63rd Street Tunnel

Last updated

63rd Street Tunnel
East Side Access.svg
The 63rd Street Tunnel, in the context of the East Side Access project
Overview
Line 63rd Street Line ( F and <F> trains)
Location East River between Manhattan and Queens, New York City
Coordinates 40°45′36″N73°57′18″W / 40.76000°N 73.95500°W / 40.76000; -73.95500 Coordinates: 40°45′36″N73°57′18″W / 40.76000°N 73.95500°W / 40.76000; -73.95500
System New York City Subway
LIRR (future)
Operation
OpenedOctober 29, 1989;29 years ago (1989-10-29)
Operator Metropolitan Transportation Authority
Technical
Length3,140 feet (960 m) between shafts [1]
No. of tracks 2
Width38.5 feet (11.7 m) [1] [2]

The 63rd Street Tunnel is a double-deck subway and railroad tunnel under the East River between the boroughs of Manhattan and Queens. It is the newest of the East River tunnels, and the newest rail river crossing in the New York metropolitan area.

East River Navigable tidal strait in New York City connecting New York Bay, the Harlem River, and the Long Island Sound

The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City. The waterway, which is actually not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates the borough of Queens on Long Island from the Bronx on the North American mainland, and also divides Manhattan from Queens and Brooklyn, which are also on Long Island. Because of its connection to Long Island Sound, it was once also known as the Sound River. The tidal strait changes its direction of flow frequently, and is subject to strong fluctuations in its current, which are accentuated by its narrowness and variety of depths. The waterway is navigable for its entire length of 16 miles (26 km), and was historically the center of maritime activities in the city, although that is no longer the case.

Manhattan Borough in New York City and county in New York, United States

Manhattan, , is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City, and coextensive with the County of New York, one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. Manhattan serves as the city's economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, and historical birthplace. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson, East, and Harlem rivers; several small adjacent islands; and Marble Hill, a small neighborhood now on the U.S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower, Midtown, and Upper Manhattan.

Queens Borough in New York City and county in New York, United States

Queens is a borough of New York City, coterminous with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough geographically and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the southwestern end of Long Island. To its east is Nassau County. Queens also shares water borders with the boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. The borough of Queens is the second largest in population, with an estimated 2,358,582 residents in 2017, approximately 48 percent of them foreign-born. Queens County also is the second most populous county in the U.S. state of New York, behind Brooklyn, which is coterminous with Kings County. Queens is the fourth most densely populated county among New York City's boroughs, as well as in the United States. If each of New York City's boroughs were an independent city, Queens would be the nation's fourth most populous, after Los Angeles, Chicago, and Brooklyn. Queens is the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.

Contents

The upper level of the 63rd Street Tunnel carries the IND 63rd Street Line of the New York City Subway. The tunnel's lower level is unused, but will carry Long Island Rail Road trains to a new train terminal under Grand Central Terminal, following the expected completion of the East Side Access project by 2023.

The IND 63rd Street Line and BMT 63rd Street Line, also referred to as the 63rd Street Crosstown, Crosstown Route, or Route 131-A, are two rapid transit lines of the IND and BMT divisions of the New York City Subway system. The two lines run under 63rd Street on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, with a cross-platform interchange at the Lexington Avenue–63rd Street station.

New York City Subway Rapid transit system in New York City

The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the world's oldest public transit systems, one of the most-used, and the one with the most stations. The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world by number of stations, with 472 stations in operation. Stations are located throughout the boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx.

Long Island Rail Road commuter rail service in Long Island, New York

The Long Island Rail Road, often abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island. With an average weekday ridership of 354,800 passengers in 2016, it is the busiest commuter railroad in North America. It is also one of the world's few commuter systems that runs 24 hours a day, seven days a week, year-round. It is publicly owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which refers to it as MTA Long Island Rail Road.

Construction of the 63rd Street Tunnel began in 1969, and the tunnel was holed through beneath Roosevelt Island in 1972. Completion of the tunnel and its connections was delayed by the 1975 New York City fiscal crisis and the upper level was not opened until 1989, twenty years after construction started. The lower level was never opened because of the cancellation of the LIRR route to Manhattan. The tunnel was initially referred to as the "tunnel to nowhere" because its Queens end did not connect to any other subway line until 2001. Construction on East Side Access, and the completion of the lower level, started in 2006.

