North Warning System

Last updated
North Warning System
Nwslogo2.gif
Active1988–present
Country Canada & United States
Branch Royal Canadian Air Force
United States Air Force
Type Early-warning radar
RoleContinental Air Defense
Part of North American Aerospace Defense Command
Garrison/HQ CFB North Bay
Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson
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The North Warning System (NWS) is a joint United States and Canadian early-warning radar system for the atmospheric air defense of North America. It provides surveillance of airspace from potential incursions or attacks from across North America's polar region. It replaced the Distant Early Warning Line system in the late 1980s.

Contents

Overview

The North Warning System as part of NORAD radar array as envisioned by Canada and the US in 1987. North Radar System.png
The North Warning System as part of NORAD radar array as envisioned by Canada and the US in 1987.

The NWS consists of both long range AN/FPS-117 and short range AN/FPS-124 surveillance radars, operated and maintained by North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) [1] .:16 There are 13 long range sites and 36 short range sites.

In Canada, the station sites are owned or leased by the Government of Canada, which also owns most of the infrastructure. The radars and tactical radios are owned by the United States Air Force. [1] :16 The Alaska Regional Operations Control Center (ROCC) at Elmendorf AFB, Alaska controls the stations in Alaska; the Canada East and Canada West Regional Operations Control Centres (ROCCs) at CFB North Bay, Ontario control the stations in Canada. ROCC information is then passed to the NORAD Combat Operations Centre (COC) at Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Each Long Range site consists of accommodation buildings, radar towers and radomes, generator and fuel systems, satellite terminals, automated weather station, and UHF and VHF ground-air-ground radio. [1] :17 Short Range sites consist of a single AN/FPS-124 radar, satellite terminals, power generation and fuel systems, and a small emergency shelter that can accommodate six people. Some short range stations lack weather stations and UHF Tactical Radios. [1] :17–18,24

History

The Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line, constructed in the late 1950s, was reaching obsolescence in the 1980s. With the signing of North American Air Defence Modernization agreement at the "Shamrock Summit" between Prime Minister Mulroney and President Reagan in Quebec City on 18 March 1985, the DEW Line began its eventual upgrading and transition becoming the North Warning System (NWS) of today.

The NWS began limited operation in 1988 with the commissioning and acceptance of the three newly constructed east coast sites BAF-3 Brevoort Island, Nunavut, LAB-2 Saglek and LAB-6 Cartwright, both in Labrador. Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, new NWS LRR radars replaced former DEW Line sites. DEW sites that were not transitioned to North Warning operation were eventually closed down. The official activation of the NWS and inactivation of the DEW Line took place on 15 July 1993.

The bi-national North Warning System Office (NWSO) is located in Ottawa, Ontario and staffed with both Canadian and American military and civilian personnel. Staffed sites are operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force. Logistical and maintenance support for the NWS is supplied by the Air Force Materiel Command of the United States Air Force, located at Ogden Air Logistics Center (OO-ALC), Hill Air Force Base, Utah.

Site remediation

The former DEW Line sites were operated using practices and materials accepted by the environmental standards of the time. With their closure and many of them rebuilt as NWS sites, a clean-up project was undertaken to remove surplus infrastructure, treat chemically contaminated soils, and stabilize landfill sites. The clean-up was designed to keep chemical contamination from the DEW Line sites out of the Arctic food chain, and ensure that the sites are restored to an environmentally safe condition. In 1989, the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) started investigating the environmental conditions of the DEW Line sites and commenced clean-up work at two sites in 1996. The clean-up of 21 sites was scheduled to be completed in 2013. Currently,[ when? ] 14 sites have been cleaned up and the remaining seven are on-going in Nunavut.

Stations

PIN-DA Short Range Radar site, Edinburgh Island, Nunavut Edinburgh Island NWT 2.jpg
PIN-DA Short Range Radar site, Edinburgh Island, Nunavut
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The NWS consists of 15 long-range radars (11 in Canada, of which eight were DEW Line sites) and 39 short-range radars (36 in Canada). [2] The system forms a 4,800 km (2,983 mi) long and 320 km (199 mi) wide "tripwire" stretching from Alaska to southern Labrador. Minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar AN/FPS-117 radar sites shaded in blue.

