United Empire Loyalist

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Reception of the American Loyalists by Great Britain in the Year 1783. The engraving depicts Loyalists seeking aid from Britannia following their expulsion from the United States. Reception of the American Loyalists.jpg
Reception of the American Loyalists by Great Britain in the Year 1783. The engraving depicts Loyalists seeking aid from Britannia following their expulsion from the United States.

United Empire Loyalists (or simply Loyalists) is an honorific which was first given by the 1st Lord Dorchester, the Governor of Quebec, and Governor-General of the Canadas, to American Loyalists who resettled in British North America [1] during or after the American Revolution. At the time, the 'Demonym Canadian' or Canadien was used to refer to the indigenous First Nations groups and the French settlers inhabiting the Province of Quebec. [2]

Contents

They settled primarily in Nova Scotia and the Lower Canada (now called Province of Quebec) (including the Eastern Townships, and Montreal). The influx of loyalist settlers resulted in the creation of several new colonies. In 1784, New Brunswick was partitioned from the Colony of Nova Scotia after significant loyalist resettlement around the Bay of Fundy. [3] [4] The influx of loyalist refugees also resulted in the Province of Quebec's division into Lower Canada (present-day Quebec), and Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) in 1791. The Crown gave them land grants of one Lot. One Lot contains 200 acres (81 ha) per person to encourage their resettlement, as it especially wanted to develop the frontier of Upper Canada. This resettlement added many English speakers to the Canadian population. It was the beginning of new waves of immigration that established a predominantly English-speaking population in the future Canada both west and east of the modern Quebec border.

History

American Revolution

Depiction of Loyalist refugees on their way to the Canadas during the American Revolution. Tory Refugees by Howard Pyle.jpg
Depiction of Loyalist refugees on their way to the Canadas during the American Revolution.

Following the end of the American Revolutionary War and the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, both Loyalist soldiers and civilians were evacuated from New York City, most heading for Canada. Many Loyalists had already migrated to Canada, especially from New York and northern New England, where violence against them had increased during the war.

The Crown-allotted land in Canada was sometimes allotted according to which Loyalist regiment a man had fought in. This Loyalist resettlement was critical to the development of present-day Ontario, and some 10,000 refugees went to Quebec (including the Eastern Townships and modern-day Ontario). But Nova Scotia (including modern-day New Brunswick) received three times that number: about 35,000–40,000 Loyalist refugees. [5] These included some 3,000 Black Loyalists, slaves who had gained freedom from the British for working with them during the war. At the same time, some white Loyalists in Nova Scotia had brought their slaves with them, and held them until slavery was abolished in 1834. Prince Edward Island received 2,000 refugees.

An unknown but substantial number of individuals did not stay; they eventually returned to the United States. As some families split in their loyalties during the war years, many Loyalists in Canada continued to maintain close ties with relatives in the United States. They conducted commerce across the border with little regard to British trade laws. [6] In the 1790s, the offer of land and low taxes, which were one-quarter those in the Republic, for allegiance by Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe resulted in the arrival of 30,000 Americans often referred to as Late Loyalists. By the outbreak of the War of 1812, of the 110,000 inhabitants of Upper Canada, 20,000 were the initial Loyalists, 60,000 were later American immigrants and their descendants, and 30,000 were immigrants from the UK, their descendants or some Quebecois. The later arrival of many of the inhabitants of Upper Canada suggests that land was the main reason for immigration.

Resettlement

The arrival of the Loyalists after the Revolutionary War led to the division of Canada into the provinces of Upper Canada (what is now southern Ontario) and Lower Canada (today's southern Quebec). They arrived and were largely settled in groups by ethnicity and religion. Many soldiers settled with others of the regiments they had served with. [7] The settlers came from every social class and 13 Colonies unlike the depiction of them in the Sandham painting which suggests the arrivals were upper-class immigrants dressed in their best and about to go the Ball.

The Coming of the Loyalists, painting by Henry Sandham showing a romanticised view of the Loyalists' arrival in New Brunswick. Henry Sandham - The Coming of the Loyalists.jpg
The Coming of the Loyalists, painting by Henry Sandham showing a romanticised view of the Loyalists' arrival in New Brunswick.

