1666 census of New France

Last updated
First Census of New France
General information
CountryNew France
Date taken1665-1666
Total population3,215
Most populous settlement Montreal (625)
Least populous settlement Lauzon  [ fr ] (13)
Jean Talon, statue in front of the Quebec Parliament Building Jean Talon.JPG
Jean Talon, statue in front of the Quebec Parliament Building

The 1666 census of New France was the first census conducted in Canada (and also North America). It was organized by Jean Talon, the first Intendant of New France, between 1665 and 1666.


Talon and the French Minister of the Marine Jean-Baptiste Colbert had brought the colony of New France under direct royal control in 1663, and Colbert wished to make it the centre of the French colonial empire. To do this he needed to know the state of the population so that the economic and industrial basis of the colony could be expanded.

Jean-Talon conducted the census largely by himself, travelling door-to-door among the settlements of New France. He did not include Native American inhabitants of the colony, or the religious orders such as the Jesuits or Recollets.

According to Talon's census there were 3,215 people in New France, and 538 separate families. [1] The census showed a difference in the number of men at 2,034 versus 1,181 women. [1] Children and unwedded adults were grouped together; there were 2,154 of these, while only 1,019 people were married (42 were widowed). [2] A total of 625 people lived in Montreal, the largest settlement; 547 people lived in Quebec; and 455 lived in Trois-Rivières. [2] The largest single age group, 21- to 30-year-olds, numbered 842. [2] 763 people were professionals of some kind, and 401 of these were servants, while 16 were listed as "gentlemen of means". [2]

See also

Related Research Articles

New France Area colonized by France in North America

New France, also sometimes known as the French North American Empire or Royal New France, was the area colonized by France in America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris (1763).

Dorval City in Quebec, Canada

Dorval is an on-island suburb on the island of Montreal in southwestern Quebec, Canada. In 2016, the Canadian Census indicated that the population increased by 4.2% to 18,980. Although the city has the largest surface area in the West Island, it is among the least densely populated. Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport constitutes about 60% of the city's land, forcing all of Dorval's population to be concentrated in the southern part of the city.

Mount Royal, Quebec Ville in Quebec, Canada

Mount Royal is an affluent on-island suburban town located on the northwest side of the eponymous Mount Royal, northwest of Downtown Montreal, on the Island of Montreal in southwestern Quebec, Canada. It is completely surrounded by Montreal. The population was 20,276 as of the Canada 2016 Census. In 2008, most of the Town of Mount Royal was designated a National Historic Site of Canada, as a "[remarkable] synthesis of urban renewal movements of the early 20th century, reflecting the influence of the City Beautiful, Garden City and Garden Suburb movements". The town celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2012.

Jean Talon first Intendant of New France

Jean Talon, Count d'Orsainville was the first Intendant of New France. Talon was appointed by King Louis XIV and his minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert to serve as the Intendant of Justice, Public Order and Finances in Canada, Acadia and Newfoundland for two terms: 1665 to 1668 and 1670 to 1672.

Lévis, Quebec City in Quebec, Canada

Lévis is a city in eastern Quebec, Canada, located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, opposite Quebec City. A ferry links Old Quebec with Old Lévis, and two bridges, the Quebec and the Pierre-Laporte, connect western Lévis with Quebec City.

Timeline of Quebec history (1663–1759)

This section of the Timeline of Quebec history concerns the events relating to the Quebec portion of New France between the establishment of the Sovereign Council and the fall of Quebec.

1660s in Canada

Events from the 1660s in Canada.

Population of Canada

Canada ranks 38th by population, comprising about 0.5% of the world's total, with over 37 million Canadians as of 2019. Being, however, the fourth-largest country by land area, the vast majority of the country is sparsely inhabited, with most of its population south of the 55th parallel north and more than half of Canadians live in just two provinces: Ontario and Quebec. Though Canada's population density is low, many regions in the south such as the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, have population densities higher than several European countries. Canada's largest population centres are Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton and Ottawa with those six being the only ones with more than one million people. The large size of Canada's north which is not arable, and thus cannot support large human populations, significantly lowers the country's carrying capacity. Therefore, the population density of the habitable land in Canada can be modest to high depending on the region.

