Downtown Hudson Tubes

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Downtown Hudson Tubes
PATH junction.jpg
1909 illustration of flying junction of Uptown Hudson Tubes in Jersey City which connect to Downtown tubes to the south
Overview
Location Hudson River
Coordinates 40°42′54″N74°01′28″W / 40.7151°N 74.0244°W / 40.7151; -74.0244
System PATH
Start World Trade Center
End Exchange Place
Operation
Constructed1906-1909
OpenedJuly 19, 1909
TrafficRailroad
CharacterRapid transit
Technical
Design engineer Charles M. Jacobs
Length5,650 ft (1,722 m) [1]
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Electrified 600 V DC third rail
Tunnel clearance 15.25 ft (4.65 m) [1]
Depth of tunnel below water level 97 ft (29.6 m)
below sea level [1]
Depth of shipping channel above(?)
USA New York City location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Downtown Hudson Tubes

The Downtown Hudson Tubes (formerly the Cortlandt Street Tunnel [2] ) are a pair of tunnels that carry PATH trains under the Hudson River in the United States, between New York City to the east and Jersey City, New Jersey, to the west. The tunnels runs between the World Trade Center station on the New York side and the Exchange Place station on the New Jersey side.

Tunnel An underground passage made for traffic

A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube construction techniques rather than traditional tunnel boring methods.

Hudson River river in New York State, draining into the Atlantic at New York City

The Hudson River is a 315-mile (507 km) river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New York Bay between New York City and Jersey City. It eventually drains into the Atlantic Ocean at New York Harbor. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York at its southern end. Further north, it marks local boundaries between several New York counties. The lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Tidal waters influence the Hudson's flow from as far north as the city of Troy.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million sq mi (9.8 million km2), the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.93 million sq mi (10.2 million km2). With a population of more than 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.

Contents

PATH operates two services through the Downtown Tubes, Newark–World Trade Center and Hoboken–World Trade Center. The former normally operates 24/7, while the latter only operates on weekdays. [3] However, beginning in 2019, the Downtown Tubes are being reconstructed due to extensive damage during Hurricane Sandy in 2012. As a result, the Newark–World Trade Center service only runs to the World Trade Center on weekdays and holiday weekends through 2020. On most weekends, the service terminates at Exchange Place. [4]

Newark–World Trade Center

The Newark–World Trade Center is a rapid transit service operated by the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). It is colored red on the PATH service map and trains on this service display red marker lights. This service operates from Pennsylvania Station in Newark, New Jersey, by way of the Downtown Hudson Tubes to the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York. Operating 24 hours a day, the 8.9-mile (14.3 km) trip takes 22.5 minutes to complete.

Hoboken–World Trade Center rapid transit service in New Jersey and New York City

The Hoboken–World Trade Center is a rapid transit service operated by the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). It is colored green on the PATH service map and trains on this service display green marker lights. This service operates from the Hoboken Terminal in Hoboken, New Jersey, by way of the Downtown Hudson Tubes to the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York. The 3-mile (4.8 km) trip takes 11 minutes to complete, and is the shortest route in the PATH system.

Hurricane Sandy Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 2012

Hurricane Sandy was the deadliest and most destructive, as well as the strongest, hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season. Inflicting nearly $70 billion in damage, it was the second-costliest hurricane on record in the United States until surpassed by Hurricanes Harvey and Maria in 2017. The eighteenth named storm, tenth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the year, Sandy was a Category 3 storm at its peak intensity when it made landfall in Cuba. While it was a Category 2 hurricane off the coast of the Northeastern United States, the storm became the largest Atlantic hurricane on record. At least 233 people were killed along the path of the storm in eight countries.

Description

The Downtown Hudson Tubes use a roughly east-southeast to west-northwest path under the Hudson River, connecting Manhattan in the east with Jersey City in the west. Each track is located in its own tunnel, [5] which enables better ventilation by the so-called piston effect. When a train passes through the tunnel it pushes out the air in front of it toward the closest ventilation shaft, and also pulls air into the rail tunnel from the closest ventilation shaft behind it. [6] The diameter of both downtown tubes is 15 feet 3 inches (4.65 m). [7]

Manhattan Borough in New York City and county in New York, United States

Manhattan, often referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, and historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson, East, and Harlem rivers; several small adjacent islands; and Marble Hill, a small neighborhood now on the U.S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower, Midtown, and Upper Manhattan.