Loyalists soon petitioned the government to be allowed to use the British legal system, which they were accustomed to in the American colonies, rather than the French system. Great Britain had maintained the French legal system and allowed freedom of religion after taking over the former French colony with the defeat of France in the Seven Years' War. With the creation of Upper and Lower Canada, most Loyalists in the west could live under British laws and institutions. The predominately ethnic French population of Lower Canada, who were still French-speaking, could maintain their familiar French civil law and the Catholic religion. [7]

Realizing the importance of some type of recognition, on 9 November 1789, Lord Dorchester, the governor of Quebec and Governor General of British North America, declared "that it was his Wish to put the mark of Honour upon the Families who had adhered to the Unity of the Empire". As a result of Dorchester's statement, the printed militia rolls carried the notation:

Those Loyalists who have adhered to the Unity of the Empire, and joined the Royal Standard before the Treaty of Separation in the year 1783, and all their Children and their Descendants by either sex, are to be distinguished by the following Capitals, affixed to their names: UE or U.E. Alluding to their great principle The Unity of the Empire.

Because most of the nations of the Iroquois had allied with the British, which had ceded their lands to the United States, thousands of Iroquois and other pro-British Native Americans were expelled from New York and other states. They were also resettled in Canada. Many of the Iroquois, led by Joseph Brant Thayendenegea, settled at Six Nations of the Grand River, the largest First Nations Reserve in Canada. A smaller group of Iroquois led by Captain John Deserontyon Odeserundiye, settled on the shores of the Bay of Quinte in modern-day southeastern Ontario. [8]

A Black Loyalist wood cutter at Shelburne, Nova Scotia in 1788. AricanNovaScotianByCaptain William Booth1788.png
A Black Loyalist wood cutter at Shelburne, Nova Scotia in 1788.

The government settled some 3,500 Black Loyalists in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, but they faced discrimination and inadequate support. [9] Delays in making land grants aggravated racist tensions in Shelburne. Mobs of white Loyalists attacked Black Loyalists in the Shelburne Riots in July 1784, Canada's first recorded race riot. [10] The government was slow to survey the land of Black Loyalists (which meant they could not settle); it also was discriminatory in granting them smaller, poorer and more remote lands than those of white settlers. This increased their difficulties in getting established. [11] The majority of Black Loyalists in Canada were refugees from the South; they suffered from the harsh winters and discrimination.

When Great Britain set up the colony of Sierra Leone in Africa, nearly 1300 Black Loyalists emigrated there in 1792 for the promise of self-government. The Black Loyalists established Freetown in Sierra Leone. Well into the 20th century, together with other early settlers from Jamaica and slaves liberated from illegal slave ships, they and their descendants dominated the culture, economy and government of Sierra Leone. [12]

Numerous Loyalists had been forced to abandon substantial amounts of property in the United States. Britain sought restoration or compensation for this lost property from the United States, which was a major issue during the negotiation of the Jay Treaty in 1795. Negotiations settled on the concept of the United States negotiators "advising" the U.S. Congress to provide restitution. For the British, this concept carried significant legal weight, far more than it did to the Americans; the U.S. Congress declined to accept the advice.

Slavery

The Act Against Slavery, 1793, an anti-slavery act passed in Upper Canada. The Act was created partially in response to Loyalist refugees who brought slaves with them. An Act Against Slavery.jpg
The Act Against Slavery, 1793, an anti-slavery act passed in Upper Canada. The Act was created partially in response to Loyalist refugees who brought slaves with them.

Slave-owning Loyalists from across the former Thirteen Colonies brought their slaves with them to Canada, as the practice was still legal there. They took a total of about 2,000 slaves to British North America: Some 500 in Upper Canada (Ontario), some 300 in Lower Canada (Quebec), and 1,200 in the Maritime colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. The presence and condition of slaves in the Maritimes would become a particular issue. They constituted a larger portion of the population, but it was not an area of plantation agriculture.

