,072,079 of its 15,412,443 total private dwellings, a

The majority of Canada's population in 2016 were females at

In terms of occupied private dwellings,

In regards to the journey to work data in Ottawa, there was an increase of people driving their car to work of 51.3% which has the highest mode of transportation. On the other hand, public transit decreased to 25.1% comparing to the 2011 census. The census data in 2016 shows that people have been using other modes of transportation more than other years, this includes walking and cycling.

Population and dwellings

RankProvince or territoryPopulation as of
2016 census
Population as of
2011 census
1Flag of Ontario.svg  Ontario 13,448,49412,851,821596,673 Increase2.svg4.6 Increase2.svg
2Flag of Quebec.svg  Quebec 8,164,3617,903,001261,360 Increase2.svg3.3 Increase2.svg
3Flag of British Columbia.svg  British Columbia 4,648,0554,400,057247,998 Increase2.svg5.6 Increase2.svg
4Flag of Alberta.svg  Alberta 4,067,1753,645,257421,918 Increase2.svg11.6 Increase2.svg
5Flag of Manitoba.svg  Manitoba 1,278,3651,208,26870,097 Increase2.svg5.8 Increase2.svg
6Flag of Saskatchewan.svg  Saskatchewan 1,098,3521,053,96044,392 Increase2.svg4.2 Increase2.svg
7Flag of Nova Scotia.svg  Nova Scotia 923,598921,7271,871 Increase2.svg0.2 Increase2.svg
8Flag of New Brunswick.svg  New Brunswick 747,101751,171−4,070 Decrease2.svg−0.5 Decrease2.svg
9Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg  Newfoundland and Labrador 519,716514,5365,180 Increase2.svg1.0 Increase2.svg
10Flag of Prince Edward Island.svg  Prince Edward Island 142,907140,2042,703 Increase2.svg1.9 Increase2.svg
11Flag of the Northwest Territories.svg  Northwest Territories 41,78641,462324 Increase2.svg0.8 Increase2.svg
12Flag of Nunavut.svg  Nunavut 35,94431,9064,038 Increase2.svg12.7 Increase2.svg
13Flag of Yukon.svg  Yukon 35,87433,8971,977 Increase2.svg5.8 Increase2.svg
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 35,151,72833,476,6881,675,040 Increase2.svg5.0 Increase2.svg

Ethnic origins

2016 census [21] Population % of total population
European origins25,111,700
Visible minority group South Asian 1,924,635
Chinese 1,577,060
Black 1,198,540
Filipino 780,125
Arab 523,235
Latin American 447,325
Southeast Asian 313,260
West Asian 264,305
Korean 188,710
Japanese 92,920
Visible minority, n.i.e.132,090
Multiple visible minorities 232,375
Total visible minority population7,674,580
Not a visible minority 26,785,480
Aboriginal group [21] First Nations 977,235
Métis 587,545
Inuit 65,030
Total Aboriginal population1,673,785
Total population34,460,065100%

See also


  1. Canada's first quinquennial census was conducted in 1956. [1]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Demographics of Canada</span>

Statistics Canada conducts a country-wide census that collects demographic data every five years on the first and sixth year of each decade. The 2021 Canadian census enumerated a total population of 36,991,981, an increase of around 5.2 percent over the 2016 figure, Between 2011 and May 2016, Canada's population grew by 1.7 million people, with immigrants accounting for two-thirds of the increase. Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth. The main driver of population growth is immigration, and to a lesser extent, natural growth.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Census</span> Acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population

A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring, recording and calculating population information about the members of a given population. This term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common censuses include censuses of agriculture, traditional culture, business, supplies, and traffic censuses. The United Nations (UN) defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory, simultaneity and defined periodicity", and recommends that population censuses be taken at least every ten years. UN recommendations also cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, classifications and other useful information to co-ordinate international practices.

Statistics Canada, formed in 1971, is the agency of the Government of Canada commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. It is headquartered in Ottawa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">American Community Survey</span> Demographic survey in the United States

The American Community Survey (ACS) is an annual demographics survey program conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. It regularly gathers information previously contained only in the long form of the decennial census, including ancestry, citizenship, educational attainment, income, language proficiency, migration, disability, employment, and housing characteristics. These data are used by many public-sector, private-sector, and not-for-profit stakeholders to allocate funding, track shifting demographics, plan for emergencies, and learn about local communities. Sent to approximately 295,000 addresses monthly, it is the largest household survey that the Census Bureau administers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dawson City</span> City in Yukon, Canada

Dawson City, officially the City of Dawson, is a city in the Canadian territory of Yukon. It is inseparably linked to the Klondike Gold Rush (1896–1899). Its population was 1,577 as of the 2021 census, making it the second-largest city in Yukon.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Burwash Landing</span> Place in Yukon, Canada

Burwash Landing is a small community, at historical mile 1093 on the Alaska Highway, in Yukon, Canada along the southern shore of Kluane Lake.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carmacks, Yukon</span> Village in Yukon, Canada

Carmacks is a village in Yukon, Canada, on the Yukon River along the Klondike Highway, and at the west end of the Robert Campbell Highway from Watson Lake. The population is 588, an increase from the Census of 2016. It is the home of the Little Salmon/Carmacks First Nation, a Northern Tutchone-speaking people.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Destruction Bay</span> Place in Yukon, Canada

Destruction Bay is a small community on the Alaska Highway in Canada's Yukon on Kluane Lake.

