Nova Scotia

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Coordinates: 45°N063°W / 45°N 63°W / 45; -63

Nova Scotia

New Scotland  (English)
Nouvelle-Écosse  (French)
Alba Nuadh  (Scottish Gaelic)
Motto(s): 
Munit Haec et Altera Vincit
(Latin: One defends and the other conquers)
CountryCanada
Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st, with Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick)
Capital Halifax
Largest metro Halifax
Government
  Type Constitutional monarchy
   Lieutenant Governor Arthur Joseph LeBlanc
   Premier Stephen McNeil (Liberal)
Legislature Nova Scotia House of Assembly
Federal representation(in Canadian Parliament)
House seats 11 of 338 (3.3%)
Senate seats 10 of 105 (9.5%)
Area
  Land52,942 km2 (20,441 sq mi)
Area rank Ranked 12th
Population
 (2016)
  Total923,598 [1] [2]
  Estimate 
(2019 Q2)
966,858 [3]
  Rank Ranked 7th
  Density17.45/km2 (45.2/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Nova Scotian, Bluenoser
Official languages English ( de facto ) [4]
GDP
   Rank 7th
  Total (2016)C$42.715 billion [5]
  Per capitaC$44,931 (12th)
Time zone Atlantic: UTC-4
Postal abbr.
NS
Postal code prefix B
ISO 3166 code CA-NS
Flower
Trailing arbutus 2006.jpg
   Mayflower
Tree
Picea rubens cone.jpg
   Red spruce
Bird
OspreyNASA.jpg
   Osprey
Website novascotia.ca
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Nova Scotia ( /ˌnvəˈskʃə/ ; Latin for "New Scotland"; French : Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three Maritime Provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres (21,300 sq mi), including Cape Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands. As of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is Canada's second-most-densely populated province, after Prince Edward Island, with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre (45/sq mi). [1]

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Scottish Gaelic Celtic language native to Scotland

Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Celtic and Indo-European language family, native to the Gaels of Scotland. As a Goidelic language, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. It became a distinct spoken language sometime in the 13th century, although a common literary language was shared by Gaels in both Ireland and Scotland down to the 16th century. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced especially by Gaelic-language placenames.

Atlantic Canada Region in Canada

Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Canada comprising the four provinces located on the Atlantic coast, excluding Quebec: the three Maritime provinces – New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island – and the easternmost province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The population of the four Atlantic provinces in 2016 was about 2,300,000 on half a million km2. The provinces combined had an approximate GDP of $121.888 billion in 2011.

Contents

Etymology

"Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin [6] and is the recognized English-language name for the province. In both French and Scottish Gaelic, the province is directly translated as "New Scotland" (French: Nouvelle-Écosse. Gaelic: Alba Nuadh). In general, Romance and Slavic languages use a direct translation of "New Scotland", while most other languages use direct transliterations of the Latin / English name. The province was first named in the 1621 Royal Charter granting to Sir William Alexander in 1632 the right to settle lands including modern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula. [7]

English language West Germanic language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, as England. Both names derive from Anglia, a peninsula in the Baltic Sea. The language is closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse, and to a greater extent by Latin and French.

William Alexander, 1st Earl of Stirling Scottish courtier and poet

William Alexander, 1st Earl of Stirling was a Scottish courtier and poet who was involved in the Scottish colonisation of Habitation at Port-Royal, Nova Scotia and Long Island, New York. His literary works include Aurora (1604), The Monarchick Tragedies (1604) and Doomes-Day.

Cape Breton Island Island in Nova Scotia

Cape Breton Island is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.

Geography

Looking over the narrowest part of the Annapolis Valley towards Bridgetown from Valleyview Provincial Park Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia.jpg
Looking over the narrowest part of the Annapolis Valley towards Bridgetown from Valleyview Provincial Park
Koppen climate types of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Koppen.svg
Köppen climate types of Nova Scotia
Map of Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia-map-2.png
Map of Nova Scotia.
Topography of Nova Scotia. Novascotia topo.png
Topography of Nova Scotia.

Nova Scotia is Canada's smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island. The province's mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km (42 mi) from the ocean. [8] Cape Breton Island, a large island to the northeast of the Nova Scotia mainland, is also part of the province, as is Sable Island, a small island notorious for its shipwrecks, [9] approximately 175 km (110 mi) from the province's southern coast.

Prince Edward Island Province of Canada

Prince Edward Island is a province of Canada consisting of the Atlantic island of the same name along with several much smaller islands nearby. PEI is one of the three Maritime Provinces. It is the smallest province of Canada in both land area and population, but it is the most densely populated. Part of the traditional lands of the Mi'kmaq, it became a British colony in the 1700s and was federated into Canada as a province in 1873. Its capital is Charlottetown. According to the 2016 census, the province of PEI has 142,907 residents.

The Nova Scotia peninsula is a peninsula on the Atlantic coast of North America.

Sable Island Place in Nova Scotia, Canada

Sable Island, literally "island of sand", is a small Canadian island situated 300 km (190 mi) southeast of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and about 175 km (109 mi) southeast of the closest point of mainland Nova Scotia in the Atlantic Ocean. The island is staffed year round by four federal government staff, rising during summer months when research projects and tourism increase. Notable for its role in early Canadian history and the Sable Island horse, the island is protected and managed by Parks Canada, which must grant permission prior to any visit. Sable Island is part of District 7 of the Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia. However, the Constitution of Canada specifically names the island as being under the authority of the federal government. The island is also a protected National Park Reserve.

Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations. These formations are particularly rich on the Bay of Fundy's shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundy's shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous-age fossils. Wasson's Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic- and Jurassic-age fossils.

Hantsport Community in Nova Scotia, Canada

Hantsport is a [Canadian community located in Hants County, Nova Scotia. It is administratively part of the Municipality of the District of West Hants.

Bay of Fundy bay on the east coast of North America

The Bay of Fundy is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an extremely high tidal range. The name is likely a corruption of the French word Fendu, meaning "split".

The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 Mya. The name Carboniferous means "coal-bearing" and derives from the Latin words carbō ("coal") and ferō, and was coined by geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips in 1822.

The province contains 5,400 lakes. [10]

Climate

Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province is almost surrounded by water, the climate is closer to continental climate rather than maritime. The winter and summer temperature extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean. [11] However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental—still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west. The Nova Scotian climate is in many ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe, only wetter and snowier. This is true in spite of Nova Scotia's being some fifteen parallels south. Areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, and winter lows a little colder.