The settlers eventually freed many of these slaves. Together with the free Black Loyalists, many chose to go to Sierra Leone in 1792 and following years, seeking a chance for self-government. Meanwhile, Britain passed an imperial law in 1790 that assured prospective immigrants to Canada that they could retain their slaves as property. In 1793, an anti-slavery law was passed, in the 1st Parliament of Upper Canada. The Act Against Slavery, banned the importation of slaves into the colony, and mandated the emancipation of all children born henceforth to female slaves upon reaching the age of 25. The Act was partially introduced due to the influx of the number of slaves brought by Loyalist refugees to Upper Canada. [13] Trading was abolished across the British Empire in 1807. The institution of slavery was abolished Empire-wide by 1834 (except in India, where it was considered an indigenous institution).

War of 1812

Depiction of Glengarry Light Infantry's charge across a frozen river during the Battle of Ogdensburg. The unit's membership was restricted to Loyalist and British settlers. Glengarrys at Ogdensburg.jpg
Depiction of Glengarry Light Infantry's charge across a frozen river during the Battle of Ogdensburg. The unit's membership was restricted to Loyalist and British settlers.

From 1812 to 1815, the United States and the United Kingdom were engaged in a conflict known as the War of 1812. The outbreak of the war was a result of British wartime policies in their conflict against Napoleonic France. On 18 June 1812, the United States President James Madison signed the declaration of war into law, after receiving heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress.

By 1812, Upper Canada had been settled mostly by Revolution-era Loyalists from the United States (United Empire Loyalists) or postwar American and British immigrants. The Canadas were thinly populated and only lightly defended by the British Army, and the sedentary units of the Canadian Militia. American leaders assumed that Canada could be easily overrun, with former American President Thomas Jefferson optimistically stating the conquest of Canada as "a matter of marching". [14] Many Loyalist Americans had migrated to Upper Canada after the Revolutionary War. However, there was also significant number of non-Loyalist American settlers in the area due to the offer of land grants to immigrants. The Americans assumed the latter population would favour the American cause, but they did not. Although the population of Upper Canada included recent settlers from the United States who had no obvious loyalties to the Crown, the American forces found strong opposition from settlers during the War of 1812. [15] [16]

A number of loyalists served as fencibles, the Provincial Marine, provincial regulars, or with the sedentary militia. With the successful defence of the Canadian colonies from American invasion, the War of 1812 is seen by Loyalists as a victory. [17] After the war, the British government transported to New Brunswick and settled about 400 of 3000 former slaves from the United States whom they freed during and after the war. It had fulfilled its promise to them of freedom if they left slaveholders and fought with the British. Enslaved African Americans risked considerable danger by crossing to British lines to achieve freedom. [18]

Present

While the honorific "United Empire Loyalist" is not part of the official Canadian honours system, modern-day descendants of Loyalist refugees may employ it, sometimes using "U.E." as postnominal letters. The practice, however, is uncommon today, even in original Loyalist strongholds like southeastern Ontario. Historians and genealogists use it extensively as a shorthand for identifying the ancestry of particular families.[ citation needed ]

Gathering for the Loyalist Centennial Parade in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1883. Gathering for the Parade, Loyalist Centennial, Saint John, New Brunswick.jpg
Gathering for the Loyalist Centennial Parade in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1883.

The influence of the Loyalists on the evolution of Canada remains evident. Their ties with Britain and antipathy to the United States provided the strength needed to keep Canada independent and distinct in North America. The Loyalists' basic distrust of republicanism and "mob rule" influenced Canada's gradual, "paper-strewn" path to independence. The new British North American provinces of Upper Canada (the forerunner of Ontario) and New Brunswick were created as places of refuge for the United Empire Loyalists. The mottoes of the two provinces reflect this history: Ontario's, also found on its coat of arms, is Ut incepit fidelis sic permanet ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains"); New Brunswick's, Spem Reduxit ("Hope restored").

The word "Loyalist" appears frequently in school, street, and business names in such Loyalist-settled communities as Belleville, Ontario. The nearby city of Kingston, established as a Loyalist stronghold, was named in honour of King George III. And on the outskirts of that city is a township named simply "Loyalist".