Site IDGeographic Place NameLocationRadarCoordinatesActivatedDeactivatedNotes
LIZ-2 Point Lay AKFPS-124 69°01′27″N163°51′26″W / 69.02417°N 163.85722°W / 69.02417; -163.85722 (Point Lay SRR LIZ-2) 19551994Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1955. Also was part of Alaska Radar System, site A-15. DEW operations ended 1989; unattended NWS Short Range Radar installed 1990 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps; Site deactivated 1994 and remediation work was completed by 2005. Gravel runway and building pads remain. See also: Point Lay LRRS Airport ( ICAO : PPIZ)
LIZ-3 Wainwright AKFPS-124 70°36′37″N159°52′12″W / 70.61028°N 159.87000°W / 70.61028; -159.87000 (Wainwright SRR LIZ-3) 19552007Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1955. Also was part of Alaska Radar System, site A-16. DEW operations ended 1995; minimally-attended NWS Short Range Radar installed 1994; Former DEW station remediation work was completed by 2005. Site deactivated 2007 due to soil erosion & budget concerns. See also: Wainwright Airport ( ICAO : PAWI)
POW-M Point Barrow AKFPS-117 71°19′38″N156°38′10″W / 71.32722°N 156.63611°W / 71.32722; -156.63611 (Point Barrow LRR POW-M) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Main site, 1957. Also is part of Alaska Radar System, site A-17, Maintained by USAF 611th Air Support Group. DEW operations ended 1998; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1999 Station buildings remain in use and in good repair.
POW-1 Point Lonely AKFPS-124 70°54′37″N153°14′23″W / 70.91028°N 153.23972°W / 70.91028; -153.23972 (Lonely SRR POW-1) 19572007Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957. Also was part of Alaska Radar System, site A-18. DEW operations ended 1990; unattended NWS Short Range Radar installed 1994 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Site deactivated 2007 due to soil erosion & budget concerns. Station buildings remain in good repair.
POW-2 Oliktok AKFPS-117 70°29′54″N149°53′22″W / 70.49833°N 149.88944°W / 70.49833; -149.88944 (Oliktok LRR POW-2) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957. Also is part of Alaska Radar System, site A-19, Maintained by USAF 611th Air Support Group. DEW operations ended 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1990. Station buildings remain in use and in good repair.
POW-3Flaxman IslandAKFPS-124 70°10′34″N146°51′19″W / 70.17611°N 146.85528°W / 70.17611; -146.85528 (Flaxman Island SRR POW-3) 19572007Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957. Also was part of Alaska Radar System as Bullen Point Short Range Radar Site site A-20. DEW operations ended 1995; unattended NWS Short Range Radar installed 1994 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Site deactivated 2007 due to soil erosion & budget concerns. Station buildings remain in good repair.
BAR-M Barter Island AKFPS-117 70°07′49″N143°38′21″W / 70.13028°N 143.63917°W / 70.13028; -143.63917 (Barter Island LRR BAR-M) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Main site, 1957. Also is part of Alaska Radar System, site A-21, Maintained by USAF 611th Air Support Group. DEW operations ended 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1990. Station buildings remain in use and in good repair. See also: Barter Island LRRS Airport ( ICAO : PABA)
BAR-1 Komakuk Beach YTFPS-124 69°35′41″N140°10′41″W / 69.59472°N 140.17806°W / 69.59472; -140.17806 (Komakuk Beach SRR BAR-1) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957, operations ended 1989; unattended NWS Short Range Radar installed 1990 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Now located in Yukon's Ivvavik National Park, station site remediation work was completed by 2005. Komakuk Beach SRRS Airport ( ICAO : CYAJ) is listed in the Canada Flight Supplement as abandoned. [3]
BAR-BStokes PointYTFPS-124 69°19′49″N138°44′13″W / 69.33028°N 138.73694°W / 69.33028; -138.73694 (Stokes Point SRR BAR-B) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Intermediate site, closed and site abandoned in 1963. Reopened as unattended NWS Short Range Radar site in 1991 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Now located in Yukon's Ivvavik National Park, no station site remediation is planned. Stokes Point SRRS Airport is listed in the Canada Flight Supplement as abandoned. [3]
BAR-2Shingle PointYTFPS-117 68°55′22″N137°15′38″W / 68.92278°N 137.26056°W / 68.92278; -137.26056 (Shingle Point LRR BAR-2) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957, operations ended 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1989. Now located in Yukon's Ivvavik National Park; station site remediation status is undetermined. Shingle Point LRRS Airport ( ICAO : CYUA) is listed in the Canada Flight Supplement as abandoned. [3]
BAR-BA3Storm HillsNTFPS-124 68°53′39″N133°56′31″W / 68.89417°N 133.94194°W / 68.89417; -133.94194 (Storm Hills SRR BAR-BA3) 1990ActiveEstablished in November 1990 as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
BAR-3 Tuktoyaktuk NTFPS-124 69°26′35″N132°59′55″W / 69.44306°N 132.99861°W / 69.44306; -132.99861 (Tuktoyaktuk SRR BAR-3) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957, operations ended 13 September 1993; unattended NWS Short Range Radar installed in September 1990 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Station site remediation work was completed by 2005. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building, along with gravel remains of previous DEW site roads and building footings. Tuktoyaktuk/James Gruben Airport ( ICAO : CYUB) is used for access to site. [3]
BAR-DA1Liverpool BayNTFPS-124 69°36′15″N130°53′37″W / 69.60417°N 130.89361°W / 69.60417; -130.89361 (Liverpool Bay SRR BAR-DA1) 1990ActiveEstablished in November 1990 as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