Continental climate

Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature. They tend to occur in the middle latitudes, where prevailing winds blow overland, and temperatures are not moderated by bodies of water such as oceans or seas. Continental climates occur mostly in the Northern Hemisphere, which has the kind of large landmasses on temperate latitudes required for this type of climate to develop. Most of northern and northeastern China, eastern and southeastern Europe, central and southeastern Canada, and the central and northeastern United States have this type of climate.

Oceanic climate a type of climate characterised by cool summers and cool winters|category in the Köppen climate classification system

An oceanic climate, also known as a marine climate or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features mild summers and mild winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C (72 °F) in the warmest month, and above 0 °C (32 °F) in the coldest month.

Baltic Sea A sea in Northern Europe bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands

The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, northeast Germany, Poland, Russia and the North and Central European Plain.

Described on the provincial vehicle licence plate as Canada's Ocean Playground, Nova Scotia is surrounded by four major bodies of water: the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the north, the Bay of Fundy to the west, the Gulf of Maine to the southwest, and Atlantic Ocean to the east. [11]

Gulf of Saint Lawrence The outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. The gulf is a semi-enclosed sea, covering an area of about 226,000 square kilometres (87,000 sq mi) and containing about 34,500 cubic kilometres (8,300 cu mi) of water, which results in an average depth of 152 metres (499 ft).

Gulf of Maine A large gulf of the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of North America

The Gulf of Maine is a large gulf of the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of North America. It is bounded by Cape Cod at the eastern tip of Massachusetts in the southwest and by Cape Sable Island at the southern tip of Nova Scotia in the northeast. The gulf includes the entire coastlines of the U.S. states of New Hampshire and Maine, as well as Massachusetts north of Cape Cod, and the southern and western coastlines of the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, respectively.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Nova Scotia [12]
LocationJuly (°C)July (°F)January (°C)January (°F)
Halifax 23/1473/580/−832/17
Sydney 23/1273/54−1/−930/14
Kentville 25/1478/57−1/−1029/14
Truro 24/1375/55−1/−1229/9
Liverpool 25/1477/570/–932/15
Shelburne 23/1273/541/−833/17
Yarmouth 21/1269/551/−733/19


History

Overview

The province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki (mi'gama'gi). (The territory of the Nation of Mi'kma'ki also includes the Maritimes, parts of Maine, Newfoundland and the Gaspé Peninsula.) The Mi'kmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. [13] In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada (and the first north of Florida) at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia. [14] [15]

The British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island (Île Royale) to the French. Present-day New Brunswick then still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. Immediately after the capture of Port Royal in 1710, Francis Nicholson announced it would be renamed Annapolis Royal in honor of Queen Anne. In 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population (the Acadians) was forcibly removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians; New England Planters arrived between 1759 and 1768 to replace them.

Port Royal, Annapolis County, Nova Scotia, situated on the Annapolis River where it widens to form the Annapolis Basin Port Royal today.jpg
Port Royal, Annapolis County, Nova Scotia, situated on the Annapolis River where it widens to form the Annapolis Basin

In 1763, most of Acadia (Cape Breton Island, St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island), and New Brunswick) became part of Nova Scotia. In 1765, the county of Sunbury was created. This included the territory of present-day New Brunswick and eastern Maine as far as the Penobscot River. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick until that province's establishment in 1784, after the arrival of United Empire Loyalists. In 1867, Nova Scotia became one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation. [16]

17th and 18th centuries

Fort Edward - the oldest blockhouse in North America (1750). FortEdwardWindsorNovaScotiaCanada.JPG
Fort Edward – the oldest blockhouse in North America (1750).
A View of Louisburg in North America, November 11, 1762. A View of Louisburg in North America (cropped).jpg
A View of Louisburg in North America, November 11, 1762.

The warfare on Nova Scotian soil during the 17th and 18th centuries significantly influenced the history of Nova Scotia. [17] [ need quotation to verify ] The Mi'kmaq had lived in Nova Scotia for centuries. The French arrived in 1604, and Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians formed the majority of the population of the colony for the next 150 years. During the first 80 years the French and Acadians lived in Nova Scotia, nine significant military clashes took place as the English and Scottish (later British), Dutch and French fought for possession of the area. These encounters happened at Port Royal, Saint John, [18] Cap de Sable (present-day Port La Tour, Nova Scotia), Jemseg (1674 and 1758) and Baleine (1629). The Acadian Civil War took place from 1640 to 1645.

Beginning with King William's War in 1688, six wars took place in Nova Scotia before the British defeated the French (and ultimately expelled much of their population) and made peace with the Mi'kmaq:

The battles during these wars took place primarily Port Royal, Saint John, Canso, Chignecto, Dartmouth (1751), Lunenburg (1756) and Grand-Pré. Despite the British conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained primarily occupied by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq, who confined British forces to Annapolis and to Canso.

The Mi'kmaq signed a series of treaties with Great Britain, beginning after Father Rale's War (1725). In 1725, the British signed a treaty (or "agreement") with the Mi'kmaq, but the authorities[ which? ] have often disputed its definition of the rights of the Mi'kmaq to hunt and fish on their lands. [19] [20]

Monument at Millbrook, near Truro, Nova Scotia paying tribute to Glooscap--a legendary figure to Mi'kmaq people of Nova Scotia. Glooscap monument, Millbrook, Nova Scotia.jpg
Monument at Millbrook, near Truro, Nova Scotia paying tribute to Glooscap--a legendary figure to Mi'kmaq people of Nova Scotia.

A generation later, Father Le Loutre's War began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports on June 21, 1749. [21] [22] A General Court, made up of the governor and the Council, was the highest court in the colony at the time. [23] Jonathan Belcher was sworn in as chief justice of the Nova Scotia Supreme Court on October 21, 1754. [23] The first legislative assembly in Halifax, under the Governorship of Charles Lawrence, met on October 2, 1758. [24] During the French and Indian War of 1754–63 (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War of 1756-1763), the British deported the Acadians and recruited New England Planters to resettle the colony. The 75-year period of war ended with the Halifax Treaties between the British and the Mi'kmaq (1761). After the war, some Acadians were allowed to return and the British made treaties with the Mi’kmaq.

