This is a list of the largest cities in Canada by census starting with the 1871 Census of Canada, the first national census. Only communities that were incorporated as cities at the time of each census are presented. Therefore, this list does not include any incorporated towns that may have been larger than any incorporated cities at each census.
|1||Montreal, Quebec||107,225||Ranked #2 in 2016.|
|2||Quebec, Quebec||59,699||Ranked #11 in 2016.|
|3||Toronto, Ontario||56,092||Ranked #1 in 2016.|
|4||Halifax, Nova Scotia||29,582||Ranked #14 in 2016 as a regional municipality.|
|5||Saint John, New Brunswick||28,805||Saint John was incorporated in 1785 to become Canada's first incorporated city. Ranked #83 in 2016.|
|6||Hamilton, Ontario||26,716||Ranked #10 in 2016.|
|7||Ottawa, Ontario||21,545||Ranked #4 in 2016.|
|8||London, Ontario||15,826||Ranked #15 in 2016.|
|9||Portland, New Brunswick||12,520||Portland was a city until 1889 when it amalgamated with Saint John, New Brunswick.|
|10||Kingston, Ontario||12,407||Ranked #43 in 2016.|
|4||Halifax, Nova Scotia||36,100|
|7||Saint John, New Brunswick||26,127|
|9||Portland, New Brunswick||15,226|
|6||Saint John, New Brunswick||39,179|
|7||Halifax, Nova Scotia||38,556|
|7||Halifax, Nova Scotia||40,832|
|8||Saint John, New Brunswick||40,711|
|10||Vancouver, British Columbia||26,133|
Source: Canada Year Book 1932
|4||Vancouver, British Columbia||120,847|
|8||Halifax, Nova Scotia||46,619|
Cities west of Ontario take up four of the top ten spots in this census. Many Western cities will grow quickly during the 20th century, in large part, because they are able to expand their borders. Source: Canada Year Book 1932
|4||Vancouver, British Columbia||162,229|
Source: Canada Year Book 1932
|3||Vancouver, British Columbia||246,593|
Source: Canada Year Book 1955
|3||Vancouver, British Columbia||275,353|
Source: Canada Year Book 1955
|3||Vancouver, British Columbia||344,843|
Source: Canada Year Book 1957-58
|3||Vancouver, British Columbia||364,844|
Source: Canada Year Book 1967
|3||Vancouver, British Columbia||384,522|
Source: 1966 Census of Canada - Population (Dominion Bureau of Statistics)
|3||Vancouver, British Columbia||410,375|
Source: Canada Year Book 1972
|4||Vancouver, British Columbia||426,256|
Source: 1976 Census of Canada - Population (Statistics Canada)
|6||Vancouver, British Columbia||410,188|
Though Winnipeg's population more than doubled in large part to amalgamation of its surrounding municipalities, a number of Canadian cities suffered population losses during the 1970s. Source: Canada Year Book 1988
|5||North York, Ontario||559,521|
|7||Vancouver, British Columbia||414,281|
Source: Government of Canada Publications
|6||North York, Ontario||556,297|
|8||Vancouver, British Columbia||431,147|
Source : Statistics Canada Community Profiles: Census 1991
|6||North York, Ontario||563,270|
|8||Vancouver, British Columbia||471,844|
Source: Georef 1996 Census
|6||North York, Ontario||589,653|
|9||Vancouver, British Columbia||514,008|
A wave of amalgamations took place in Ontario during the 1990s and 2000s that adjusted city population figures.
|1||Toronto, Ontario||2,481,494||Toronto amalgamated with six surrounding municipalities on January 1, 1998.|
|4||Ottawa, Ontario||774,072||Ottawa amalgamated with 11 surrounding municipalities on January 1, 2001.|
|8||Vancouver, British Columbia||545,671|
|9||Hamilton, Ontario||490,268||Hamilton amalgamated with six surrounding municipalities on January 1, 2001.|
|10||Surrey, British Columbia||347,825|
The wave of amalgamations extended into the province of Quebec: in 2002, both Montreal and Quebec City combined with a number of smaller surrounding cities, some of which later chose to leave the amalgamation. Source : Statistics Canada Community Profiles: Census 2006
|8||Vancouver, British Columbia||578,041|
|8||Vancouver, British Columbia||603,502|
|8||Vancouver, British Columbia||631,486|
Camrose is a city in central Alberta, Canada, amid some of the richest farmland in the prairies. It is a relatively small city which grew up along a railway and now grows along Highway 13.