BAR-4Nicholson PeninsulaNTFPS-124 69°55′27″N128°58′24″W / 69.92417°N 128.97333°W / 69.92417; -128.97333 (Nicholson Peninsula SRR BAR-4) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957 on long peninsula in Beaufort Sea. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended in 1993; unattended NWS Short Range Radar installed in 1990 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Station site remediation work was completed by 2005. New site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site, DEW station airstrip is abandoned as it has partially deteriorated by erosion into the ocean.
BAR-E Horton River NTFPS-124 70°00′59″N126°56′35″W / 70.01639°N 126.94306°W / 70.01639; -126.94306 (Horton River SRR BAR-E) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Intermediate site "Malloch Hills", closed and site abandoned in 1963. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. Reopened as unattended NWS Short Range Radar site in June 1991 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Abandoned DEW facility torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads, old building pads and abandoned and unusable airstrip. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
PIN-M Cape Parry NTFPS-117 70°10′17″N124°43′30″W / 70.17139°N 124.72500°W / 70.17139; -124.72500 (Cape Parry LRR PIN-M) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Main site in 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1989. Cape Parry LRRS Airport ( ICAO : CZUE) is listed in the Canada Flight Supplement as abandoned. [3]
PIN-1BDKeats PointNTFPS-124 69°40′22″N121°40′19″W / 69.67278°N 121.67194°W / 69.67278; -121.67194 (Keats Point SRR PIN-1BD) 1991ActiveEstablished in July 1991 as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
PIN-1BG Croker River NUFPS-124 69°16′00″N119°13′00″W / 69.26667°N 119.21667°W / 69.26667; -119.21667 (Croker River SRR PIN-1BG) 1991ActiveEstablished in August 1991 as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps.
PIN-2AHarding RiverNUFPS-124 68°50′10″N116°58′05″W / 68.83611°N 116.96806°W / 68.83611; -116.96806 (Harding River SRR PIN-2A) 1991ActiveEstablished in September 1991 as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps.
PIN-CB Bernard Harbour NUFPS-124 68°45′19″N114°56′21″W / 68.75528°N 114.93917°W / 68.75528; -114.93917 (Bernard Harbour SRR PIN-CB) 1991ActiveEstablished as DEW Intermediate site in 1957, designated "PIN-C" ( 68°46′55″N114°50′06″W / 68.78194°N 114.83500°W / 68.78194; -114.83500 (Bernard Harbour) ). Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. Closed and site abandoned in 1963. Reopened as unattended NWS Short Range Radar site 3.1 mi (5.0 km) southwest of former DEW site in September 1991 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Abandoned DEW facility torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads and old building pads. Former airstrip no longer listed in the Canada Flight Supplement, [3] several buildings seen at airport site and gravel road connects the airport to the new NWS site. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
PIN-3 Lady Franklin Point NUFPS-117 68°28′45″N113°13′32″W / 68.47917°N 113.22556°W / 68.47917; -113.22556 (Lady Franklin Point LRR PIN-3) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended in 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1989. On 10 January 2000, a fire broke out at the site and burned for several days, destroying most of the site. [4] Only the warehouse, hangar, garage and satellite terminals remain. As of November 2020, the site was indefinitely out of commission and without power. [1] :18 Lady Franklin Point LRRS Airport ( ICAO : CYUJ) is listed in the Canada Flight Supplement as abandoned. [3]
PIN-DA Edinburgh Island NUFPS-124 68°29′09″N110°51′50″W / 68.48583°N 110.86389°W / 68.48583; -110.86389 (Edinburgh Island SRR PIN-DA) 1991ActiveReplacement for PIN-D "Ross Point" DEW Intermediate site ( 68°32′31″N111°12′07″W / 68.54194°N 111.20194°W / 68.54194; -111.20194 (Ross Point) ) opened in 1957, closed and site abandoned in 1963. New site opened in October 1991 9.4 miles ESE as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
PIN-EBCape Peel WestNUFPS-124 69°02′11″N107°49′18″W / 69.03639°N 107.82167°W / 69.03639; -107.82167 (Cape Peel West SRR PIN-EB) 1991ActiveReplacement for PIN-E "Cape Peel" DEW Intermediate site ( 69°03′25″N107°18′18″W / 69.05694°N 107.30500°W / 69.05694; -107.30500 (Cape Peel) ) opened in 1957, closed and site abandoned in 1963. New site opened in October 1991, 12.9 mi (20.8 km) west as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
CAM-M Cambridge Bay NUFPS-117 69°06′58″N105°07′08″W / 69.11611°N 105.11889°W / 69.11611; -105.11889 (Cambridge Bay LRR CAM-M) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Main site in 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1989. Cambridge Bay Airport ( ICAO : CYCB) remains in use for access to site and is a major transportation hub to support other CAM NWS sites. [3]
CAM-A3ASturt PointNUFPS-124 68°57′47″N103°45′34″W / 68.96306°N 103.75944°W / 68.96306; -103.75944 (Sturt Point SRR CAM-A3A) 1991ActiveReplacement for CAM-A "Sturt Point" DEW Intermediate site ( 68°47′45″N103°20′42″W / 68.79583°N 103.34500°W / 68.79583; -103.34500 (Sturt Point) ) opened in 1957, closed and site abandoned in 1963. New site opened in October 1991, 15.5 mi (24.9 km) northwest as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. New NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
CAM-1A Jenny Lind Island NUFPS-124 68°44′31″N101°51′17″W / 68.74194°N 101.85472°W / 68.74194; -101.85472 (Jenny Lind Island SRR CAM-1A) 1991ActiveReplacement for CAM-1 DEW Auxiliary site opened in 1957, closed in 1992. Dew site was located on coast, with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. New NWS Short Range Radar site opened in October 1991 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps, located on mountain peak approximately 6.5 mi (10.5 km) NNW of former DEW site. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