This church at Grand Pre, Nova Scotia, commemorates the beginning of the Acadian expulsion where the men were gathered to hear their fate from the British in 1755. Grand Pre, Nova Scotia.jpg
This church at Grand Pre, Nova Scotia, commemorates the beginning of the Acadian expulsion where the men were gathered to hear their fate from the British in 1755.

The American Revolution (1775–1783) had a significant impact on shaping Nova Scotia. Initially, Nova Scotia—"the 14th American Colony" as some called it—displayed ambivalence over whether the colony should join the more southern colonies in their defiance of Britain, and rebellion flared at the Battle of Fort Cumberland (1776) and at the Siege of Saint John (1777). Throughout the war, American privateers devastated the maritime economy by capturing ships and looting almost every community outside of Halifax. These American raids alienated many sympathetic or neutral Nova Scotians into supporting the British. By the end of the war Nova Scotia had outfitted a number of privateers to attack American shipping. [25] British military forces based at Halifax succeeded in preventing American support for rebels in Nova Scotia and deterred any invasion of Nova Scotia. However the British navy failed to establish naval supremacy. While the British captured many American privateers in battles such as the Naval battle off Halifax (1782), many more continued attacks on shipping and settlements until the final months of the war. The Royal Navy struggled to maintain British supply lines, defending convoys from American and French attacks as in the fiercely fought convoy battle, the Naval battle off Cape Breton (1781).

An interpretive sign along the Heritage Trail at the Black Loyalist Heritage Society's Birchtown museum. Birchtown, Nova Scotia.jpg
An interpretive sign along the Heritage Trail at the Black Loyalist Heritage Society's Birchtown museum.

After the Thirteen Colonies and their French allies forced the British forces to surrender (1781), approximately 33,000 Loyalists (the King's Loyal Americans, allowed to place "United Empire Loyalist" after their names) settled in Nova Scotia (14,000 of them in what became New Brunswick) on lands granted by the Crown as some compensation for their losses. (The British administration divided Nova Scotia and hived off Cape Breton and New Brunswick in 1784). The Loyalist exodus created new communities across Nova Scotia, including Shelburne, which briefly became one of the larger British settlements in North America, and infused Nova Scotia with additional capital and skills. However the migration also caused political tensions between Loyalist leaders and the leaders of the existing New England Planters settlement. The Loyalist influx also pushed Nova Scotia's 2000 Mi'kmaq People to the margins as Loyalist land grants encroached on ill-defined native lands. As part of the Loyalist migration, about 3,000 Black Loyalists arrived; they founded the largest free Black settlement in North America at Birchtown, near Shelburne. Many Nova Scotian communities were settled by British regiments that fought in the war.

19th century

Statue of Joseph Howe, Province House, created by famed Quebec sculptor Louis-Philippe Hebert JoasephHoweStatue.jpg
Statue of Joseph Howe, Province House, created by famed Quebec sculptor Louis-Philippe Hébert

During the War of 1812, Nova Scotia's contribution to the British war effort involved communities either purchasing or building various privateer ships to attack U.S. vessels. [26] Perhaps the most dramatic moment in the war for Nova Scotia occurred when HMS Shannon escorted the captured American frigate USS Chesapeake into Halifax Harbour (1813). Many of the U.S. prisoners were kept at Deadman's Island, Halifax.

During this century, Nova Scotia became the first colony in British North America and in the British Empire to achieve responsible government in January–February 1848 and become self-governing through the efforts of Joseph Howe. [27] Nova Scotia had established representative government in 1758, an achievement later commemorated by the erection of the Dingle Tower in 1908.

Welsford-Parker Monument, Halifax, Nova Scotia - the only Crimean War monument in North America Welsford-Parker Monument at the entrance to the Old Burying Ground in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.jpg
Welsford-Parker Monument, Halifax, Nova Scotia – the only Crimean War monument in North America

Nova Scotians fought in the Crimean War of 1853–1856. [28] The Welsford-Parker Monument in Halifax is the second-oldest war monument in Canada (1860) and the only Crimean War monument in North America. It commemorates the 1854–55 Siege of Sevastopol.

Thousands of Nova Scotians fought in the American Civil War (1861–1865), primarily on behalf of the North. [29] The British Empire (including Nova Scotia) declared itself neutral in the conflict. As a result, Britain (and Nova Scotia) continued to trade with both the South and the North. Nova Scotia's economy boomed during the Civil War.

Soon after the American Civil War, Pro-Canadian Confederation premier Charles Tupper led Nova Scotia into the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, along with New Brunswick and the Province of Canada. The Anti-Confederation Party was led by Joseph Howe. Almost three months later, in the election of September 18, 1867, the Anti-Confederation Party won 18 out of 19 federal seats, and 36 out of 38 seats in the provincial legislature.

Nova Scotia became a world leader in both building and owning wooden sailing ships in the second half of the 19th century. Nova Scotia produced internationally recognized shipbuilders Donald McKay and William Dawson Lawrence. The fame Nova Scotia achieved from sailors was assured when Joshua Slocum became the first man to sail single-handedly around the world (1895). International attention continued into the following century with the many racing victories of the Bluenose schooner. Nova Scotia was also the birthplace and home of Samuel Cunard, a British shipping magnate (born at Halifax, Nova Scotia) who founded the Cunard Line.

Throughout the 19th century, numerous businesses developed in Nova Scotia became of pan-Canadian and international importance: the Starr Manufacturing Company (first skate-manufacturer in Canada), the Bank of Nova Scotia, Cunard Line, Alexander Keith's Brewery, Morse's Tea Company (first tea company in Canada), among others. (Early in the 20th century Sobey's was established, as was Maritime Life.)