On 1 July 1934, Royal Mail Canada issued "United Empire Loyalists, 1776–1784" designed by Robert Bruce McCracken based on a sculpture "United Empire Loyalists" by Sydney March. The 10¢ stamps are perforated 11 and were printed by British American Bank Note Company. [19]

In 1996, Canadian politicians Peter Milliken (a descendant of American Loyalists) and John Godfrey sponsored the Godfrey–Milliken Bill, which would have entitled Loyalist descendants to reclaim ancestral property in the United States which had been confiscated during the American Revolution. The bill, which did not pass the House of Commons, was intended primarily as a satirical response to the contemporaneous American Helms–Burton Act. [20]

In 1997, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario passed a bill declaring 19 June, "United Empire Loyalist Day" in the province of Ontario. United Empire Loyalist Day is also celebrated on the same day in Saskatchewan, on 18 May in New Brunswick and 22 July in British Columbia.

Memory and historiography

The Loyalists paid attention to their history developing an idealized and distorted image of themselves that they took great pride in. In 1898, Henry Coyne provided a glowing depiction:

Monument by Sydney March to the United Empire Loyalists in Hamilton, Ontario. United Empire Loyalist statue and plaque in Hamilton, Ontario.jpg
Monument by Sydney March to the United Empire Loyalists in Hamilton, Ontario.

The Loyalists, to a considerable extent, were the very cream of the population of the Thirteen Colonies. They represented in very large measure the learning, the piety, the gentle birth, the wealth and good citizenship of the British race in America, as well its devotion to law and order, British institutions, and the unity of the Empire. This was the leaven they brought to Canada, which has leavened the entire Dominion of this day. [21]

According to Margaret Conrad and Alvin Finkel, Canadian historians, Coyne's memorial incorporates essential themes that have often been incorporated into patriotic celebrations. The Loyalist tradition, as explicated by Murray Barkley and Norman Knowles, includes:

The elite origins of the refugees, their loyalty to the British Crown, their suffering and sacrifice in the face of hostile conditions, their consistent anti-Americanism, and their divinely inspired sense of mission. [22]
A cairn, located in Regina's Wascana Park, contains fieldstones from Saskatchewan homesteads settled by Loyalist descendants. United Empire Loyalist Cairn, Wascana Park, Regina, Saskatchewan.jpg
A cairn, located in Regina's Wascana Park, contains fieldstones from Saskatchewan homesteads settled by Loyalist descendants.

Conrad and Finkel point up some exaggerations: only a small percentage of the Loyalists were colonial elite. In fact Loyalists were drawn from every stratum of colonial society. A few suffered violence and hardship. However about 20 percent returned to the United States. Most were loyal to all things British, but other Loyalists supported the United States in the War of 1812. Conrad and Finkel conclude:

in using their history to justify claims to superiority, descendants of the Loyalists abuse the truth and actually diminish their status in the eyes of their non-Loyalists neighbours ... The scholars who argue that the Loyalists planted the seeds of Canadian liberalism or conservatism in British North America usually fail to take into account not only the larger context of political discussion that prevailed throughout the North Atlantic world, but also the political values brought to British North America by other immigrants in the second half of the 18th century. [23]

From the 1870s their descendants returned to the United States in the hundreds of thousands among the 5.5 million immigrants from Canada to the US (among whom were recent British immigrants, French Canadians, descendants of later immigrants to Canada) who settled all over the US. In the New England States alone 10% of the population can trace its roots to the Maritime Provinces (and 2 million more of 14 million inhabitants is part or wholly French Canadian).

United Empire Loyalist Association

The United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada (UELAC) is an organization of Loyalist descendants and others interested in Canadian history, in particular the role of the United Empire Loyalists (UEL). With UELAC branches all across Canada and an annual conference held in different cities across the country each year, an active membership keeps this period of Canadian history memorialized.

Loyalist Flag

The Loyalist Flag flies over the Saskatchewan Legislative Building on UEL Day. Loyalist Flag Over Saskatchewan Legislative Building.jpg
The Loyalist Flag flies over the Saskatchewan Legislative Building on UEL Day.

On 17 April 1707, Queen Anne issued a proclamation referencing the use of the Union Flag "at Sea and Land". The Union Flag began to appear on forts and as regimental colours from this point, and at the time of the American Revolution, this was the flag in use. When those loyal to the Crown left the United States for British North America, they took this flag with them, and because of this historical connection, it continues to be the official flag of the UELAC.