CAM-B Hat Island NUFPS-124 68°19′02″N100°04′09″W / 68.31722°N 100.06917°W / 68.31722; -100.06917 (Hat Island SRR CAM-B) 1991ActiveEstablished as DEW Intermediate site in 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. closed and site abandoned in 1963. Unattended NWS Short Range Radar site opened in September 1991 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Closed DEW facility torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads, old building pads and abandoned and unusable airstrip. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad constructed on a former airstrip for access.
CAM-2Gladman PointNUFPS-124 68°40′48″N097°48′38″W / 68.68000°N 97.81056°W / 68.68000; -97.81056 (Gladman Point SRR CAM-2) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Auxiliary site in 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended 1992; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed October 1990. Closed DEW facility torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads, old building pads and abandoned and unusable airstrip. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
CAM-CBGjoa HavenNUFPS-124 68°38′39″N095°52′10″W / 68.64417°N 95.86944°W / 68.64417; -95.86944 (Gjoa Haven SRR CAM-CB) 1990ActiveReplacement for CAM-C "Matheson Point" DEW Intermediate site ( 68°52′10″N095°09′25″W / 68.86944°N 95.15694°W / 68.86944; -95.15694 (Matheson Point) ) opened in 1957, closed and site abandoned in 1963. New site opened in October 1990, 1 mi (1.6 km) SE as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Located near small village of Gjoa Haven, connected by gravel road to village 1.2 mi (1.9 km) south of site. Gjoa Haven Airport ( ICAO : CYHK) originally built for DEW site, now small regional airport is used for access to site. [3]
CAM-3Shepherd BayNUFPS-117 68°47′34″N093°26′25″W / 68.79278°N 93.44028°W / 68.79278; -93.44028 (Shepherd Bay LRR CAM-3) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended in July 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed July 1989. Appears[ where? ] that much of the former DEW site facilities remain in use, buildings appear in good repair. Shepherd Bay SRRS Airport ( ICAO : CYUS) is listed in the Canada Flight Supplement as abandoned. [3]
CAM-DSimpson LakeNUFPS-124 68°35′41″N091°57′24″W / 68.59472°N 91.95667°W / 68.59472; -91.95667 (Simpson Lake SRR CAM-D) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Intermediate site in 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. closed and site abandoned in 1963. Unattended NWS Short Range Radar site opened in September 1991 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Closed DEW facility partially remains in a deteriorated state gravel roads, old building pads. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad constructed on a former airstrip for access.
CAM-4Pelly BayNUFPS-124 68°26′13″N089°43′34″W / 68.43694°N 89.72611°W / 68.43694; -89.72611 (Pelly Bay SRR CAM-4) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended in 1992; NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Closed DEW facility torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads, old building pads. Former airstrip remains, however a helicopter pad at NWS site used for access.
CAM-5ACape McLoughlinNUFPS-124 68°39′50″N085°35′29″W / 68.66389°N 85.59139°W / 68.66389; -85.59139 (Cape McLoughlin SRR CAM-5A) 1992ActiveEstablished in July 1992 as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps.
CAM-FALailor RiverNUFPS-124 69°06′38″N083°32′23″W / 69.11056°N 83.53972°W / 69.11056; -83.53972 (Lailor River SRR CAM-FA) 1992ActiveEstablished in August 1992 as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
FOX-M Hall Beach NUFPS-117 68°45′39″N081°13′35″W / 68.76083°N 81.22639°W / 68.76083; -81.22639 (Hall Beach LRR FOX-M) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Main site in 1957; also known as "Site 30". Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended September 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar September 1989. Appears[ where? ] that much of the former DEW site facilities remain in use, buildings appear in good repair. Hall Beach Airport ( ICAO : CYUX) remains in use for access to site. [3]
FOX-1 Rowley Island NUFPS-124 69°04′01″N079°03′55″W / 69.06694°N 79.06528°W / 69.06694; -79.06528 (Rowley Island SRR FOX-1) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended in 1991; unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Abandoned DEW facility torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads, old building pads and abandoned and unusable airstrip. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
FOX-A Bray Island NUFPS-124 69°13′26″N077°13′48″W / 69.22389°N 77.23000°W / 69.22389; -77.23000 (Bray Island SRR FOX-A) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Intermediate site in 1957; also known as "Site 32". Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. closed and site abandoned in 1963. New unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps on former DEW site. Abandoned DEW facility torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads, old building pads and abandoned and unusable airstrip. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
FOX-2Longstaff BluffNUFPS-124 68°53′56″N075°08′20″W / 68.89889°N 75.13889°W / 68.89889; -75.13889 (Longstaff Bluff SRR FOX-2) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957; also known as "Site 33". Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended in August 1991; unattended NWS Short Range Radar site opened November 1990 approximately 4 miles ESE of former DEW Airstrip to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Unused DEW site remains, buildings appear in good repair, along with former radars and communications antennas. Airstrip is listed in the Canada Flight Supplement as abandoned. [3]
FOX-BNudluardjk LakeNUFPS-124 68°37′10″N073°12′45″W / 68.61944°N 73.21250°W / 68.61944; -73.21250 (Nudluardjk Lake SRR FOX-B) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Intermediate site in 1957; also known as "West Baffin", located on Baffin Island. Site was closed and abandoned in 1963. New unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps on former DEW site.