Demography

Population since 1851

YearPopulationFive year
% change
Ten year
% change
1851276,854[ citation needed ]n/an/a
1861330,857[ citation needed ]n/a19.5
1871387,800[ citation needed ]n/a17.2
1881440,572[ citation needed ]n/a13.6
1891450,396[ citation needed ]n/a2.2
1901459,574[ citation needed ]n/a2.0
1911492,338[ citation needed ]n/a7.1
1921523,837[ citation needed ]n/a6.4
1931512,846[ citation needed ]n/a−2.1
1941577,962n/a12.7
1951642,584n/a11.2
1956694,7178.1n/a
1961737,0076.114.7
1966756,0392.68.8
1971788,9654.47.0
1976828,5705.09.6
1981847,4422.37.4
1986873,1753.05.4
1991899,9423.16.2
1996909,2821.04.1
2001908,007−0.10.9
2006913,4620.60.5
2011921,7270.91.5
2016923,5980.20.11

[30] [31]

Counties by population

Historical county [32] Historical
county seat [33]
Population
(2016) [34]
Population
(2011) [34]
Change
[34]
Land area
(km²) [34]
Population
density [34]
Highest Historical Population
Annapolis Annapolis Royal 20,59120,756−0.8%3,188.4823,631 (1991)
Antigonish Antigonish 19,30119,589−1.5%1,457.8119,589 (2011)
Cape Breton a Sydney 98,722101,619−2.9%2,470.60131,507 (1961)
Colchester Truro 50,58550,968−0.8%3,627.9450,968 (2011)
Cumberland Amherst 30,00531,353−4.3%4,272.6541,191 (1921)
Digby Digby 17,32318,036−4.0%2,515.2321,852 (1986)
Guysborough Guysborough 7,6258,143−6.4%4,044.2318,320 (1901)
Halifax b Halifax 403,390390,328+3.3%5,495.71403,390 (2016)
Hants Windsor 42,55842,304+0.6%3,051.7342,558 (2016)
Inverness Port Hood 17,23517,947−4.0%3,830.4025,779 (1891)
Kings Kentville 60,60060,5890.0%2,126.1160,600 (2016)
Lunenburg Lunenburg 47,12647,313−0.4%2,909.9047,634 (1991)
Pictou Pictou 43,74845,643−4.2%2,845.6250,350 (1981)
Queens c Liverpool 10,35110,960−5.6%2,398.6313,126 (1981)
Richmond Arichat 8,9649,293−3.5%1,244.2415,121 (1881)
Shelburne Shelburne 13,96614,496−3.7%2,464.6517,516 (1986)
Victoria Baddeck 7,0897,115−0.4%2,870.8512,470 (1881)
Yarmouth Yarmouth 24,41925,275−3.4%2,124.6427,891 (1991)
Total counties921,727913,462+0.9%52,939.44

a county boundaries contiguous with those of the Cape Breton Regional Municipality.
b county boundaries contiguous with those of the Halifax Regional Municipality.
c county boundaries contiguous with those of the Region of Queens Municipality.

Ethnic origins

According to the 2006 Canadian census [35] the largest ethnic group in Nova Scotia is Scottish (31.9%), followed by English (31.8%), Irish (21.6%), French (17.9%), German (11.3%), Aboriginal origin (5.3%), Dutch (4.1%), Black Canadians (2.8%), Welsh (1.9%) Italian (1.5%), and Scandinavian (1.4%). 40.9% of respondents identified their ethnicity as "Canadian".

Language

Mother tongue in Nova Scotia: Red - majority anglophone, Orange - mixed, Blue - majority francophone. Nouvelle-Ecosse langues.png
Mother tongue in Nova Scotia: Red – majority anglophone, Orange – mixed, Blue – majority francophone.

The 2011 Canadian census showed a population of 921,727. Of the 904,285 singular responses to the census question concerning mother tongue the most commonly reported languages were:

RankLanguagePopulationPercentage
1. English 836,08592.46%
2. French 31,1053.44%
3. Arabic 5,9650.66%
4. Algonquian languages 4,6850.52%
Mi'kmaq 4,6200.51%
5. German 3,2750.36%
6. Chinese 2,7500.30%
Mandarin 9050.10%
Cantonese 5900.06%
7. Dutch 1,7250.19%
8. Spanish 1,5450.17%
9. Canadian Gaelic 1,2750.14%
10. Tagalog 1,1850.13%
10. Persian 1,1850.13%
Peggys Cove Harbour Peggys Cove Harbour 01.jpg
Peggys Cove Harbour

Figures shown are for the number of single-language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses. [36]

Nova Scotia is home to the largest Scottish Gaelic-speaking community outside of Scotland, with a small number of native speakers in Pictou County, Antigonish County, and Cape Breton Island, and the language is taught in a number of secondary schools throughout the province.

In 2018 the government launched a new Gaelic vehicle license plate to raise awareness of the language and help fund Gaelic language and culture initiatives. They estimated that there were 2,000 Gaelic speakers in the province. [37]

Religion

In 1871, the largest religious denominations were Protestant with 103,500 (27%); Roman Catholic with 102,000 (26%); Baptist with 73,295 (19%); Anglican with 55,124 (14%); Methodist with 40,748 (10%), Lutheran with 4,958 (1.3%); and Congregationalist with 2,538 (0.65%). [38]

According to the 2001 census, the largest denominations by number of adherents were the Roman Catholic Church with 327,940 (37%); the United Church of Canada with 142,520 (17%); and the Anglican Church of Canada with 120,315 (13%).There are also 8,505 (0.9%) Muslims according to 2011 census. [39]

Economy

Lobster fishing boats in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia. YarmouthNS FishingBoats.jpg
Lobster fishing boats in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia.

Nova Scotia's per capita GDP in 2010 was $38,475, significantly lower than the national average per capita GDP of $47,605 and a little more than half of Canada's richest province, Alberta. GDP growth has lagged behind the rest of the country for at least the past decade. [40]

Nova Scotia's traditionally resource-based economy has diversified in recent decades. The rise of Nova Scotia as a viable jurisdiction in North America, historically, was driven by the ready availability of natural resources, especially the fish stocks off the Scotian Shelf. The fishery was a pillar of the economy since its development as part of New France in the 17th century; however, the fishery suffered a sharp decline due to overfishing in the late 20th century. The collapse of the cod stocks and the closure of this sector resulted in a loss of approximately 20,000 jobs in 1992. [41]

Other sectors in the province were also hit hard, particularly during the last two decades: coal mining in Cape Breton and northern mainland Nova Scotia has virtually ceased, and a large steel mill in Sydney closed during the 1990s. More recently, the high value of the Canadian dollar relative to the US dollar has hurt the forestry industry, leading to the shutdown of a long-running pulp and paper mill near Liverpool. Mining, especially of gypsum and salt and to a lesser extent silica, peat and barite, is also a significant sector. [42] Since 1991, offshore oil and gas has become an important part of the economy, although production and revenue are now declining. [40] Agriculture remains an important sector in the province, particularly in the Annapolis Valley.