The Union Flag is composed of the Cross of St. George, a horizontal and vertical red cross on a white background, and St. Andrew's Cross, a diagonal white cross on a blue background. The crosses of St. George and St. Andrew represent England and Scotland respectively.

Heraldry

In Canadian heraldry, Loyalist descendants are entitled to use a Loyalist coronet in their coat of arms. [24]

List of Loyalist settlements in Canada

18th-century names are listed first, alongside their present-day equivalents.

See also

Related Research Articles

British North America Former British imperial territories

British North America refers to the British Empire's colonial territories in North America from 1783 to 1907, not including the Caribbean and Bermuda. The term was first used informally in 1783, but it was uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. These territories today form modern-day Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

Loyalism ideology where an individual maintains allegiance toward an established government, political party, or sovereign, especially during times of war and revolt

In general, loyalism is an individual's allegiance toward an established government, political party, or sovereign, especially during times of war and revolt. In the United States, the most common usage of the term refers to loyalty to the British Crown, especially to opponents of the American Revolution and those exiles who went to Canada and Mexico.

Slavery in Canada

Slavery in Canada includes both that practised by First Nations from earliest times and that under European colonization. While Britain did not ban slavery in present-day Canada until 1833, the practice of slavery was ended through case law; and it died out in the early 19th century through judicial actions litigated on behalf of slaves seeking manumission. The courts, to varying degrees, rendered slavery unenforceable in both Lower Canada and Nova Scotia. In Lower Canada, for example, after court decisions in the late 1790s, the "slave could not be compelled to serve longer than he would, and ... might leave his master at will." A significant number of blacks came to Canada from the United States after the American Revolution and again after the War of 1812.

1783 in Canada

Events from the year 1783 in Canada.

Loyalist (American Revolution) Colonists loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolution

Loyalists were American colonists who stayed loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War, often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time. They were opposed by the "Patriots", who supported the revolution, and called them "persons inimical to the liberties of America". Prominent Loyalists repeatedly assured the British government that many thousands of them would spring to arms and fight for the crown. The British government acted in expectation of that, especially in the southern campaigns in 1780–81. In practice, the number of Loyalists in military service was far lower than expected since Britain could not effectively protect them except in those areas where Britain had military control. The British were often suspicious of them, not knowing whom they could fully trust in such a conflicted situation; they were often looked down upon. Patriots watched suspected Loyalists very closely and would not tolerate any organized Loyalist opposition. Many outspoken or militarily active Loyalists were forced to flee, especially to their stronghold of New York City. William Franklin, the royal governor of New Jersey and son of Patriot leader Benjamin Franklin, became the leader of the Loyalists after his release from a Patriot prison in 1778. He worked to build Loyalist military units to fight in the war, but the number of volunteers was much fewer than London expected.

Shelburne, Nova Scotia Town in Nova Scotia, Canada

Shelburne is a town located in southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada. It is home to the Bowers Meadows Wilderness Area.

Black Loyalist

A Black Loyalist was a person of African descent who sided with the Loyalists during the American Revolutionary War. In particular, the term refers to men who escaped the enslavement of Patriot masters and served on the Loyalist side because of the Crown's promises of freedom.

New England Planters

The New England Planters were settlers from the New England colonies who responded to invitations by the lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia, Charles Lawrence, to settle lands left vacant by the Bay of Fundy Campaign (1755) of the Acadian Expulsion.

Canada under British rule Colonial Canada

Canada was under British rule beginning with the 1763 Treaty of Paris, when New France, of which the colony of Canada was a part, formally became a part of the British Empire. Gradually, other territories, colonies and provinces that were part of British North America would be added to Canada, along with land through the use of treaties with First Peoples.

American Canadians are Canadian citizens of American descent, or Canadians who identify to some extent with American society. The term is most often used to refer to Canadians who either migrated from or have ancestry in the United States.

Loyal American Regiment American regiment

The Loyal American Regiment was a British Provincial regiment raised in 1777 for Loyalist service during the American Revolutionary War. The regiment fought in many engagements throughout the war and the men were among the thousands of loyalists who settled in Nova Scotia, after the regiment disbanded in 1783.