FOX-3Dewar LakesNUFPS-117 68°39′02″N071°13′58″W / 68.65056°N 71.23278°W / 68.65056; -71.23278 (Dewar Lakes LRR FOX-3) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. Located on Baffin Island. DEW operations ended in 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed July 1989. Appears[ where? ] that much of the former DEW site facilities remain in use, buildings appear in good repair. Dewar Lakes LRRS Airport ( ICAO : CYUW) is listed in the Canada Flight Supplement as abandoned. [3]
FOX-CAKangok FjordNUFPS-124 68°38′51″N069°07′47″W / 68.64750°N 69.12972°W / 68.64750; -69.12972 (Kangok Fjord SRR FOX-CA) 1992ActiveEstablished in September 1992 as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Located on Baffin Island.
FOX-4Cape HooperNUFPS-124 68°28′21″N066°48′01″W / 68.47250°N 66.80028°W / 68.47250; -66.80028 (Cape Hooper SRR FOX-4) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957; also known as "Site 37" located on Baffin Island. DEW operations ended in 1991. NWS Short Range Radar site activated in December 1990 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps.
FOX-5 Broughton Island NUFPS-124 67°32′05″N063°47′10″W / 67.53472°N 63.78611°W / 67.53472; -63.78611 (Broughton Island SRR FOX-5) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957; also known as "Qikiqtarjuaq" or "Site 39". Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. Unattended NWS Short Range Radar site opened 1991 approximately 6.4 mi (10.3 km) east of former DEW Airstrip to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Former DEW airstrip now known as Qikiqtarjuaq Airport ( ICAO : CYVM) used to support NWS also used by small village. [3]
DYE-MCape DyerNUFPS-117 66°39′52″N061°21′21″W / 66.66444°N 61.35583°W / 66.66444; -61.35583 (Cape Dyer LRR DYE-M) 1957ActiveEstablished as DEW Main site in 1957; also known as "Site 41". Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended August 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar August1989. Appears[ where? ] that much of the former DEW site facilities remain in use, buildings appear in good repair. Cape Dyer Airport ( ICAO : CYVN) is listed in the Canada Flight Supplement as abandoned. [3]
BAF-2Cape MercyNUFPS-124 64°57′17″N063°33′38″W / 64.95472°N 63.56056°W / 64.95472; -63.56056 (Cape Mercy SRR BAF-2) 1992ActiveEstablished in July 1992 as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building.
BAF-3 Brevoort Island NUFPS-117 63°20′24″N064°09′29″W / 63.34000°N 64.15806°W / 63.34000; -64.15806 (Brevoort Island LRR BAF-3) 1988ActiveEstablished in October 1988 as a minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1989. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Appears[ where? ] to have been built on a former DEW site, which station site remediation work has left gravel roads, old building pads and a gravel airstrip. Former airstrip no longer listed in the Canada Flight Supplement, [3] but new building appears[ where? ] to have been erected at end of runway.
BAF-4A Loks Land NUFPS-124 62°30′22″N064°31′06″W / 62.50611°N 64.51833°W / 62.50611; -64.51833 (Loks Land SRR BAF-4A) 1992ActiveEstablished in August 1992 as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
BAF-5 Resolution Island NUFPS-124 61°35′47″N064°38′20″W / 61.59639°N 64.63889°W / 61.59639; -64.63889 (Resolution Island SRR BAF-5) 1943ActiveFormer Pinetree Line radar station N-30, closed 1961; reopened as unattended NWS Short Range Radar site in September 1991 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Former Pinetree Line radar station remains, building conditions indeterminate. Many former radars and communication antennas still standing. Access to site appears[ where? ] to be by helicopter pad.
LAB-1 Cape Kakiviak NLFPS-124 59°59′15″N064°09′55″W / 59.98750°N 64.16528°W / 59.98750; -64.16528 (Cape Kakiviak SRR LAB-1) 1992ActiveEstablished in July 1992 as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps.
LAB-2 Saglek NLFPS-117 58°29′19″N062°35′08″W / 58.48861°N 62.58556°W / 58.48861; -62.58556 (Saglek LRR LAB-2) 1953ActiveFormer Pinetree Line radar station RCAF Station Saglek N-29, closed 1971. Minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1989. New NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and storage and tunnel connected buildings for personnel. Abandoned Pinetree Line facility torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads and old building pads. Pinetree Line airstrip in good repair, Saglek Airport ( ICAO : CYSV) is listed in the Canada Flight Supplement as abandoned. [3]
LAB-3 Cape Kiglapait NLFPS-124 57°08′07″N061°28′32″W / 57.13528°N 61.47556°W / 57.13528; -61.47556 (Kiglapait SRR LAB-3) 1992ActiveEstablished in August 1992 as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps.
LAB-4 Big Bay NLFPS-124 55°44′30″N060°25′42″W / 55.74167°N 60.42833°W / 55.74167; -60.42833 (Big Bay SRR LAB-4) 1992ActiveEstablished in September 1992 as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps.
LAB-5 Tukialik NLFPS-124 54°42′53″N058°21′30″W / 54.71472°N 58.35833°W / 54.71472; -58.35833 (Tukialik SRR LAB-5) 1992ActiveEstablished in October 1992 as an unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps.
LAB-6 Cartwright NLFPS-117 53°33′04″N056°49′48″W / 53.55111°N 56.83000°W / 53.55111; -56.83000 (Cartwright LRR LAB-6) 1953ActiveFormer Pinetree Line radar station N-27, closed 1968. New minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed in November 1998 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. New NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and storage and tunnel connected buildings for personnel. Abandoned Pinetree Line facility torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads and old building pads. Helicopter pad used for access to site, although site is connected by a 10 mi (16 km) gravel road to the settlement of Muddy Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, which is connected to the Canadian highway system.