Corn growing at Grafton in the Annapolis Valley in October 2011 Grafton, Nova Scotia.JPG
Corn growing at Grafton in the Annapolis Valley in October 2011

Nova Scotia’s defence and aerospace sector generates approximately $500 million in revenues and contributes about $1.5 billion to the provincial economy each year. [43] To date, 40% of Canada’s military assets reside in Nova Scotia. [43] Nova Scotia has the fourth-largest film industry in Canada hosting over 100 productions yearly, more than half of which are the products of international film and television producers. [44] In 2015, the government of Nova Scotia eliminated tax credits to film production in the province, jeopardizing the industry given most other jurisdictions continue to offer such credits. [45]

The Nova Scotia tourism industry includes more than 6,500 direct businesses, supporting nearly 40,000 jobs. [46] Two hundred thousand cruise-ship passengers from around the world flow through the Port of Halifax, Nova Scotia each year. [47] This industry contributes approximately $1.3 billion annually to the economy. [48] The province also boasts a rapidly developing Information & Communication Technology (ICT) sector which consists of over 500 companies, and employs roughly 15,000 people. [49] In 2006, the manufacturing sector brought in over $2.6 billion in chained GDP, the largest output of any industrial sector in Nova Scotia. [50] Michelin remains by far the largest single employer in this sector, operating three production plants in the province.

As of 2012, the median family income in Nova Scotia was $67,910, below the national average of $74,540; [51] in Halifax the figure rises to $80,490. [52]

The fishing boats are completely aground at low tide along the rich fishing grounds of Fundy Bay, at Hall's Harbour, Nova Scotia. Hall's Harbour, Nova Scotia.jpg
The fishing boats are completely aground at low tide along the rich fishing grounds of Fundy Bay, at Hall's Harbour, Nova Scotia.

The province is the world’s largest exporter of Christmas trees, lobster, gypsum, and wild berries. [53] Its export value of fish exceeds $1 billion, and fish products are received by 90 countries around the world. [54] Nevertheless, the province's imports far exceed its exports. While these numbers were roughly equal from 1992 until 2004, since that time the trade deficit has ballooned. In 2012, exports from Nova Scotia were 12.1% of provincial GDP, while imports were 22.6%. [55]

Government, law and politics

Nova Scotia is ordered by a parliamentary government within the construct of constitutional monarchy; the monarchy in Nova Scotia is the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. [56] The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head of state of 15 other Commonwealth countries, each of Canada's nine other provinces, and the Canadian federal realm, and resides predominantly in the United Kingdom. As such, the Queen's representative, the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia (at present Arthur Joseph LeBlanc), carries out most of the royal duties in Nova Scotia.

In 1937, Everett Farmer was the last person hanged (for murder) in Nova Scotia. [23]

Halifax, the provincial capital Halifaxnighttime.jpg
Halifax, the provincial capital

The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in any of these areas of governance is limited, though; in practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Executive Council, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the unicameral, elected House of Assembly and chosen and headed by the Premier of Nova Scotia (presently Stephen McNeil), the head of government. To ensure the stability of government, the lieutenant governor will usually appoint as premier the person who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Assembly. The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (presently Tim Houston) and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check. [57]

Each of the 51 Members of the Legislative Assembly in the House of Assembly is elected by single member plurality in an electoral district or riding. General elections must be called by the lieutenant governor on the advice of the premier, or may be triggered by the government losing a confidence vote in the House. [58] There are three dominant political parties in Nova Scotia: the Liberal Party, the New Democratic Party, and the Progressive Conservative Party. The other two registered parties are the Green Party of Nova Scotia and the Atlantica Party, neither of which has a seat in the House of Assembly.

The province's revenue comes mainly from the taxation of personal and corporate income, although taxes on tobacco and alcohol, its stake in the Atlantic Lottery Corporation, and oil and gas royalties are also significant. In 2006–07, the province passed a budget of $6.9 billion, with a projected $72 million surplus. Federal equalization payments account for $1.385 billion, or 20.07% of the provincial revenue. The province participates in the HST, a blended sales tax collected by the federal government using the GST tax system.

Nova Scotia no longer has any incorporated cities; they were amalgamated into Regional Municipalities in 1996.

Culture

Fine arts

Hector Pioneer by Nova Scotian sculptor John Wilson, Pictou, Nova Scotia HectorPioneerByJohnWilson.jpg
Hector Pioneer by Nova Scotian sculptor John Wilson, Pictou, Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia has long been a centre for artistic and cultural excellence. The capital, Halifax, hosts institutions such as Nova Scotia College of Art and Design University, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, Neptune Theatre, Dalhousie Arts Centre, Two Planks and a Passion Theatre, Ship's Company Theatre and the Symphony Nova Scotia. The province is home to avant-garde visual art and traditional crafting, writing and publishing and a film industry.

Lion carved by George Lang, Welsford-Parker Monument WelsfordParkerMonumentHalifaxNSCanada.JPG
Lion carved by George Lang, Welsford-Parker Monument

Much of the historic public art sculptures in the province were made by New York sculptor J. Massey Rhind as well as Canadian sculptors Hamilton MacCarthy, George Hill, Emanuel Hahn and Louis-Philippe Hébert. Some of this public art was also created by Nova Scotian John Wilson (sculptor). [59] Nova Scotian George Lang was a stone sculptor who also built many landmark buildings in the province, including the Welsford-Parker Monument.

Two valuable sculptures/ monuments in the province are in St. Paul's Church (Halifax): one by John Gibson (for Richard John Uniacke, Jr.) and another monument by Sir Francis Leggatt Chantrey (for Amelia Ann Smyth). Both Gibson and Chantry were famous British sculptors during the Victorian era and have numerous sculptures in the Tate, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and Westminster Abbey.

Some of the province's greatest painters were William Valentine, Maria Morris, Jack L. Gray, Mabel Killiam Day, Ernest Lawson, Frances Bannerman, Alex Colville, Tom Forrestall and ship portrait artist John O'Brien. Some of most notable artists whose works have been acquired by Nova Scotia are British artist Joshua Reynolds (collection of Art Gallery of Nova Scotia); William Gush and William J. Weaver (both have works in Province House); Robert Field (Government House), as well as leading American artists Benjamin West (self portrait in The Halifax Club, portrait of chief justice in Nova Scotia Supreme Court), John Singleton Copley, Robert Feke, and Robert Field (the latter three have works in the Uniacke Estate).

