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The ICAO ( // , eye-KAY-oh) airport code or location indicator is a four-letter code designating aerodromes around the world. These codes, as defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization and published in ICAO Document 7910: Location Indicators, are used by air traffic control and airline operations such as flight planning.
In communications and information processing, code is a system of rules to convert information—such as a letter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret, for communication through a communication channel or storage in a storage medium. An early example is the invention of language, which enabled a person, through speech, to communicate what he or she saw, heard, felt, or thought to others. But speech limits the range of communication to the distance a voice can carry, and limits the audience to those present when the speech is uttered. The invention of writing, which converted spoken language into visual symbols, extended the range of communication across space and time.
The International Civil Aviation Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. Its headquarters is located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
ICAO codes are also used to identify other aviation facilities such as weather stations, International Flight Service Stations or Area Control Centers, whether or not they are located at airports. Flight information regions are also identified by a unique ICAO-code.
A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate. The measurements taken include temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and precipitation amounts. Wind measurements are taken with as few other obstructions as possible, while temperature and humidity measurements are kept free from direct solar radiation, or insolation. Manual observations are taken at least once daily, while automated measurements are taken at least once an hour. Weather conditions out at sea are taken by ships and buoys, which measure slightly different meteorological quantities such as sea surface temperature (SST), wave height, and wave period. Drifting weather buoys outnumber their moored versions by a significant amount.
In aviation, a flight information region (FIR) is a specified region of airspace in which a flight information service and an alerting service (ALRS) are provided. It is the largest regular division of airspace in use in the world today. FIRs have existed since 1947 at least.
The International Civil Aviation Organization was formed in 1947 under the auspices of the United Nations, and it established Flight Information Regions (FIRs) for controlling air traffic and making airport identification simple and clear.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
Code selections in North America were based on existing radio station identifiers. For example, radio stations in Canada were already starting with "C", so it seemed logical to begin Canadian airport identifiers with a C (Cxxx). The United States had many pre-existing airports with established mnemonic codes. Their ICAO codes were formed simply by prepending a K to the existing codes, as half the radio station identifiers in the US began with K. Most ICAO codes outside the US and Canada have a stronger geographical structure.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.
A mnemonicdevice, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory. Mnemonics make use of elaborative encoding, retrieval cues, and imagery as specific tools to encode any given information in a way that allows for efficient storage and retrieval. Mnemonics aid original information in becoming associated with something more accessible or meaningful—which, in turn, provides better retention of the information.
Most of the rest of the world was classified in a more planned top-down manner. Thus Uxxx referred to the Soviet Union with the second letter denoting the specific region within it, and so forth. Europe had too many locations for only one starting letter, so it was split into Exxx for northern Europe and Lxxx for southern Europe. The second letter was more specific: EGxx was the United Kingdom (G for Great Britain), EDxx was West Germany (D for Deutschland), ETxx was East Germany (the ETxx code was reassigned to military fields after the reunification), LExx was Spain (E for España), LAxx was Albania, and so on. France was designated LFxx, as the counterpart EFxx was the unambiguously northern Finland. (originally OFxx, as the more rigid geographical structure evolved over time; in the beginning, countries usually had "blocks" of codes; for example, Finland still has the country identifier OH- in its aircraft registrations).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
West Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, and referred to by historians as the Bonn Republic, was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the western portion of Germany was part of the Western bloc during the Cold War. It was created during the Allied occupation of Germany in 1949 after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France. Its capital was the city of Bonn.
ICAO codes are separate and different from IATA codes, which are generally used for airline timetables, reservations, and baggage tags. For example, the IATA code for London's Heathrow Airport is LHR and its ICAO code is EGLL. ICAO codes are commonly seen by passengers and the general public on flight-tracking services such as FlightAware, but passengers will more often see the IATA codes, such as on their tickets and their luggage tags. In general IATA codes are usually derived from the name of the airport or the city it serves, while ICAO codes are distributed by region and country. Far more aerodromes (in the broad sense) have ICAO codes than IATA codes, which are sometimes assigned to railway stations as well.
An IATA airport code, also known as an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier, is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). The characters prominently displayed on baggage tags attached at airport check-in desks are an example of a way these codes are used.
Airline timetables are printed pamphlets or folders that many airlines have traditionally used to inform passengers of several different things, such as schedules, fleet, security, in-flight entertainment, food menus, baggage weight restrictions, and contact information.
Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a traveller's articles while the traveler is in transit.