Distant Early Warning Line sites not included

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The following table lists the DEW Line sites not included in the NWS. Most of these sites not included were Intermediate sites closed in 1963 when they were declared obsolete. The stations consisted of a module train, a warehouse, a vehicle garage, an Inuit house, POL (Petroleum, Oil, Lubricant) tanks and a continuous wave radar tower. Others were some Auxiliary sites that were replaced with new NWS stations. DEW Line stations in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska were inactivated due to budget reductions in 1969. The DYE Stations in Greenland and Iceland were transferred to the USAF Air Forces Iceland in 1980.

The primary DEW line radars were the Raytheon AN/FPS-19 long range L-Band search radar in Canada and Alaska at main and auxiliary sites; Bendix AN/FPS-30 at the four Greenland DYE radar stations. Motorola AN/FPS-23 short range search radar was installed at the Intermediate sites, used as fillers to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps.

Site IDGeographic Place NameLocationRadarCoordinatesActivatedDeactivatedNotes
COB-Main Cold Bay AFS AKFPS-19 55°15′49″N162°53′08″W / 55.26361°N 162.88556°W / 55.26361; -162.88556 (Cold Bay COB-MAIN) 19591969Part of DEW Aleutians Segment, manned by USAF Alaskan Air Command 714th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron. Closed 30 June 1969 when Aleutians DEW segment was inactivated, site appears to be remediated.
COB-1 Nikolski AKFPS-19 52°57′35″N168°52′03″W / 52.95972°N 168.86750°W / 52.95972; -168.86750 (Nikolski COB-1) 19591969Manned by USAF AAC Det 1 714th AC&W Squadron; Closed 30 June 1969 when Aleutians DEW segment was inactivated; site remediated and obliterated 1998 by 11th AF.
COB-2Dirftwood BayAKFPS-19 53°58′28″N166°54′18″W / 53.97444°N 166.90500°W / 53.97444; -166.90500 (Dirftwood COB-2) 19591969Manned by USAF AAC Det 2 714th AC&W Squadron; Closed 30 June 1969 when Aleutians DEW segment was inactivated; site remediated and obliterated 1998 by 11th AF; building foundation remains
COB-3 Cape Sarichef AKFPS-19 54°35′32″N164°52′34″W / 54.59222°N 164.87611°W / 54.59222; -164.87611 (Cape Sarichef COB-3) a 19591969Manned by USAF AAC Det 3 714th AC&W Squadron; Closed 30 June 1969 when Aleutians DEW segment was inactivated; site remediated and obliterated 1998 by 11th AF
COB-4 Port Moller AKFPS-19 55°58′41″N160°30′01″W / 55.97806°N 160.50028°W / 55.97806; -160.50028 (Port Moller COB-4) a 19591969Manned by USAF AAC Det 4 714th AC&W Squadron; Closed 30 June 1969 when Aleutians DEW segment was inactivated' site remediated and obliterated 1998 by 11th AF
COB-5 Port Heiden AKFPS-19 56°58′38″N158°39′09″W / 56.97722°N 158.65250°W / 56.97722; -158.65250 (Port Heiden COB-5) a 19591969Manned by USAF AAC Det 5 714th AC&W Squadron; Closed 30 June 1969 when Aleutians DEW segment was inactivated; site remediated and obliterated 1998 by 11th AF
LIZ-1 Cape Lisburne AFS AKNumerous 68°52′12″N166°09′00″W / 68.87000°N 166.15000°W / 68.87000; -166.15000 (Cape Lisburne LIZ-1) 19531983DEW Main Site, also Alaskan Air Command AC&W Surveillance Station. Operated by the 711th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron. Closed in 1983, now Cape Lisburne Long Range Radar Site, part of the Eleventh Air Force Alaska Radar System, equipped with a minimally-manned AN/FPS-117 radar. Maintained by contractors under the 611th Air Support Group.
LIZ-A Cape Sabine AKFPS-23 69°01′27″N163°51′25″W / 69.02417°N 163.85694°W / 69.02417; -163.85694 (Cape Sabine LIZ-A) 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Clean-up and remediation completed early years of the 2000s (decade) by USAF. Gravel runway and building footers remain.
LIZ-B Icy Cape AKFPS-23 70°17′23″N161°54′40″W / 70.28972°N 161.91111°W / 70.28972; -161.91111 (Icy Cape LIZ-B) 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Clean-up and remediation completed early years of the 2000s (decade) by USAF. Gravel runway and building footers remain.