Two famous Nova Scotian photographers are Wallace R. MacAskill and Sherman Hines. [60] Three of the most accomplished illustrators were George Wylie Hutchinson, Bob Chambers (cartoonist) and Donald A. Mackay.

Renowned American artists like sculptor Richard Serra, composer Philip Glass and abstract painter John Beardman spent part of the year in Nova Scotia.

Film and television

Nova Scotia has produced numerous film actors. Academy Award nominee Ellen Page ( Juno , Inception ) was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia; five-time Academy Award nominee Arthur Kennedy ( Lawrence of Arabia , High Sierra ) called Nova Scotia his home; and two time Golden Globe winner Donald Sutherland ( MASH , Ordinary People ) spent most of his youth in the province. Other actors include John Paul Tremblay, Robb Wells, Mike Smith and John Dunsworth of Trailer Park Boys and actress Joanne Kelly of Warehouse 13 .

Nova Scotia has also produced numerous film directors such as Thom Fitzgerald ( The Hanging Garden ), Daniel Petrie ( Resurrection —Academy Award nominee) and Acadian film director Phil Comeau's multiple award-winning local story ( Le secret de Jérôme ).

Nova Scotian stories are the subject of numerous feature films: Margaret's Museum (starring Helena Bonham Carter); The Bay Boy (directed by Daniel Petrie and starring Kiefer Sutherland); New Waterford Girl ; The Story of Adele H. (the story of unrequited love of Adèle Hugo); and two films of Evangeline (one starring Miriam Cooper and another starring Dolores del Río).

There is a significant film industry in Nova Scotia. Feature filmmaking began in Canada with Evangeline (1913), made by Canadian Bioscope Company in Halifax, which released six films before it closed. The film has since been lost. Some of the award-winning feature films made in the province are Titanic (starring Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet); The Shipping News (starring Kevin Spacey and Julianne Moore); K-19: The Widowmaker (starring Harrison Ford and Liam Neeson) and Amelia (starring Hilary Swank, Richard Gere and Ewan McGregor).

Nova Scotia has also produced numerous television series: This Hour Has 22 Minutes , Don Messer's Jubilee , Black Harbour , Haven , Trailer Park Boys , Mr. D , Call Me Fitz , and Theodore Tugboat . The Jesse Stone film series on CBS starring Tom Selleck is also routinely produced in the province.

Literature

There are numerous Nova Scotian authors who have achieved international fame: Thomas Chandler Haliburton ( The Clockmaker ); Alistair MacLeod ( No Great Mischief ); Margaret Marshall Saunders ( Beautiful Joe ), Laurence B. Dakin (Marco Polo), and Joshua Slocum ( Sailing Alone Around the World ). Other authors include Johanna Skibsrud (The Sentimentalists), Alden Nowlan (Bread, Wine and Salt), George Elliott Clarke (Execution Poems), Lesley Choyce (Nova Scotia: Shaped by the Sea), Thomas Raddall (Halifax: Warden of the North), Donna Morrissey (Kit's Law), Frank Parker Day ( Rockbound ).

Nova Scotia has also been the subject of numerous literary books. Some of the international best-sellers are: Last Man Out: The Story of the Springhill Mining Disaster (by Melissa Fay Greene) ; Curse of the Narrows: The Halifax Explosion 1917 (by Laura MacDonald); "In the Village" (short story by Pulitzer Prize–winning author Elizabeth Bishop); and National Book Critics Circle Award winner Rough Crossings (by Simon Schama). Other authors who have written novels about Nova Scotian stories include: Linden MacIntyre ( The Bishop's Man ); Hugh MacLennan ( Barometer Rising ); Rebecca McNutt (Mandy and Alecto); Ernest Buckler (The Valley and the Mountain); Archibald MacMechan (Red Snow on Grand Pré), Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (long poem Evangeline ); Lawrence Hill ( The Book of Negroes ) and John Mack Faragher (Great and Nobel Scheme).

Music

Nova Scotia has produced numerous musicians. The Grammy Award winners include Denny Doherty (from The Mamas & the Papas), Anne Murray, and Sarah McLachlan. Other musicians include country singer Hank Snow, country singer George Canyon, jazz singer Holly Cole, opera singers Portia White and Barbara Hannigan, multi-Juno Award nominated rapper Classified, Rita MacNeil, Matt Mays, Sloan, Feist, Todd Fancey, The Rankin Family, April Wine, Buck 65, Joel Plaskett, Grand Dérangement, and country music singer Drake Jensen.

There are numerous songs written about Nova Scotia: The Ballad of Springhill (written by Peggy Seeger and performed by Irish folk singer Luke Kelly a member of The Dubliners, U2); numerous songs by Stan Rogers including Bluenose, The Jeannie C (mentions Little Dover, NS), Barrett's Privateers, Giant, and The Rawdon Hills; Farewell to Nova Scotia (traditional); Blue Nose (Stompin' Tom Connors); She's Called Nova Scotia (by Rita MacNeil); Cape Breton (by David Myles); Acadian Driftwood (by Robbie Robertson); Acadie (by Daniel Lanois); and My Nova Scotia Home (by Hank Snow).

Nova Scotia has also produced some significant songwriters such as Grammy Award winning Gordie Sampson. Sampson has written songs for Carrie Underwood ("Jesus, Take the Wheel", "Just a Dream", "Get Out of This Town"), Martina McBride ("If I Had Your Name", "You're Not Leavin Me"), LeAnn Rimes ("Long Night", "Save Myself"), and George Canyon ("My Name"). Another successful Nova Scotia songwriter was Hank Snow whose songs have been recorded by The Rolling Stones, Elvis Presley, and Johnny Cash.

Music producer Brian Ahern is a Nova Scotian. He got his start by being music director for CBC television's Singalong Jubilee. He later produced 12 albums for Anne Murray ("Snowbird", "Danny’s Song” and "You Won't See Me"); 11 albums for Emmylou Harris (whom he married at his home in Halifax on January 9, 1977). [61] He also produced discs for Johnny Cash, George Jones, Roy Orbison, Glen Campbell, Don Williams, Jesse Winchester and Linda Ronstadt. [62] Another noted writer is Cape Bretoner Leon Dubinsky, who wrote the anthem, "Rise Again", among many other songs performed by various Canadian artists. [63]

Sports

Sport is an important part of Nova Scotia culture. There are numerous semi pro, university and amateur sports teams, for example, The Halifax Mooseheads, 2013 Canadian Hockey League Memorial Cup Champions, and the Cape Breton Screaming Eagles, both of the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. The Halifax Hurricanes of the National Basketball League of Canada is another team that calls Nova Scotia home, and were 2016 league champions. [64]

The Nova Scotia Open is a professional golf tournament on the Web.com Tour since 2014.