Unlike the IATA codes, the ICAO codes generally have a regional structure and are comprehensive. In general, the first letter is allocated by continent and represents a country or group of countries within that continent. The second letter generally represents a country within that region, and the remaining two are used to identify each airport. The exception to this rule is larger countries that have single-letter country codes, where the remaining three letters identify the airport. In either case, and unlike IATA codes, ICAO codes generally provide geographical context. For example, if one knows that the ICAO code for Heathrow is EGLL, then one can deduce that the airport EGGP is somewhere in the UK (it is Liverpool John Lennon Airport). On the other hand, knowing that the IATA code for Heathrow is LHR does not enable one to deduce the location of the airport LHV with any greater certainty (it is William T. Piper Memorial Airport in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania in the United States).
There are a few exceptions to the regional structure of the ICAO code made for political or administrative reasons. For example, the RAF Mount Pleasant air base in the Falkland Islands is assigned the ICAO code EGYP as though it were in the United Kingdom, but a nearby civilian airport such as Port Stanley Airport is assigned SFAL, consistent with South America. Similarly Saint Pierre and Miquelon is controlled by France, and airports there are assigned LFxx as though they were in Europe. Further, in region L (Southern Europe), all available 2-letter prefixes have been exhausted and thus no additional countries can be added. Thus when Kosovo declared independence, there was no space in the Lxxx codes to accommodate it, so airports in Kosovo were assigned BKxx, grouping Kosovo with Greenland and Iceland.[ citation needed ]
The letters I, J and X are not currently used as the first letter of any ICAO identifier. In Russia and CIS, Latin letter X (or its Morse/Baudot Cyrillic equivalent Ь) is used to designate government, military and experimental aviation airfields in internal airfield codes similar in structure and purpose to ICAO codes but not used internationally.Q is reserved for international radiocommunications and other non-geographical special uses (see Q code).
In the contiguous United States, Canada and some airports in Mexico, most, but not all, airports have been assigned three-letter IATA codes. These are the same as their ICAO code, but without the leading K, C, or M.; e.g., YEG and CYEG both refer to Edmonton International Airport, Edmonton, Alberta; IAD and KIAD are used for Washington Dulles International Airport, Chantilly, Virginia. These codes are not to be confused with radio or television call signs, even though both countries use four-letter call signs starting with those letters. However, because Alaska, Hawaii, and United States territories have their own 2-letter ICAO prefix (i.e. "PA" for Alaska, "PH" for Hawaii"), the situation there is similar to other smaller countries and the ICAO code of their airports is typically different from its corresponding 3-letter FAA/IATA identifier. For example, Kona International Airport (PHKO vs KOA) and Juneau International Airport (PAJN vs JNU). Notably, the largest gateway to Hawaii, Honolulu International Airport's ICAO code contains the IATA identifier - PHNL (IATA: HNL). [ citation needed ]
ZZZZ is a pseudo-code, used in flight plans for aerodromes with no ICAO code assigned.
A list of airports, sorted by ICAO code, is available below.
In small countries like Belgium or the Netherlands, almost all aerodromes have an ICAO code. For bigger countries like the UK or Germany this is not feasible, given the limited number of letter codes. Some countries have addressed this issue by introducing a scheme of sub-ICAO aerodrome codes; France, for example, assigns pseudo-ICAO codes in the style LFddnn, where dd indicates the département while nn is a sequential counter. In the case of France, an amateur organisation, the FFPLUM, was formally named the keeper of these codes.