Thomas Peters (revolutionary) Black Loyalist founding father of Sierra Leone

Thomas Peters, born Thomas Potters, was a veteran of the Black Pioneers, fighting for the British in the American Revolutionary War. A Black Loyalist, he was resettled in Nova Scotia, where he became a politician and one of the "Founding Fathers" of the nation of Sierra Leone in West Africa. Peters was among a group of influential Black Canadians who pressed the Crown to fulfill its commitment for land grants in Nova Scotia. Later they recruited African-American settlers in Nova Scotia for the colonisation of Sierra Leone in the late eighteenth century.

Black Nova Scotians Black Canadians descended from American slaves or freemen

Black Nova Scotians or African Nova Scotians are Black Canadians whose ancestors primarily date back to the Colonial United States as slaves or freemen, and later arrived in Nova Scotia, Canada during the 18th and early 19th centuries. As of the 2016 Census of Canada, 21,915 black people live in Nova Scotia, most in Halifax. Since the 1950s, numerous Black Nova Scotians have migrated to Toronto for its larger range of opportunities. Before the immigration reforms of the 1960s, Black Nova Scotians formed 37% of the total Black Canadian population.

<i>Book of Negroes</i> document

The Book of Negroes is a document created by Brigadier General Samuel Birch that records names and descriptions of 3,000 Black Loyalists, enslaved Africans who escaped to the British lines during the American Revolution and were evacuated to points in Nova Scotia as free people of colour.

Black Refugee (War of 1812)

Black Refugees were African Americans who escaped slavery in the United States during the War of 1812 and settled in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Trinidad. The term is used in Canada for those who settled in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. They were the most numerous of the African Americans who sought freedom during the War of 1812. The Black Refugees were the second group of African Americans, after the Black Loyalists, to flee American enslavement in wartime and settle in Canada. They make up the most significant single immigration source for today's African Nova Scotian communities. During the antebellum, however, an estimated ten to thirty thousand African-American refugees reached freedom in Canada, often traveling alone or in small family groups.

Nova Scotian Settlers historical ethnic group that settled Sierra Leone

The Nova Scotian Settlers, or Sierra Leone Settlers were Black Americans who founded the settlement of Freetown, Sierra Leone on March 11, 1792. The majority of these black American immigrants were among 3000 Blacks who had been in enslaved in North America, who had sought freedom and refuge with the British during the American Revolutionary War, leaving rebel masters. They became known as the Black Loyalists. The Nova Scotian settlers were jointly led by African-American Thomas Peters, a former soldier, and English abolitionist John Clarkson. For most of the 19th century, the Settlers resided in Settler Town and remained a distinct ethnic group within the Freetown territory, tending to marry among themselves and with Europeans in the colony. Indigenous tribes in the region included the Sherbro and Mende.

Expulsion of the Loyalists

During the American Revolution, those who continued to support King George III of Great Britain came to be known as Loyalists. Loyalists are to be contrasted with Patriots, who supported the Revolution. Historians have estimated that during the American Revolution, between 15 and 20 percent of the white population of the colonies, or about 500,000 people, were Loyalists. As the war concluded with Great Britain defeated by the Americans and the French, the most active Loyalists were no longer welcome in the United States, and sought to move elsewhere in the British Empire. The large majority of the Loyalists remained in the United States, however, and enjoyed full citizenship there.

History of the Franco-Americans

The Franco-Americans are a group of people of French, French-Canadian, and Acadian descent living in the United States. Today there are 11.8 million Franco-Americans in the US and 1.6 million Franco-Americans who speak French at home. There are also an additional 450,000 Americans who speak a French-based creole language, for example, Haitian Creole. Even though Franco-Americans are a substantial portion of the US population, they are generally less visible than other sizable ethnic groups. This is partly because of geographical dispersal, and partly because a large proportion of Franco-Americans have acculturated or assimilated.

Nova Scotia in the American Revolution

Nova Scotia was heavily involved in the American Revolution. The American Revolution (1776–1783) had a significant impact on shaping Nova Scotia. At the beginning, there was ambivalence in Nova Scotia, "the 14th American Colony" as some called it, over whether the colony should join the Americans in the war against Britain. Largely as a result of American Privateer attacks on Nova Scotia villages, as the war continued, the population of Nova Scotia solidified their support for the British. Nova Scotians were also influenced to remain loyal to Britain by the presence of British military units, judicial prosecution by the Nova Scotia Governors and the efforts of Reverend Henry Alline.