Jersey City, New Jersey City in Hudson County, New Jersey, U.S.

Jersey City is the second most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey, after Newark. It is the seat of Hudson County as well as the county's largest city. As of 2018, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated that Jersey City's population was 265,549, with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jersey since 2010, an increase of about 9.4% from the 2010 United States Census, when the city's population was at 247,597, ranking the city the 78th-most-populous in the nation.

Ventilation (architecture) intentional introduction of outside air into a space

Ventilation is the intentional introduction of outdoor air into a space and is mainly used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used for purposes of thermal comfort or dehumidification.

On the Manhattan end, the tubes were connected by a balloon loop. The loop fanned out to include five tracks served by three platforms. This layout was built during the construction of the original Hudson Terminal, and a similar layout existed in two of the successive World Trade Center PATH stations that replaced it. [8] :59–60 The current World Trade Center PATH station includes four platforms, but the general track layout, with the five-track balloon loop, is otherwise similar to that of the previous World Trade Center stations. [9] :S.10 [10]

Balloon loop

A balloon loop, turning loop or reversing loop allows a rail vehicle or train to reverse direction without having to shunt or even stop. Balloon loops can be useful for passenger trains and unit freight trains such as coal trains.

Hudson Terminal former train station in New York City


Hudson Terminal was a rapid transit station on the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad (H&M) in Manhattan, New York City. The terminal, which contained five tracks and three platforms, was located in the Lower Manhattan neighborhood of Radio Row. The two 22-story office skyscrapers above the terminal, built to serve the H&M station, were among the world's largest when the H&M terminal opened in 1909.

World Trade Center station (PATH) Port Authority Trans-Hudson rail station

World Trade Center is a terminal station on the PATH system. It is located in the World Trade Center complex, within the Financial District neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City. It is served by the Newark–World Trade Center line on weekdays and holiday weekends, as well as by the Hoboken–World Trade Center line on weekdays, and is the eastern terminus of both.

History

The tunnels were the second non-waterborne connection between Manhattan and New Jersey, after the Uptown Hudson Tubes. [8] :15 The idea for the downtown tunnels was devised by another company in 1903, the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Corporation (H&M). However, William Gibbs McAdoo's New York and Jersey Railroad Company, which was constructing the Uptown Tubes, was interested in the H&M tunnel. [11] Early in the planning process, there were elaborate reports that the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) was interested in operating its trains through the Downtown Hudson Tubes, so that the PRR's New York Penn Station could be used solely for non-terminating trains. However, McAdoo denied these rumors, saying, "the Pennsylvania has not one dollar's interest" in such a venture. [12] In January 1905, the Hudson Companies was incorporated for the purpose of completing the Uptown Hudson Tubes. The Hudson Companies would also build a pair of downtown tunnels between the Exchange Place station, in Jersey City, and Hudson Terminal, at the corner of Church and Cortlandt Streets in Lower Manhattan. The company already had a capital of $21 million at the time of its incorporation. [13]

Uptown Hudson Tubes Railway tunnel in the United States

The Uptown Hudson Tubes are a pair of tunnels that carry PATH trains between Manhattan, New York City, to the east and Jersey City, New Jersey, to the west. The tubes originate at a junction of two PATH lines on the New Jersey shore and cross eastward under the Hudson River. On the Manhattan side, the tubes run mostly underneath Christopher Street and Sixth Avenue, making four intermediate stops before terminating at 33rd Street station. Despite their name, the tubes do not enter Uptown Manhattan, but are so named because they are located to the north of the Downtown Hudson Tubes, which connect Jersey City and the World Trade Center.

William Gibbs McAdoo American politician

William Gibbs McAdoo Jr. was an American lawyer and statesman. McAdoo was a leader of the Progressive movement and played a major role in the administration of President Woodrow Wilson. A member of the Democratic Party, he also represented California in the United States Senate.