LIZ-C Peard Bay AKFPS-23 70°48′29″N158°15′32″W / 70.80806°N 158.25889°W / 70.80806; -158.25889 (Peard Bay LIZ-C) 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Clean-up and remediation completed early years of the 2000s (decade) by USAF. Gravel runway and building footers remain.
POW-ACape SimpsonAKFPS-23 71°03′26″N154°43′39″W / 71.05722°N 154.72750°W / 71.05722; -154.72750 (Cape Simpson POW-A) 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963 now in-use as civilian storage/supply facility
POW-BKogruAKFPS-23 70°34′36″N152°15′56″W / 70.57667°N 152.26556°W / 70.57667; -152.26556 (Kogru POW-B) 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Clean-up and remediation completed early years of the 2000s (decade) by USAF. Gravel runway and building footers remain.
POW-CMcIntyreAKFPS-23 70°24′10″N148°40′46″W / 70.40278°N 148.67944°W / 70.40278; -148.67944 (McIntyre POW-C) 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Abandoned buildings remain. Runway may or may not be usable.
POW-DBrownlow PointAKFPS-23 69°58′29″N144°50′09″W / 69.97472°N 144.83583°W / 69.97472; -144.83583 (Brownlow Point POW-D) 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Clean-up and remediation completed early years of the 2000s (decade) by USAF. Gravel runway and building footers remain.
BAR-A Demarcation Bay AKFPS-23 69°53′11″N142°18′43″W / 69.88639°N 142.31194°W / 69.88639; -142.31194 (Demarcation Bay BAR-A) 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963Clean-up and remediation completed early years of the 2000s (decade) by USAF. Gravel runway and building footers remain.
BAR-CTununuk CampNTFPS-23 69°00′21″N134°40′05″W / 69.00583°N 134.66806°W / 69.00583; -134.66806 (Tununuk Camp BAR-C) a 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963; site condition is undetermined
BAR-DAtkinson PointNTFPS-23 69°55′59″N131°25′54″W / 69.93306°N 131.43167°W / 69.93306; -131.43167 (Atkinson Point BAR-D) a 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963; site condition is undetermined. Replaced by NWS Site Liverpool Bay SRR (BAR-DA1)
PIN-APierce PointNTFPS-23 69°48′55″N122°43′02″W / 69.81528°N 122.71722°W / 69.81528; -122.71722 (Pierce Point PIN-A) a 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963; site condition is undetermined
PIN-1Clinton PointNTFPS-19 69°35′00″N120°44′46″W / 69.58333°N 120.74611°W / 69.58333; -120.74611 (Clinton Point PIN-1) 19571963DEW Axillary Site; closed 3 September 1993. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined. Replaced by NWS Sites Keats Point SRR (PIN-1BD) and Croker River SRR (PIN-1BG).
PIN-BClifton PointNTFPS-23 69°12′56″N118°38′11″W / 69.21556°N 118.63639°W / 69.21556; -118.63639 (Clifton Point PIN-B) 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined.
PIN-2Cape YoungNUFPS-19 68°56′08″N116°56′10″W / 68.93556°N 116.93611°W / 68.93556; -116.93611 (Cape Young PIN-2) a 19571993DEW Axillary Site; closed 31 August 1993. Remains of site deteriorating, Clean-up and remediation scheduled 2012. Replaced by NWS Site Harding River SRR (PIN-2A)
PIN-C Bernard Harbour NUFPS-23 68°46′55″N114°50′01″W / 68.78194°N 114.83361°W / 68.78194; -114.83361 (Bernard Harbour PIN-C) 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Clean-up and remediation completed, gravel runway not listed in the Canada Flight Supplement, [3] new structures constructed on site, use undetermined but appears to be civilian not military radar site. Replaced by NWS Site Bernard Harbour SRR (PIN-CB)
PIN-DRoss PointNUFPS-23 68°32′10″N111°11′55″W / 68.53611°N 111.19861°W / 68.53611; -111.19861 (Ross Point PIN-D) a 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined. Replaced by NWS Site Edinburgh Island SRR (PIN-DA)
PIN-4Byron BayNUFPS-23 68°45′35″N109°05′16″W / 68.75972°N 109.08778°W / 68.75972; -109.08778 (Byron Bay PIN-4) a 19571993DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1993.
PIN-ECape PeelNUFPS-23 69°02′41″N107°19′33″W / 69.04472°N 107.32583°W / 69.04472; -107.32583 (Cape Peel PIN-E) a 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined. Replaced by NWS Site Cape Peel West SRR (PIN-EB)
