Hudson Terminal

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Hudson Terminal
Hudson Terminals 1912) (14596469577) (cropped).jpg
Hudson Terminal towers in 1912
Location Manhattan, New York
Line(s) Park Place – Hudson Terminal
History
OpenedJuly 19,1909
ClosedJuly 6, 1971
Electrified(DC) Third Rail
Former services
Preceding station Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Following station
Exchange Place
toward Park Place
Park Place – Hudson Terminal Terminus

Hudson Terminal was a rapid transit station on the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad (H&M) in Manhattan, New York City. The terminal, which contained five tracks and three platforms, was located in the Lower Manhattan neighborhood of Radio Row. The two 22-story office skyscrapers above the terminal, built to serve the H&M station, were among the world's largest when the H&M terminal opened in 1909.

Rapid transit passenger rail system in an urban area

Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas. Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit systems are electric railways that operate on an exclusive right-of-way, which cannot be accessed by pedestrians or other vehicles of any sort, and which is often grade separated in tunnels or on elevated railways.

Train station Railway facility where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers and/or freight

A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility or area where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It generally consists of at least one track-side platform and a station building (depot) providing such ancillary services as ticket sales and waiting rooms. If a station is on a single-track line, it often has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements. The smallest stations are most often referred to as "stops" or, in some parts of the world, as "halts".

Manhattan Borough in New York City and county in New York, United States

Manhattan, often referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, and historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson, East, and Harlem rivers; several small adjacent islands; and Marble Hill, a small neighborhood now on the U.S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower, Midtown, and Upper Manhattan.

Contents

In 1962, as part of the construction of the World Trade Center, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey took over the H&M railroad, rebranding it as the PATH, and agreed to demolish Hudson Terminal to make way for the World Trade Center. Hudson Terminal closed in 1971 and was mostly demolished by 1972. It was replaced by the original World Trade Center, a business complex of seven buildings dedicated to international trade, and its PATH station.

Construction of the World Trade Center

The construction of the first World Trade Center complex in New York City was conceived as an urban renewal project to help revitalize Lower Manhattan spearheaded by David Rockefeller. The project was developed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The idea for the World Trade Center arose after World War II as a way to supplement existing avenues of international commerce in the United States.

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the U.S. states of New York and New Jersey, established in 1921 through an interstate compact authorized by the United States Congress. The Port Authority oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Port of New York and New Jersey. This 1,500-square-mile (3,900 km2) port district is generally encompassed within a 25-mile (40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. The Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center and is a member of the Real Estate Board of New York.

World Trade Center (1973–2001) Former skyscraper complex in Manhattan, New York

The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the Twin Towers — the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet (417 m); and 2 World Trade Center, at 1,362 feet (415.1 m)—were the tallest buildings in the world. Other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. The complex was located in New York City's Financial District and contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.

History

Original H&M plan PATH original plan.png
Original H&M plan

In January 1905, the Hudson Companies was incorporated for the purpose of completing the Uptown Hudson Tubes, which were under construction between Jersey City, New Jersey, and Midtown Manhattan, New York City. The Hudson Companies would also build the Downtown Hudson Tubes between Exchange Place, in Jersey City, and Hudson Terminal, at the corner of Church and Cortlandt Streets in Lower Manhattan. [1] The Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Company was incorporated in December 1906 to operate a passenger railroad system between New York and New Jersey via the Uptown and Downtown Tubes. [2] [3] The system was originally designed to connect four of the five passenger railroad terminals that lined the western shore of the Hudson River waterfront: Hoboken, Pavonia, Exchange Place and Communipaw (the last of which was ultimately not connected); Weehawken was not included. It augmented the extensive ferry crossings.

Uptown Hudson Tubes Railway tunnel in the United States

The Uptown Hudson Tubes are a pair of tunnels that carry PATH trains between Manhattan, New York City, to the east and Jersey City, New Jersey, to the west. The tubes originate at a junction of two PATH lines on the New Jersey shore and cross eastward under the Hudson River. On the Manhattan side, the tubes run mostly underneath Christopher Street and Sixth Avenue, making four intermediate stops before terminating at 33rd Street station. Despite their name, the tubes do not enter Uptown Manhattan, but are so named because they are located to the north of the Downtown Hudson Tubes, which connect Jersey City and the World Trade Center.

Jersey City, New Jersey City in Hudson County, New Jersey, U.S.

Jersey City is the second most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey, after Newark. It is the seat of Hudson County as well as the county's largest city. As of 2018, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated that Jersey City's population was 265,549, with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jersey since 2010, an increase of about 9.4% from the 2010 United States Census, when the city's population was at 247,597, ranking the city the 78th-most-populous in the nation.

Midtown Manhattan central business district in New York City

Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Midtown is home to some of the city's most iconic buildings, including the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project, the headquarters of the United Nations, Grand Central Terminal, and Rockefeller Center, as well as Broadway and Times Square.