Pennsylvania Railroad former American Class I railroad

The Pennsylvania Railroad was an American Class I railroad that was established in 1846 and was headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was so named because it was established in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

Work on the underwater section of the Downtown Tubes started in April 1905. [14] That June, the New York State Board of Commissioners approved of the layout for the Downtown Tubes' Manhattan end. Since the tubes were [15] The Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Company was incorporated in December 1906 to operate a passenger railroad system between New York and New Jersey via the Uptown and Downtown Tubes. [16] [17] The Downtown Tubes, located about 1.25 miles (2.01 km) south of the uptown pair, were well under construction by that time, [8] :19 as 3,000 feet (910 m) of these tubes had been constructed. [18] Construction of the Downtown Tubes proceeded smoothly, and digging on the first of the Downtown Tubes was completed in January 1909, without anyone being killed during the process. [19] The tubes began service on July 19, 1909, with the opening of the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad's Hudson Terminal in lower Manhattan. [8] :18 [20] [21] At first, service only ran to Exchange Place, for the connection to the PRR's Exchange Place station. [22]

When the original World Trade Center was constructed in the 1960s, the Downtown Tubes remained in service as elevated tunnels until 1970, when a new PATH station was built. [23] The new PATH station opened on July 6, 1971, and the Hudson Terminal was closed at that time. [24] The downtown and uptown tubes were declared National Historic Civil Engineering Landmarks in 1978 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. [25]

The last remnant of Hudson Terminal was a cast-iron tube embedded in the original World Trade Center's foundation, located near Church Street. It was located above the level of the new PATH station, as well as that of the station's replacement after the September 11 attacks. The cast-iron tube was removed in 2008 during the construction of the new World Trade Center. [26]

On July 7, 2006, an alleged plot to detonate explosives in the PATH's Downtown Hudson Tubes (initially said to be a plot to bomb the Holland Tunnel) was uncovered by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The plot included the detonation of a bomb that could significantly destroy and flood the tunnels, endangering all the occupants and vehicles in the tunnel at the time of the explosion. The terror planners believed that Lower Manhattan could, as a result of the explosion, be flooded due to river water surging up the remaining tunnel after the blast. Officials say that this plan was unsound due to the strength of the tunnels. Since semi-trailer trucks are currently not allowed to pass through the Holland Tunnel, and it was unfeasible to carry such a bomb on board a PATH train, it was very difficult to get sufficient explosives into the tunnel to accomplish the plan. If the tunnel were to explode and allow water from the Hudson River to flood the (Holland) tunnel, Lower Manhattan would be spared since the area is 2–10 feet (0.61–3.05 m) above sea level. Of the eight planners based in six different countries, three were arrested. [27]

The Downtown Hudson Tubes were severely damaged in Hurricane Sandy. As a result, to accommodate repairs, service on the Newark–World Trade Center line between Exchange Place and World Trade Center will be suspended during almost all weekends in 2019 and 2020, except for holidays. [4]