CAM-ASturt PointNUFPS-23 68°47′45″N103°20′40″W / 68.79583°N 103.34444°W / 68.79583; -103.34444 (Sturt Point CAM-A) a 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined. Replaced by NWS Site Sturt Point SRR (CAM-A3A)
CAM-1 Jenny Lind Island NUFPS-19 68°39′25″N101°44′19″W / 68.65694°N 101.73861°W / 68.65694; -101.73861 (Jenny Lind Island CAM-1) a 19571990DEW Axillary Site; replaced by NWS site CAM-1A, closed 1992; Clean-up and remediation completed 2010. Replaced by NWS Site Jenny Lind Island SRR (CAM-1A)
CAM-CMatheson PointNUFPS-23 68°52′09″N095°09′27″W / 68.86917°N 95.15750°W / 68.86917; -95.15750 (Matheson Point CAM-C) 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Clean-up and remediation completed, site has been obliterated. Replaced by NWS Site Gjoa Haven SRR (CAM-CB)
CAM-EKeith BayNUFPS-23 68°15′22″N088°10′25″W / 68.25611°N 88.17361°W / 68.25611; -88.17361 (Keith Bay CAM-E) a 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined.
CAM-5Mackar InletNUFPS-19 68°18′03″N085°40′29″W / 68.30083°N 85.67472°W / 68.30083; -85.67472 (Mackar Inlet CAM-5) a 19571990DEW Axillary Site closed 1992; Clean-up and remediation completed 2010. Replaced by NWS Site Cape McLoughlin SRR (CAM-5A)
CAM-FScarpa LakeNUFPS-23 68°34′04″N083°28′53″W / 68.56778°N 83.48139°W / 68.56778; -83.48139 (Scarpa Lake CAM-F) a 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined. Replaced by NWS Site Lailor River SRR (CAM-FA)
FOX-CEkalugadNUFPS-23 68°43′53″N068°35′15″W / 68.73139°N 68.58750°W / 68.73139; -68.58750 (Ekalugad FOX-C) a 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963.
FOX-D Kivitoo NUFPS-23 67°57′58″N064°54′28″W / 67.96611°N 64.90778°W / 67.96611; -64.90778 (Kivitoo FOX-D) a 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined.
FOX-E Durban Island NUFPS-23 67°05′00″N062°12′59″W / 67.08333°N 62.21639°W / 67.08333; -62.21639 (Durban Island FOX-E) a 19571963DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined.
DYE-1QaqqatoqaqGLFPS-30 66°38′03″N052°52′12″W / 66.63417°N 52.87000°W / 66.63417; -52.87000 (Qaqqatoqaq DYE-1) a 19611988Parent station was Cape Dyer, NWT, Canada (DYE-Main). Near Sisimiut, Closed 1988. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined. Site is now used as a VHF-site for aviation purposes.
DYE-2Ice Cap 1GLFPS-30 66°29′30″N046°18′19″W / 66.49167°N 46.30528°W / 66.49167; -46.30528 (Ice Cap 1 DYE-2) b 19611988Parent station was Cape Dyer, NWT, Canada (DYE-Main). In 1982, Ice Cap 1 (DYE-2) was moved sideways 210 ft (64 m), for life extension. Closed 1 October 1988. The 109th Airlift Wing (NY-ANG) regularly uses the landing area at DYE-2 for pilot training for practicing Antarctic takeoffs & landings (called Ice Station Ruby); a.k.a. the Raven Ski-way Training Facility. .
DYE-3Ice Cap 2GLFPS-30 65°10′57″N043°49′10″W / 65.18250°N 43.81944°W / 65.18250; -43.81944 (Ice Cap 2 DYE-3) b 19611988Parent station was Cape Dyer, NWT, Canada (DYE-Main). In 1977, Ice Cap 2 (DYE-3) was moved sideways 210 ft (64 m), for life extension. Closed 1988.
DYE-4 Kulusuk Island GLFPS-30 65°31′39″N037°09′34″W / 65.52750°N 37.15944°W / 65.52750; -37.15944 (Kulusuk Island DYE-4) 19611988Parent station was Cape Dyer, NWT, Canada (DYE-Main). Closed 1988. Abandoned.
DYE-5RockvilleISNumerous 64°02′07″N022°39′08″W / 64.03528°N 22.65222°W / 64.03528; -22.65222 (Rockville DYE-4) 19511992Also known as "H-1". Originally Air Forces Iceland, then Aerospace Defense Command AC&W GCI site. Designated as part of DEW Line, 1957. Manned by USAF 932d Aircraft Control and Warning (later Air Defense, Later Air Control) Squadron. Closed as part of end of Cold War draw down.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "North Warning System (NWS) Office Statement of Work" (Compressed PDF file). Buyandsell.gc.ca (in English and French). Public Services and Procurement Canada. November 2020. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  2. Environmental Assessment for North Warning System (Alaska)
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901 Z 16 July 2020 to 0901Z 10 September 2020.
  4. Fire destroys North Warning System radar station

Further reading