Fathers of Confederation

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The Fathers of Confederation are the 36 people who attended at least one of the Charlottetown Conference of 1864 (23 attendees), the Quebec Conference of 1864 (33 attendees), and the London Conference of 1866 (16 attendees), preceding Canadian Confederation. Only eleven people attended all three conferences.


Table of participation

The following table lists the participants in the Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Conferences and their attendance at each stage. [1] [2]

Participant [2] PortraitProvince (Current)CharlottetownQuebec CityLondon
Sir Adams George Archibald
Adams George Archibald.jpg
Nova ScotiaYesYesYes
George Brown
Sir Alexander Campbell
Sir Alexander Campbell.jpg
Sir Frederick Carter
Sir George-Étienne Cartier
George-Etienne Cartier.jpg
Edward Barron Chandler
Edward Barron Chandler.jpg
New BrunswickYesYesYes
Jean-Charles Chapais
Jean-Charles Chapais.jpg
James Cockburn
James Cockburn.jpg
George Coles
Prince Edward IslandYesYesNo
Robert B. Dickey
Robert B. Dickey.jpg
Nova ScotiaYesYesNo
Charles Fisher
New BrunswickNoYesYes
Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt
Sir Alexander Galt.jpg
John Hamilton Gray
John Hamilton Gray (1811-1887).jpg
Prince Edward IslandYesYesNo
John Hamilton Gray
John Hamilton Gray.jpg
New BrunswickYesYesNo
Thomas Heath Haviland
Thomas Heath Haviland 2.jpg
Prince Edward IslandNoYesNo
William Alexander Henry
William Alexander Henry.jpg
Nova ScotiaNoYesYes
Sir William Pearce Howland
John Mercer Johnson
John Mercer Johnson.jpeg
New BrunswickYesYesYes
Sir Hector-Louis Langevin
Andrew Archibald Macdonald
Andrew Archibald Macdonald.jpg
Prince Edward IslandYesYesNo
Sir John A. Macdonald
Jonathan McCully
Jonathan McCully.jpg
Nova ScotiaYesYesYes
William McDougall
William McDougall.jpg
Thomas D'Arcy McGee
Peter Mitchell
Peter Mitchell.jpg
New BrunswickNoYesYes
Sir Oliver Mowat
Oliver Mowat.jpg
Edward Palmer
Edward Palmer.jpg
Prince Edward IslandYesYesNo
William Henry Pope
William Henry Pope.jpg
Prince Edward IslandYesYesNo
John William Ritchie
John William Ritchie.jpg
Nova ScotiaNoNoYes
Sir Ambrose Shea
Ambrose Shea.jpg
William H. Steeves
William Henry Steeves.jpg
New BrunswickYesYesNo
Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché
Etienne-Paschal Tache.jpg
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley
Samuel Leonard Tilley.jpg
New BrunswickYesYesYes
Sir Charles Tupper
Nova ScotiaYesYesYes
Edward Whelan
Edward Whelan2.jpg
Prince Edward IslandNoYesNo
Robert Duncan Wilmot
Robert Duncan Wilmot.jpg
New BrunswickNoNoYes

Group photographs

Other possible claimants to title

Four other individuals have been labelled as Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation. [3] The leaders most responsible for bringing three specific provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as Fathers of Confederation. [1]

See also

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  1. 1 2 "Fathers of Confederation". CanadianHistory. 2008. Archived from the original on 2010-08-21. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
  2. 1 2 Bélanger, Claude (2001). "Studies on the Canadian Constitution and Canadian Federalism". Department of History, Marianopolis College. Archived from the original on 2010-06-11. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
  3. Harrison, Robert A (2003). The conventional man. Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press. p. 627. ISBN   0-8020-8842-2. Archived from the original on 2018-03-28. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
  4. The Heritage Centre. "Louis Riel The Provisional Government". Archived from the original on 10 August 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
  5. Frances, Stanford (2002). Canada's Confederation. S&S Learning Materials. p. 44. ISBN   1-55035-708-5. Archived from the original on 2018-03-28. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
  6. Argyle, Ray (2012). Joey Smallwood, Schemer and Dreamer. Dundurn Press. ISBN   9781459703698.

Further reading