Population Census in Hong Kong

Population censuses / by-censuses in Hong Kong are conducted by the Census and Statistics Department (C&SD) of the Hong Kong SAR Government. The aim is to provide up-to-date benchmark statistics on the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population and on its geographical distribution. Since 1961, a population census has been conducted in Hong Kong every 10 years and a by-census in the middle of the intercensal period. The last census, 2021 Population Census in Hong Kong was conducted by C&SD from 23 June to 4 August 2021.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2006 Canadian census</span> Censuses in Canada

The 2006 Canadian census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The following census was the 2011 census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897. This count was lower than the official July 1, 2006 population estimate of 32,623,490 people. The previous census was the 2001 census and the following census was in 2011 census.

Statistics Canada conducts a national census of population and census of agriculture every five years and releases the data with a two-year lag.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2011 Canadian census</span> Enumeration of the Canadian population on May 10, 2011

The 2011 Canadian census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population on May 10, 2011. Statistics Canada, an agency of the Canadian government, conducts a nationwide census every five years. In 2011, it consisted of a mandatory short form census questionnaire and an inaugural National Household Survey (NHS), a voluntary survey which replaced the mandatory long form census questionnaire; this substitution was the focus of much controversy. Completion of the census is mandatory for all Canadians, and those who do not complete it may face penalties ranging from fines to prison sentences.

Yukon is the westernmost of Canada's three northern territories. Its capital is Whitehorse. People from Yukon are known as Yukoners. Unlike in other Canadian provinces and territories, Statistics Canada uses the entire territory as a single at-large census division.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Swift River, Yukon</span>

Swift River is a settlement in the Canadian territory of Yukon, primarily a service stop on the Alaska Highway at historical mile 733. The radius of the area is estimated to be about 22.71 square kilometres ). The only permanent population owns and operates, or is employed at, the area's commercial highway establishment. Other residents are transient, working at the Yukon government's highway maintenance camp.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2011 United Kingdom census</span> 2011 census of the population of the United Kingdom

A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years. The 2011 census was held in all counties of the UK on 27 March 2011. It was the first UK census which could be completed online via the Internet. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is responsible for the census in England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland (GROS) is responsible for the census in Scotland, and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) is responsible for the census in Northern Ireland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2011 South African census</span> Comprehensive census performed by Statistics South Africa, the latest in a series

The South African National Census of 2011 is the 3rd comprehensive census performed by Statistics South Africa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Population and housing censuses by country</span>

This is a list of national population and housing censuses.

Four provinces and territories in Canada have legislation that allow municipalities to conduct a municipal census. These include the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the territories of Nunavut and Yukon. Of these four provinces and territories, municipalities in Alberta were the only ones that exercise the option to conduct a municipal census as of 2006.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2021 Canadian census</span> Detailed enumeration of Canadian residents in 2021

The 2021 Canadian census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population with a reference date of May 11, 2021. It follows the 2016 Canadian census, which recorded a population of 35,151,728. The overall response rate was 98%, which is slightly lower than the response rate for the 2016 census. It recorded a population of 36,991,981, a 5.2% increase from 2016. It will be succeeded by Canada's 2026 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2021 Nepal census</span> 12th national census of Nepal

The 2021 Nepal Census was the twelfth nationwide census of Nepal conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics. The census was originally scheduled from 8 June to 22 June 2021, but was postponed to November 2021 due to surge in COVID-19 cases.


  1. "Overview of the Census: Census year 2011" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 2012. p. 4. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  2. "Statistics Canada on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
  3. "Liberal gov't restores mandatory long-form census". CTV News. November 5, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
  4. "Canadians' overwhelming response enables 'best ever' Census in 2016". Statistics Canada. August 29, 2016. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  5. "'Best census ever' in 2016, StatsCan says" . Retrieved August 30, 2016.
  6. "2016 Census Program Content Consultation Guide: Census year 2016" (PDF). Statistics Canada. p. 10. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  7. Berthiaume, Lee. "The long-form census is back – with penalties still possible if you ignore it". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on November 6, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  8. "Liberals can restore long-form census for 2016, if they act quickly, observers say". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. October 28, 2015.
  9. Tencer, Daniel (January 5, 2016). "Statistics Canada Hiring 35,000 For 2016 Census That Will Replace Harper's Voluntary Survey". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  10. 1 2 "2016 Census Program release schedule". Statistics Canada. February 23, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  11. "Early enumeration jobs". Statistics Canada. April 29, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  12. "The 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. April 29, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  13. "2016 Census questions". Statistics Canada. April 10, 2015. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  14. "Statistics Canada suspends Census collection in Fort McMurray area". Statistics Canada. May 5, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  15. "Update on Census collection in the Fort McMurray area". Statistics Canada. June 17, 2016. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  16. "Neither male nor female, transgender student calls for 3rd option on census form". www.cbc.ca. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
  17. 1 2 Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Who is included in the census?". www.census.gc.ca. Retrieved May 3, 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. 1 2 3 "Census Profile, 2016 Census: Canada". Statistics Canada. August 25, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  19. "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data". Statistics Canada. August 28, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  20. "Population size and growth in Canada: Key results from the 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. March 30, 2017. Retrieved October 15, 2017. For the first time since Nunavut was founded in 1999, its population surpassed that of Yukon.
  21. 1 2 "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved November 4, 2019.