Spruce Grove is a city that is 11 km (6.8 mi) west of Edmonton, Alberta in Canada. The city is adjacent to the Town of Stony Plain and is surrounded by Parkland County.
Leduc is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada. It is 33 km (21 mi) south of the provincial capital of Edmonton and is part of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region.
Sylvan Lake is a town in central Alberta, Canada. It is located 25 kilometres (16 mi) west of the City of Red Deer along Highway 11 or Highway 11A. It is situated on the southeast edge of Sylvan Lake, a 15-kilometre-long (9.3 mi) freshwater lake, in Red Deer County.
Wetaskiwin is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada. The city is located 70 kilometres (43 mi) south of the provincial capital of Edmonton. The city name comes from the Cree word wītaskiwinihk, meaning "the hills where peace was made".
Okotoks is a town in the Province of Alberta, Canada. It is situated on the Sheep River, approximately 18 km (11 mi) south of the City of Calgary. The town is a member of the Calgary Regional Partnership, a cooperative of municipalities within the Calgary Region. Okotoks has emerged as a bedroom community of Calgary. According to the 2016 Census, the town has a population of 28,881, making it the largest town in Alberta.
Cochrane is a town in the Canadian province of Alberta. The town is located 18 km (11 mi) west of the Calgary city limits along Highway 1A. Cochrane is one of the fastest growing communities in Canada, and with a population of 29,277 in 2019, it is one of the largest towns in Alberta. It is part of Calgary's census metropolitan area and a member community of the Calgary Metropolitan Region Board (CMRB). The town is surrounded by Rocky View County.
Airdrie is a city in Alberta, Canada within the Calgary Region. It is located north of Calgary within the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor at the intersection of Queen Elizabeth II Highway and Highway 567.
Brooks is a city in southeast Alberta, Canada, surrounded by the County of Newell. It is located on Highway 1 and the Canadian Pacific Railway, approximately 186 km (116 mi) southeast of Calgary, and 110 km (68 mi) northwest of Medicine Hat. The city has an elevation of 760 m (2,490 ft).
Stony Plain is a town in the Edmonton Metropolitan Region of Alberta, Canada within Parkland County. It is located west of Edmonton adjacent to the City of Spruce Grove.
Strathmore is a town located along the Trans-Canada Highway in southern Alberta, Canada within Wheatland County. It is approximately 50 kilometres (30 mi) east of the City of Calgary.
Beaumont is a city in Leduc County within the Edmonton Metropolitan Region of Alberta, Canada. It is located at the intersection of Highway 625 and Highway 814, adjacent to the City of Edmonton and 6.0 kilometres (3.7 mi) northeast of the City of Leduc. The Nisku Industrial Park and the Edmonton International Airport are located 4.0 kilometres (2.5 mi) to the west and 8.0 kilometres (5.0 mi) to the southwest respectively.
High River is a town within the Calgary Metropolitan Region of Alberta, Canada with a population of 13,584 (2016). It is 67.7 kilometres (42.1 mi) south of the City of Calgary, at the junction of Alberta Highways 2 and 23. High River is located approximately 54 km (34 mi) south of downtown Calgary.
Beverly is a former urban municipality within the Edmonton Capital Region of Alberta, Canada. Beverly incorporated as a village on March 22, 1913 and became the Town of Beverly on July 13, 1914. It later amalgamated with the City of Edmonton on December 30, 1961. The population of Beverly was 8,969 at the time of amalgamation.
According to the 2011 census, the City of Edmonton had a population of 812,201 residents, compared to 3,645,257 for all of Alberta, Canada. The total population of the Edmonton census metropolitan area (CMA) was 1,159,869, making it the sixth-largest CMA in Canada, while Statistics Canada estimated the CMA's 2011 population to be 1,196,342. In 2014, a municipal census indicated the city had a population of 877,926.
In the 2011 Census, the City of Calgary had a population of 1,096,833 residents, representing 30% of the 3,645,257 residents in all of Alberta, and 3% compared to a population of 33,476,688 in all of Canada. The total population of the Calgary census metropolitan area (CMA) was 1,214,839. Calgary is the largest city in Alberta, and the third-largest municipality and fourth-largest metropolitan area in Canada, as of 2016.