See also

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References

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  2. "BUYING BY SPECULATORS NEAR TUNNEL TERMINAL; Frequent Purchases on Dey, Fulton, and Vesey Streets -- Territory West of Broadway Commanding More Attention -- Ownership Covering a Century Ended Last Week". The New York Times. February 26, 1905. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  3. "PATH Timetable". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. January 2019. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  4. 1 2 Walker, Ameena (December 5, 2018). "World Trade Center's PATH station will close for 45 weekends for repairs". Curbed NY. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  5. Fitzherbert, Anthony (June 1964). "The Public Be Pleased: William Gibbs McAdoo and the Hudson Tubes". Electric Railroaders' Association. Retrieved April 24, 2018 via nycsubway.org.
  6. Davies, John Vipond (1910). "The Tunnel Construction of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Company". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. 49: 164–187. JSTOR   983892.
  7. "The Worlds Greatest Inter-Urban Tunnels" (PDF). Evening Star. Washington D.C. June 24, 1905. p. 2. Retrieved April 24, 2018 via Fultonhistory.com.
  8. 1 2 3 4 Cudahy, Brian J. (2002), Rails Under the Mighty Hudson (2nd ed.), New York: Fordham University Press, ISBN   978-0-82890-257-1, OCLC   911046235
  9. Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (2007). Permanent WTC PATH Terminal: Environmental Impact Statement. United States Department of Transportation; Federal Transit Administration.
  10. Dunlap, David W. (December 16, 2004). "Blocks; At Site of New Tower, a Game of Inches". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2018(a diagram is available here).
  11. "ANOTHER TUNNEL SCHEME; Company Formed to Drive One Under the North River. Would Extend from Cortlandt Street and Broadway to Jersey City -- Purchases of Property Made". The New York Times. March 21, 1903. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  12. "THE THIRD HUDSON TUNNEL.; W.G. McAdoo Denies the Detailed Report That the Pennsylvania Road is Interested". The New York Times. June 3, 1903. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 22, 2018.
  13. "$21,000,000 COMPANY FOR HUDSON TUNNELS; Will Also Build Ninth Street and Sixth Avenue Subways. FOR CENTRAL PARK ROUTE? Rapid Transit Board Hints at It in Recommending McAdoo Underground Routes to Aldermen". The New York Times. 1905. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  14. "BEGIN SECOND HUDSON TUBE.; Work on New York and Jersey Tunnel to be Started Thursday". The New York Times. April 9, 1905. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  15. "APPROVE RIVER TUNNELS.; Commissioners Favor Cortlandt and Morton Street Plans". The New York Times. June 17, 1905. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  16. The Commercial & Financial Chronicle ...: A Weekly Newspaper Representing the Industrial Interests of the United States. William B. Dana Company. 1914.
  17. "$100,000,000 CAPITAL FOR M'ADOO TUNNELS; Railroad Commission Agrees to Issuance of Big Mortgage. McADOO EXPLAINS PROGRESS The Work Very Expensive, but Going on Rapidly -- New Bonds to Take Up Old Issues". The New York Times. December 12, 1906. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  18. "$100,000,000 CAPITAL FOR M'ADOO TUNNELS; Railroad Commission Agrees to Issuance of Big Mortgage. McADOO EXPLAINS PROGRESS The Work Very Expensive, but Going on Rapidly -- New Bonds to Take Up Old Issues". The New York Times. December 12, 1906. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  19. "FIFTH TUBE OPEN UNDER THE HUDSON; Chief Engineer Jacobs of the McAdoo System Fires the Shot That Does It. READY FOR CARS ON JULY 1 McAdoo Terminal to Open on the Same Day -- Latest Tunnel Built Without Loss of a Life". The New York Times. 1909. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  20. Taft, William H. (July 20, 1909). "40,000 CELEBRATE NEW TUBES' OPENING; Downtown McAdoo Tunnels to Jersey City Begin Business with a Rush. TRIP TAKES THREE MINUTES Red Fire and Oratory Signalize the Event -- Speeches by Gov. Fort and Others -- Ovation to Mr. McAdoo". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2018.
  21. Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. "PATH:History" . Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  22. "UNDER THE HUDSON BY FOUR TUBES NOW; Second Pair of McAdoo Tunnels to Jersey City Will Open To-morrow. BIG CELEBRATION PLANNED Speeches, Decorations, and Fireworks -- New Tubes Under Cortlandt Street Ferry -- Shore Section Open Aug. 2". The New York Times. July 18, 1909. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  23. Carroll, Maurice (December 30, 1968). "A Section of the Hudson Tubes Is Turned Into Elevated Tunnel". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  24. Burks, Edward C. (July 7, 1971). "New PATH Station Opens Downtown" (PDF). New York Times. p. 74. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
  25. "History and Heritage of Civil Engineering: Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Tunnel". American Society of Civil Engineers. Archived from the original on December 3, 2009. Retrieved March 13, 2009.
  26. Dunlap, David W. (October 26, 2008). "Another Ghost From Ground Zero's Past Fades Away". The New York Times .
  27. Schippert, Steve (July 7, 2006). "ThreatsWatch.Org: InBrief: Foreign Plot to Bomb Holland Tunnel Thwarted - Updated". threatswatch.org. Retrieved December 29, 2017.

Further reading