Following the announcement of the Downtown Tubes, the rate of real estate purchases increased around Hudson Terminal's future location. [4] The terminal would consist of a pair of office buildings located above the tube's spacious eastern terminal. [5] [6] [7] Land acquisition for the buildings started in December 1905, [8] The office buildings were developed starting in 1907. At the time, there was a lot of office space being developed in Lower Manhattan, even as the area saw a decrease in real-estate transactions. [9] However, by 1908, tenants had started moving into the towers. [10] :326 The Beaux-Arts train terminal opened on July 19, 1909. [11] [12]

Beaux-Arts architecture Expresses the academic neoclassical architectural style

Beaux-Artsarchitecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, particularly from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century. It drew upon the principles of French neoclassicism, but also incorporated Gothic and Renaissance elements, and used modern materials, such as iron and glass. It was an important style in France until the end of the 19th century. It also had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many prominent American architects who studied at the Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, and Louis Sullivan.

An advertisement for the Hudson Terminal Hudson and Manhattan, Hudson Terminal.png
An advertisement for the Hudson Terminal

The Downtown Tubes had opened on the same day as the Hudson Terminal station. [11] Upon opening, the tubes were instantly popular with New Jersey residents who wanted to travel to New York City. [11] By 1914, passenger volume at Hudson Terminal had reached 30,535,500 annually. [13] Passenger volumes nearly doubled by 1922, with 59,221,354 passengers that year. [14]

H&M ridership declined substantially from a high of 113 million riders in 1927 to 26 million in 1958, after new automobile tunnels and bridges opened across the Hudson River. [15] :56 The State of New Jersey was interested in getting the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to take over the railroad, but the Port Authority long viewed it as something unprofitable and had no interest in doing so. In the late 1950s, the Port Authority proposed to build a "world trade center" in Lower Manhattan along the East River. [16] [17] As a bi-state agency, Port Authority projects required approval from both the states of New Jersey and New York. However, a viable proposal regarding the World Trade Center project was not reached until late 1961, when Port Authority executive director Austin J. Tobin made a proposal to shift the World Trade Center project to Hudson Terminal on the west side of Lower Manhattan. In acquiring the H&M Railroad, the Port Authority also acquired Hudson Terminal and other buildings, which were deemed obsolete. [18] On January 22, 1962, the two states reached an agreement to allow the Port Authority to take over the railroad and build the World Trade Center on Manhattan's lower west side. [19]

Hudson River river in New York State

The Hudson River is a 315-mile (507 km) river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New York Bay between New York City and Jersey City. It eventually drains into the Atlantic Ocean at New York Harbor. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York at its southern end. Further north, it marks local boundaries between several New York counties. The lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Tidal waters influence the Hudson's flow from as far north as the city of Troy.

New Jersey State of the United States of America

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. It is a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by the Delaware Bay and Delaware. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, making it the most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states with its biggest city being Newark. New Jersey lies completely within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U.S. state by median household income as of 2017.

Lower Manhattan Central business district in New York, United States

Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business, culture, and government in the City of New York, which itself originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624, at a point which now constitutes the present-day Financial District. The population of the Financial District alone has grown to an estimated 61,000 residents as of 2018, up from 43,000 as of 2014, which in turn was nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

The new World Trade Center PATH station opened on July 6, 1971, and was located to the west of the original Hudson Terminal. [20] The original station was demolished in 1972; however, some portions of the track level were kept as part of the original PATH station. [21] The last remnant of Hudson Terminal was a cast-iron tube embedded in the original World Trade Center's foundation, located near Church Street. It was located above the level of the new PATH station, as well as that of the station's replacement after the September 11 attacks. The cast-iron tube was removed in 2008 during the construction of the new World Trade Center. [22]

Railroad station

The station was served by two unidirectional single-track tubes, located underground and connected by a loop to speed train movements. The loop fanned out to include five tracks and three platforms (two center island and one side platform), similar to the arrangement of the first and second (temporary) World Trade Center stations on the PATH. [15] :59–60 Each of the platforms were able to fit eight-car trains, and all of the platforms were straight so as to minimize the gap between train and platform. [12] [23] However, the curved approach tracks to and from Hudson Terminal were much smaller than those at the World Trade Center station, which was able to fit ten-car trains. As a result, when the World Trade Center station was built, each of the tubes swung outward using a large jughandle curve around the original Hudson Terminal approach tracks before approaching the World Trade Center platforms. Additionally, the World Trade Center platforms were located under Greenwich Street, which traveled at a slight angle compared to the original Hudson Terminal station under Church Street. [15] :60

As originally proposed, the station would have included six platforms between the five tracks in a Spanish solution layout, so passengers could exit trains from one side and enter from the other. [5] [23]

Transfers were available to the Sixth Avenue Elevated at Cortlandt Street/Church Street, and to the Ninth Avenue Elevated at Cortlandt Street/Greenwich Street. [12] Another transfer was added when the Independent Subway System (IND) built the Hudson Terminal station on its Eighth Avenue Line in 1932. The IND station was operationally separate from the H&M station but was connected via passageways. [24]

The station tunnels contained provisions for an extension northward [25] to what is now the 34th Street–Herald Square subway station. [26] If this extension had been built, it would have tripled the maximum number of trains that could go into the Hudson Terminal station. [25]

Towers

This view from the southwest shows how Hudson Terminal was situated on what would become the World Trade Center site. The terminal is at center-left; in the background to its left is the Woolworth Building; in the foreground to its right is 90 West Street. New York City aerial view 1919.jpg
This view from the southwest shows how Hudson Terminal was situated on what would become the World Trade Center site. The terminal is at center-left; in the background to its left is the Woolworth Building; in the foreground to its right is 90 West Street.