|A - Western South Pacific|
|AY||Papua New Guinea|
|B - Greenland, Iceland, and Kosovo (European Alternate)|
|C - Canada|
|D – Eastern parts of West Africa and Maghreb|
|E – Northern Europe|
|EG||United Kingdom (and Crown dependencies)|
|EK||Denmark and the Faroe Islands|
|F – Most of Central Africa and Southern Africa, and the Indian Ocean|
|FC||Republic of the Congo|
|FE||Central African Republic|
|FH||Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha|
|FJ||British Indian Ocean Territory|
|FM||Comoros, France (Mayotte and Réunion), and Madagascar|
|FP||São Tomé and Príncipe|
|FZ||Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|G – Western parts of West Africa and Maghreb|
|GC||Spain (Canary Islands)|
|GE||Spain (Ceuta and Melilla)|
|H – East Africa and Northeast Africa|
|HC||Somalia (including Somaliland)|
|HS||Sudan and South Sudan|
|K – Contiguous United States|
|K||Contiguous United States|
|L – Southern Europe, Israel and Turkey|
|LE||Spain (mainland section and Balearic Islands)|
|LF||France (Metropolitan France; including Saint-Pierre and Miquelon)|
|LP||Portugal (including the Azores and Madeira)|
|LQ||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|LY||Serbia and Montenegro|
|M – Central America, Mexico and northern/western parts of the Caribbean|
|MB||Turks and Caicos Islands|
|N – Most of the South Pacific|
|NG||Kiribati (Gilbert Islands), Tuvalu|
|NL||France (Wallis and Futuna)|
|NS||Samoa, United States (American Samoa)|
|NT||France (French Polynesia)|
|NW||France (New Caledonia)|
|NZ||New Zealand, Antarctica|
|O – Pakistan, Afghanistan and most of Middle East|
(excluding Cyprus, Israel, Turkey, and the South Caucasus)
|OJ||Jordan and the West Bank|
|OM||United Arab Emirates|
|P – (Former)American North Pacific and Kiribati|
|PA||US (Alaska) (also PF, PO and PP)|
|PB||US (Baker Island)|
|PC||Kiribati (Canton Airfield, Phoenix Islands)|
|PF||US (Alaska) (also PA, PO and PP)|
|PG||US (Guam, Northern Mariana Islands)|
|PJ||US (Johnston Atoll)|
|PL||Kiribati (Line Islands)|
|PM||US (Midway Island)|
|PO||US (Alaska) (also PA, PF and PP)|
|PP||US (Alaska) (also PA, PF and PO)|
|PT||Federated States of Micronesia, Palau|
|PW||US (Wake Island)|
|R – Taiwan/South Korea/Philippines and Japan|
|RC||Republic of China (Taiwan)|
|RK||Republic of Korea (South Korea)|
|S – South America|
|SB||Brazil (also SD, SI, SJ, SN, SS and SW)|
|SC||Chile (including Easter Island) (also SH)|
|SD||Brazil (also SB, SI, SJ, SN, SS and SW)|
|SF||United Kingdom (Falkland Islands)|
|SH||Chile (also SC)|
|SI||Brazil (also SB, SD, SJ, SN, SS and SW)|
|SJ||Brazil (also SB, SD, SI, SN, SS and SW)|
|SN||Brazil (also SB, SD, SI, SJ, SS and SW)|
|SO||France (French Guiana)|
|SS||Brazil (also SB, SD, SI, SJ, SN and SW)|
|SW||Brazil (also SB, SD, SI, SJ, SN and SS)|
|T – Eastern and southern parts of the Caribbean|
|TA||Antigua and Barbuda|
|TF||France (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin)|
|TI||US (U.S. Virgin Islands)|
|TJ||US (Puerto Rico)|
|TK||Saint Kitts and Nevis|
|TN||Caribbean Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten|
|TT||Trinidad and Tobago|
|TU||UK (British Virgin Islands)|
|TV||Saint Vincent and the Grenadines|
|U – Russia and post-Soviet states, excluding the Baltic states and Moldova|
|U||Russia (except UA, UB, UC, UD, UG, UK, UM and UT)|
|UM||Belarus and Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast)|
|UT||Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan|
|V – South Asia (except Afghanistan and Pakistan),|
mainland Southeast Asia, Hong Kong and Macau
|VA||India (also VE, VI and VO)|
|VE||India (also VA, VI and VO)|
|VI||India (also VA, VE and VO)|
|VO||India (also VA, VE and VI)|
|W – Maritime Southeast Asia (except the Philippines)|
|WA||Indonesia (also WI, WQ and WR)|
|WB||Brunei, Malaysia (East Malaysia)|
|WI||Indonesia (also WA, WQ and WR)|
|WM||Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)|
|WQ||Indonesia (also WA, WI and WR)|
|WR||Indonesia (also WA, WI and WQ)|
|Y – Australia|
|Y||Australia (including Norfolk Island, Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands)|
|Z –(Former)Socialist East Asia|
|Z||Mainland China (except ZK and ZM)|
The Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network (AFTN) is a worldwide system of aeronautical fixed circuits provided, as part of the Aeronautical Fixed Service, for the exchange of messages and/or digital data between aeronautical fixed stations having the same or compatible communications characteristics. AFTN comprises aviation entities including: ANS providers, aviation service providers, airport authorities and government agencies, to name a few. It exchanges vital information for aircraft operations such as distress messages, urgency messages, flight safety messages, meteorological messages, flight regularity messages and aeronautical administrative messages.
A location identifier is a symbolic representation for the name and the location of an airport, navigation aid, or weather station, and is used for manned air traffic control facilities in air traffic control, telecommunications, computer programming, weather reports, and related services.
This is a list of airline codes. The table lists IATA's two-character airline designators, ICAO's three-character airline designators and the airline call signs. Historical assignments are also included.
Enterprise Municipal Airport is a city-owned, public-use airport located three nautical miles (6 km) west of the central business district of Enterprise, a city in Coffee County, Alabama, United States. It is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a general aviation facility.