The province has also produced numerous athletes such as Sidney Crosby (ice hockey), Nathan Mackinnon (ice hockey), Brad Marchand (ice hockey), Colleen Jones (curling), Al MacInnis (ice hockey), TJ Grant (mixed martial arts), Rocky Johnson (wrestling, and father of Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson), George Dixon (boxing) and Kirk Johnson (boxing). The achievements of Nova Scotian athletes are presented at the Nova Scotia Sport Hall of Fame.

Cuisine

The cuisine of Nova Scotia is typically Canadian with an emphasis on local seafood. One endemic dish (in the sense of "peculiar to" and "originating from") is the Halifax donair, a distant variant of the doner kebab prepared using thinly sliced beef meatloaf and a sweet condensed milk sauce. As well, hodge podge, a creamy soup of fresh baby vegetables, is native to Nova Scotia. [65]

The province is also known for blueberry grunt. [66]

Events and festivals

There are a number of festivals and cultural events that are recurring in Nova Scotia, or notable in its history. The following is an incomplete list of festivals and other cultural gatherings in the province:

Tourism

Nova Scotia's tourism industry showcases Nova Scotia's culture, scenery and coastline.

The Cabot Trail viewed from the Skyline Hiking Trail Cabot trail 2009k.JPG
The Cabot Trail viewed from the Skyline Hiking Trail

Nova Scotia has many museums reflecting its ethnic heritage, including the Glooscap Heritage Centre, Grand-Pré National Historic Site, Hector Heritage Quay and the Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia. Other museums tell the story of its working history, such as the Cape Breton Miners' Museum, and the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic.

Nova Scotia is home to several internationally renowned musicians and there are visitor centres in the home towns of Hank Snow, Rita MacNeil, and Anne Murray Centre. There are also numerous music and cultural festivals such as the Stan Rogers Folk Festival, Celtic Colours, the Nova Scotia Gaelic Mod, Royal Nova Scotia International Tattoo, the Atlantic Film Festival and the Atlantic Fringe Festival.

The province has 87 National Historic Sites of Canada, including the Habitation at Port-Royal, the Fortress of Louisbourg and Citadel Hill (Fort George) in Halifax.

Peggy's Cove is one of the tourist draws Peggys Cove Harbour.jpg
Peggy's Cove is one of the tourist draws

Nova Scotia has two national parks, Kejimkujik and Cape Breton Highlands, and many other protected areas. The Bay of Fundy has the highest tidal range in the world, and the iconic Peggys Cove is internationally recognized and receives 600,000-plus visitors a year. [67]

Acadian Skies and Mi'kmaq Lands is a starlight reserve in southwestern Nova Scotia. It is the first certified UNESCO-Starlight Tourist Destination. Starlight tourist destinations are locations that offer conditions for observations of stars which are protected from light pollution. [68] [69]

Cruise ships pay regular visits to the province. In 2010, Halifax received 261,000 passengers and Sydney 69,000. [70]

A 2008 Nova Scotia tourism campaign included advertising a fictional mobile phone called Pomegranate and establishing website, which after reading about "new phone" redirected to tourism info about region. [71]

Education

The Minister of Education is responsible for the administration and delivery of education, as defined by the Education Act [72] and other acts relating to colleges, universities and private schools. The powers of the Minister and the Department of Education are defined by the Ministerial regulations and constrained by the Governor-In-Council regulations.

All children until the age of 16 are legally required to attend school or the parent needs to perform home schooling. [73] Nova Scotia's education system is split up into eight different regions including; Tri-County (22 schools), Annapolis Valley (42 schools), South Shore (25 schools), Chignecto-Central (67 schools), Halifax (67 schools), Strait (20 schools) and Cape Breton-Victoria Regional Centre for Education (39 schools). [74]

Nova Scotia has more than 450 public schools for children. The public system offers primary to Grade 12. There are also private schools in the province. Public education is administered by seven regional school boards, responsible primarily for English instruction and French immersion, and also province-wide by the Conseil Scolaire Acadien Provincial, which administers French instruction to students for whom the primary language is French.

The Nova Scotia Community College system has 13 campuses around the province. The community college, with its focus on training and education, was established in 1988 by amalgamating the province's former vocational schools.

In addition to its community college system the province has 10 universities, including Dalhousie University, University of King's College, Saint Mary's University, Mount Saint Vincent University, NSCAD University, Acadia University, Université Sainte-Anne, Saint Francis Xavier University, Cape Breton University and the Atlantic School of Theology.

There are also more than 90 registered private commercial colleges in Nova Scotia. [75]

See also

Related Research Articles

The Maritimes Region in Canada

The Maritimes, also called the Maritime provinces or the Canadian Maritimes, is a region of Eastern Canada consisting of three provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island (PEI). The Maritimes had a population of 1,813,606 in 2016. Together with Canada's easternmost province, Newfoundland and Labrador, the Maritime provinces make up the region of Atlantic Canada.

Acadia colony of New France in northeastern North America

Acadia was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River. During much of the 17th and early 18th centuries, Norridgewock on the Kennebec River and Castine at the end of the Penobscot River were the southernmost settlements of Acadia. The actual specification by the French government for the territory refers to lands bordering the Atlantic coast, roughly between the 40th and 46th parallels. Later, the territory was divided into the British colonies that became Canadian provinces and American states. The population of Acadia included the various indigenous First Nations peoples that comprised the Wabanaki Confederacy and descendants of emigrants from France. The two communities intermarried, which resulted in a significant portion of the population of Acadia being Métis.