United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry United counties in Ontario, Canada

The United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry is an upper-tier municipality in the Canadian province of Ontario that comprises three historical counties and excludes the City of Cornwall and the Mohawk Nation of Akwesasne. However, both Cornwall and Akwesasne form part of a larger census division named for the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry. The municipality's administrative office is located within Cornwall.

Italian Canadians ethnic group

Italian Canadians comprise Canadians who have full or partial Italian heritage and Italians who migrated from Italy or reside in Canada. According to the 2016 Census of Canada, 1,587,970 Canadians claimed full or partial Italian ancestry. The census enumerates the entire Canadian population, which consists of Canadian citizens, landed immigrants and non-permanent residents and their families living with them in Canada. Residing mainly in central urban industrial metropolitan areas, Italian Canadians are the seventh largest self-identified ethnic group in Canada behind French, English, Irish, Scottish, German and Chinese Canadians.

Hungarian Canadians are persons in Canada of Hungarian ancestry. According to the 2016 Census, there are 348,085 Canadians of Hungarian ancestry. The Hungarian minority is the 24th largest ethnic group of Canada. The bulk of Hungarian immigration occurred after World War II, with the wave peaking after the 1956 Hungarian revolution against communist rule, when over 100,000 Hungarian refugees went to Canada. The Hungarian Canadian community is among the country's multiple ethnicities; Canada is one of the top five countries of the Hungarian diaspora.

Carignan-Salières Regiment French military unit active in New France

The Carignan-Salières Regiment was a Piedmont French military unit formed by merging two other regiments in 1659. They were led by the new Governor, Daniel de Rémy de Courcelles, and Lieutenant General Alexandre de Prouville, Sieur de Tracy. Approximately 1,200 men arrived in New France the middle of 1665.

Daniel de Rémy de Courcelle Governor of New France

Daniel de Rémy de Courcelle, Sieur de Montigny, de La Fresnaye et de Courcelle was the governor general of New France from 1665 to 1672.

Edna-Star colony

The Edna-Star colony, also called the Nebyliv colony, or the Ukrainian block settlement is the largest and oldest of the Ukrainian Canadian block settlements. Located east of Edmonton, in east-central Alberta, the boundaries of the block settlement include all or part of multiple municipal districts, within census divisions numbers 12 and 10.

Statistics Canada conducts a national census of population and census of agriculture every five years.

The French West India Company was a French trading company founded in 1664 by Jean-Baptiste Colbert and dissolved in 1674. The company received the French possessions of the Atlantic coasts of Africa and America, and was granted a monopoly on trade with America, which was to last for forty years. It was supposed to populate Canada, using the profits of the sugar economy that began in Guadeloupe. Its capital was six million pounds and its headquarters was in Le Havre.

Louiseville City in Quebec, Canada

Louiseville is a town in the Mauricie region of the province of Quebec in Canada. It is located near the mouth of the 'Rivière-du-Loup', on the north shore of Lac Saint-Pierre.

History of immigration to Canada

Anthropologists continue to argue over various possible models of migration to the New World to modern-day Canada, as well as their pre-contact populations. The Inuit are believed to have arrived entirely separately from other indigenous peoples around 1200 CE. Indigenous peoples contributed significantly to the culture and economy of the early European colonies and as such have played an important role in fostering a unique Canadian cultural identity.

Demographics of Louisiana

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Louisiana was 4,670,724 on July 1, 2015, a 3.03% increase since the 2010 United States Census.

Jean Talon Building

The Jean Talon Building is a federal government office building in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. It forms part of the complex of three buildings, including the R. H. Coats Building and the Main Building, that houses the headquarters of Statistics Canada. Jean Talon was also the first intendant of the New France project


  1. 1 2 "(Census of 1665-1666) Role-playing Jean Talon". Statistics Canada. 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-02-25. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Statistics for the 1666 Census". Library and Archives Canada. 2006. Archived from the original on 2015-09-04. Retrieved 2010-06-24.