Hudson Terminal included two 22-story Romanesque-style office skyscrapers, which were an architectural and engineering marvel of its time. [10] :326 [5] The buildings were designed by architect James Hollis Wells, of the firm Clinton and Russell., and built by construction contractor George A. Fuller. [10] :326 Located on what would later become the World Trade Center site, the Hudson Terminal Buildings preceded the original World Trade Center complex in both size and function. [27] Each building contained 44,000 square feet (4,100 m2) of office space on each floor. [25] With a total rentable floor space of 877,900 square feet (81,560 m2), some of which was taken by the railroad, [27] Hudson Terminal was billed as the largest office building in the world by floor area. [5] [23]

The towers could house a combined ten thousand tenants [28] across 4,000 offices. [5] [23] As originally proposed, the towers would have a combined 39 elevators, which could carry 30,000 people a day. The structures' electricity-storage generator batteries would be among the world's largest. The building would use 16 million bricks, 13,000 lighting fixtures, 5,200 doors, 5,000 windows, and 4,500 tons of terracotta, among other things. [5] [23]

The buildings were located above the station, at 30 and 50 Church Street, between Greenwich, Cortlandt, Church, and Fulton Streets. This combined rail terminal and office block was the first of its kind anywhere in the world. [27] The facades of the buildings, as proposed, were made of Indiana limestone below the fifth-floor sill, and of brick and terracotta above the fifth-floor sill. [5] [23] The sill above the 17th-floor sill would be made of ornamental terracotta. [23]

The two buildings were identically designed, apart from the southern building's larger footprint and floor plan. Both had rooftop gardens. Dey Street ran between the two structures, since the city would not allow that street to be demolished to make way for the Hudson Terminal Buildings. [10] :326 The two buildings were connected by a pedestrian bridge over the street on the third story of each building. [25] A bridge connecting the buildings' 17th floors was approved and built in 1913, soon after the complex had opened, [29] [30]

Underground concourse

A three-story underground concourse area connected the two structures. [13] The top story was a 2-acre (0.81 ha) concourse with ticket offices, waiting rooms, and some retail shops. [12] [23] The second level had access to the H&M's five train tracks with elevated platforms, while the third and lowest level was for baggage and consisted of an electrical substation. The concourse was carefully planned and designed with a system of ramps descending from street level to the mezzanine, to allow an unprecedented volume of pedestrian traffic to flow in and out of the station quickly and easily. [13] [25] According to Sarah Bradford Landau, "At full capacity, the Hudson Terminal could accommodate 687,000 people per day; in comparison, Pennsylvania Station (1902–1910) was designed with a capacity of 500,000." [10] :437

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Hoboken Terminal Commuter station in Hoboken, New Jersey

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Hoboken–33rd Street rapid transit service in New Jersey and New York City

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Newark–World Trade Center rapid transit service in New Jersey and New York City

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33rd Street station (PATH) Port Authority Trans-Hudson rail station

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Downtown Hudson Tubes

The Downtown Hudson Tubes are a pair of tunnels that carry PATH trains under the Hudson River in the United States, between New York City to the east and Jersey City, New Jersey, to the west. The tunnels runs between the World Trade Center station on the New York side and the Exchange Place station on the New Jersey side.

Pennsylvania Station (1910–1963) Former train station in New York City

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  26. "M'ADOO WOULD BUILD A WEST SIDE SUBWAY; From 34th St. Down Broadway, Linking Penna. Tubes with All Downtown and His Own". The New York Times. September 16, 1910. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  27. 1 2 3 Condit, C.W. (1980). The Port of New York: A history of the rail terminal system from the beginnings to Pennsylvania Station. The Port of New York. University of Chicago Press. p. 254. ISBN   978-0-226-11460-6 . Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  28. "DIRECTORS QUIT NEW YORK LIFE" (PDF). Chicago Tribune. April 9, 1908. p. 4. Retrieved May 1, 2018 via Fultonhistory.com.
  29. New York (N Y. ) Board of Estimate and Apportionment (1913). Minutes of the Board of Estimate and Apportionment of the City of New York. M. B. Brown Printing & Binding Company. p. 3030.
  30. Journal of Proceedings. 1913. p. 3611. Retrieved May 2, 2018.

Further reading

Coordinates: 40°42′43″N74°00′43″W / 40.712°N 74.012°W / 40.712; -74.012


Preceded by
Ellicott Square Building
Largest office building in the world
by floor area
1908–1913
Succeeded by
Manhattan Municipal Building