Expulsion of the Acadians 18th century geopolitical event

The Expulsion of the Acadians, also known as the Great Upheaval, the Great Expulsion, the Great Deportation and Le Grand Dérangement, was the forced removal by the British of the Acadian people from the present day Canadian Maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island — parts of an area also known as Acadia. The Expulsion (1755–1764) occurred during the French and Indian War and was part of the British military campaign against New France. The British first deported Acadians to the Thirteen Colonies, and after 1758, transported additional Acadians to Britain and France. In all, of the 14,100 Acadians in the region, approximately 11,500 Acadians were deported. A census of 1764 indicates that 2,600 Acadians remained in the colony, presumably having eluded capture.

Port-Royal National Historic Site historic site in Nova Scotia, Canada

Port-Royal National Historic Site is a National Historic Site located on the north bank of the Annapolis Basin in the community of Port Royal, Nova Scotia. The site is the location of the Habitation at Port-Royal.

Music is a part of the warp and weft of the fabric of Nova Scotia's cultural life. This deep and lasting love of music is expressed through the performance and enjoyment of all types and genres of music. While popular music from many genres has experienced almost two decades of explosive growth and success in Nova Scotia, the province remains best known for its folk and traditional based music.

Cape Sable Island island in Canada

Cape Sable Island, locally referred to as Cape Island, is a small Canadian island at the southernmost point of the Nova Scotia peninsula. Sometimes confused with Sable Island. Historically, the Argyle, Nova Scotia region was known as Cape Sable and encompassed a much larger area than simply the island it does today. It extended from Cape Negro (Baccaro) through Chebogue.

History of the Acadians

The Acadians are the descendants of the French settlers, and sometimes the Indigenous peoples, of parts of Acadia in the northeastern region of North America comprising what is now the Canadian Maritime Provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, a Gaspé, in Quebec, and to the Kennebec River in southern Maine.

West Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia

West Lawrencetown is a residential community within the Halifax Regional Municipality Nova Scotia on the Eastern Shore on Route 207 along the scenic route Marine Drive.

Geography of Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia is a province located in Eastern Canada fronting the Atlantic Ocean. One of the Maritime Provinces, Nova Scotia's geography is complex, despite its relatively small size in comparison to other Canadian provinces.

History of Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia is a Canadian province located in Canada's Maritimes. In known history, the oldest known residents of the province are the Mi'kmaq people. During the first 150 years of European settlement, the region was claimed by France and a colony formed, primarily made up of Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq. This time period involved six wars in which the Mi'kmaq along with the French and some Acadians resisted the British invasion of the region. During Father Le Loutre's War, the capital was moved from Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia to the newly established Halifax, Nova Scotia (1749). The warfare ended with the Burying the Hatchet Ceremony (1761). After the colonial wars, New England Planters and Foreign Protestants immigrated to Nova Scotia. After the American Revolution, Loyalists immigrated to the colony. During the nineteenth century, Nova Scotia became self-governing in 1848 and joined the Canadian Confederation in 1867.

Jean-Louis Le Loutre Catholic missionary to the Mikmaq, leader of Acadian resistance

Abbé Jean-Louis Le Loutre was a Catholic priest and missionary for the Paris Foreign Missions Society. Le Loutre became the leader of the French forces and the Acadian and Mi'kmaq militias during King George's War and Father Le Loutre’s War in the eighteenth-century struggle for power between the French, Acadians, and Miꞌkmaq against the British over Acadia.

Port La Tour, Nova Scotia Community in Nova Scotia, Canada

Port La Tour is a community in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, located in the Municipality of the District of Barrington of Shelburne County.

Scotch Village, Nova Scotia human settlement in Nova Scotia, Canada

Scotch Village is an unincorporated community on the Kennetcook River in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, located in the Municipality of West Hants. This area was part of Newport Township at the time of settlement primarily by Rhode Island Planters in the early 1760s. It was referred to as “Scotchman’s Dyke” or “Scotch Village”, due to settlement of early families of Scottish descent. Prior to the arrival of the Planters, Scotch Village had been the home of Mi'kmaq and Acadians.

Villagedale, Nova Scotia Community in Nova Scotia, Canada

Villagedale is a community in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, located in the Municipality of the District of Barrington of Shelburne County.

Siege of Annapolis Royal (1744) four attempts by the French, along with their Acadian and native allies, to regain Annapolis Royal

The Siege of Annapolis Royal in 1744 involved two of four attempts by the French, along with their Acadian and native allies, to regain the capital of Nova Scotia/Acadia, Annapolis Royal, during King George's War. The Siege is noted for Governor of Nova Scotia Paul Mascarene successfully defending the last British outpost in the colony and for the first arrival of New England Ranger John Gorham to Nova Scotia. The French and Mi'kmaq land forces were thwarted on both attempts on the capital because of the failure of French naval support to arrive.

Military history of Nova Scotia Provincial military history

Nova Scotia is a Canadian province located in Canada's Maritimes. The region was initially occupied by Mi'kmaq. During the first 150 years of European settlement, the colony was primarily made up of Catholic Acadians, Maliseet and Mi'kmaq. During the latter seventy-five years of this time period, there were six colonial wars that took place in Nova Scotia. After agreeing to several peace treaties, this long period of warfare ended with the Burial of the Hatchet Ceremony between the British and the Mi'kmaq (1761) and two years later when the British defeated the French in North America (1763). During these wars, Acadians, Mi'kmaq and Maliseet from the region fought to protect the border of Acadia from New England. They fought the war on two fronts: the southern border of Acadia, which New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. The other front was in Nova Scotia and involved preventing New Englanders from taking the capital of Acadia, Port Royal, establishing themselves at Canso.

Siege of Annapolis Royal (1745) third of four attempts by the French, along with their Acadian and native allies, to regain Annapolis Royal

The Siege of Annapolis Royal in 1745 involved the third of four attempts by the French, along with their Acadian and native allies, to regain the capital of Nova Scotia/Acadia, Annapolis Royal, during King George's War. During the siege William Pote was taken prisoner and wrote one of the rare captivity narratives that exist from Nova Scotia and Acadia.

Burying the Hatchet ceremony (Nova Scotia)

The Burying the Hatchet Ceremony happened in Nova Scotia on June 25, 1761 and was one of many such ceremonies where the Halifax Treaties were signed. The treaties ended a protracted period of warfare which had lasted more than 75 years and encompassed six wars between the Mi'kmaq people and the British. The Burying the Hatchet Ceremonies and the treaties that they commemorated created an enduring peace and a commitment to obey the rule of law.

Outline of Nova Scotia Overview of and topical guide to Nova Scotia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Nova Scotia:

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