American immigration to Canada

American immigration to Canada was a notable part of the social history of Canada. Over Canada's history various refugees and economic migrants from the United States would immigrate to Canada for a variety of reasons. Exiled Loyalists from the United States first came, followed by African American refugees, economic migrants, and later draft evaders from the Vietnam War.

References

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  2. Orkin, Mark M. (2010). "The Name Canada: An Etymological Enigma". In Elaine Gold; Janice McAlpine (eds.). Canadian English: A Linguistic Reader (PDF). Strathy Language Unit, Queen's University. pp. 38–43. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015.
  3. Bell, David (2015). American Loyalists to New Brunswick: The ship passenger lists. Formac Publishing Company. p. 7. ISBN   978-1-4595-0399-1.
  4. Careless, James Maurice Stockford; Tattrie, Jon (24 July 2015) [7 February 2006]. "Responsible Government". The Canadian Encyclopedia (online ed.). Historica Canada . Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  5. Censuses of Canada 1665 to 1871: Upper Canada & Loyalists (1785 to 1797). Statcan.gc.ca (22 October 2008). Retrieved on 2013-07-24,
  6. Rees, Ronald. Land of the Loyalists: Their Struggle to Shape the Maritimes, Nimbus, 146 p., 2000, ISBN   1-55109-274-3.
  7. 1 2 "A Short History of the United Empire Loyalists", by Ann Mackenzie, M.A., United Empire Loyalists Association of Canada, accessed 8 February 2010
  8. E.A. Heaman (2015). A Short History of the State in Canada. U of Toronto Press. p. 74.
  9. Patrick Bode, "Upper Canada, 1793: Simcoe and the Slaves." Beaver 1993 73(3): 17–19
  10. James W. St. G. Walker, The Black Loyalists, University of Toronto Press (1992) p. 49
  11. "Black Loyalists in New Brunswick, 1783-1853", Atlantic Canada Portal, University of New Brunswick, accessed 8 February 2010
  12. Ruth Holmes Whitehead, Black Loyalists: Southern Settlers of Nova Scotia's First Free Black Communities, Halifax: Nimbus Publishing (2013) p. 166
  13. Wilson, William R. (nd). "Early Canada Historical Narratives: an Act to Prevent the Further Introduction of Slaves". Upper Canada History. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  14. Ronald J. Dale (2001). The Invasion of Canada: Battles of the War of 1812. James Lorimer & Company. p. 17. ISBN   1550287389.
  15. Fraser, Robert Lochiel. "Mallory, Benajah".
  16. Jones, Elwood H. "Willcocks, Joseph".
  17. Kaufman, Erik (1997). "Condemned to Rootlessness: The Loyalist Origins of Canada's Identity Crisis". Nationalism and Ethnic Politics. pp. 110–135. doi:10.1080/13537119708428495.
  18. "Black Loyalists in New Brunswick, 1789–1853", Atlantic Canada Portal, University of New Brunswick, accessed 8 February 2010
  19. "Canadian Postal Archives Database". data4.collectionscanada.gc.ca. Government of Canada.
  20. The Godfrey-Milliken Bill – A Canadian response to the Helms–Burton Law, Sam Boskey, 29 October 1996
  21. Henry Coyne (1904). Memorial to the United Empire Loyalists. Publications of the Niagara Historical Society. p. 30.
  22. Margaret Conrad and Alvin Finkel, History of the Canadian Peoples: Beginnings to 1867 (vol 1, 2006) p 202.
  23. Conrad and Finkel, History of the Canadian Peoples: Beginnings to 1867 (vol 1, 2006) p 203.
  24. John E Ruch, UE, Hon.FHSC (1990). The Canadian Heraldic Authority and the Loyalists (PDF) (Report). The United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  25. "The Coat of Arms of Wainfleet Township". wainfleet.info. Bowhunter Websites. Retrieved 24 July 2013.

Further reading

Historiography

Primary sources