Tunnel hole-through also known as breakthrough, when the two ends of a tunnel under construction meet

Tunnel hole-through, also called breakthrough, is the time, during the construction of a tunnel built from both ends, when the ends meet, and the accuracy of the survey work becomes evident. Many tunnels report breakthroughs with an error of only a few inches, for example:

Roosevelt Island Island and neighborhood in the East River in New York City

Roosevelt Island is a narrow island in New York City's East River, within the borough of Manhattan. It lies between Manhattan Island to its west and the borough of Queens, on Long Island, to its east. Running from the equivalent of East 46th to 85th Streets on Manhattan Island, it is about 2 miles (3.2 km) long, with a maximum width of 800 feet (240 m), and a total area of 147 acres (0.59 km2). Together with Mill Rock, Roosevelt Island constitutes Manhattan's Census Tract 238, which has a land area of 0.279 sq mi (0.72 km2), and had a population of 9,520 as of the 2000 United States Census. It had a population of 11,661 as of the 2010 United States Census.

History

Planning

In February 1963, the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) proposed a two-track East River subway tunnel under 76th Street with unspecified connections to the rest of the transit network, at a cost of $139 million. The proposed site of the tunnel was switched to 59th Street on a May 2, 1963, report. On May 24, Mayor Wagner suggested that a tunnel around 61st Street "be built with all deliberate speed". [3] Several months later, on October 17, the Board of Estimate approved a new East River tunnel sited at 64th Street, noting that it would cost $30 million and take seven years to build. The 64th Street site was said to be $5.3 million less expensive, "because of easier grades and smaller curves". [4] The route was changed to 63rd Street because officials at Rockefeller Institute at 64th Street feared that heavy construction and later train movements so close to the Institute's buildings might have adversely affected delicate instruments at the Institute and affect the accuracy of the research being conducted. [5]

New York City Transit Authority operator of bus and subway service in New York City; a branch of the MTA

The New York City Transit Authority is a public authority in the U.S. state of New York that operates public transportation in New York City. Part of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, the busiest and largest transit system in North America, the NYCTA has a daily ridership of 8 million trips.

The New York City Board of Estimate was a governmental body in New York City responsible for numerous areas of municipal policy and decisions, including the city budget, land-use, contracts, franchises, and water rates. Under the amendments effective in 1901, to the charter of the then-recently-amalgamated City of Greater New York, the Board of Estimate and Apportionment was composed of eight ex officio members: the Mayor of New York City, the New York City Comptroller and the President of the New York City Board of Aldermen, each of whom had three votes; the borough presidents of Manhattan and Brooklyn, each having two votes; and the borough presidents of the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond, each having one vote. The La Guardia Reform Charter of 1938 simplified its name and enhanced its powers.

Rockefeller University Research institute in New York City

The Rockefeller University is a private graduate university in New York City. It focuses primarily on the biological and medical sciences and provides doctoral and postdoctoral education. Rockefeller is the oldest biomedical research institute in the United States. The 82-person faculty has 37 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 17 members of the National Academy of Medicine, seven Lasker Award recipients, and five Nobel laureates. As of 2019, a total of 36 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Rockefeller University.

A third track was added to the plans for the tunnel in April 1966. The track would serve Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) trains to east Midtown, alleviating train traffic into Pennsylvania Station. [6] That August, a fourth track was added to the plans after it was determined that LIRR trains would be too large to run on subway tracks. This amendment increased the number of LIRR tracks to two, and provided dedicated tracks for the LIRR and the subway. [7] In November 1967, voters approved a $2.5 billion transportation bond issue, and in early 1968, under the Program for Action, officials provided detailed plans for how it would be used. Among many other projects, the proposal included the construction of the 63rd Street Tunnel to host a proposed 63rd Street–Southeast Queens subway line on the upper level (connecting to a "super-express" line and the Archer Avenue lines in Queens), and an LIRR branch traveling to a new railroad terminal in Manhattan on the lower level. [8]

Pennsylvania Station (New York City) Train station in New York City

Pennsylvania Station, also known as New York Penn Station or Penn Station, is the main intercity railroad station in New York City and the busiest in the Western Hemisphere, serving more than 600,000 passengers per weekday as of 2019. Penn Station is in Midtown Manhattan, close to Herald Square, the Empire State Building, Koreatown, and Macy's Herald Square. Entirely underground, the station is located in Midtown South beneath Madison Square Garden, between Seventh and Eighth Avenues and between 31st and 33rd Streets, with additional exits to nearby streets.

Program for Action New York City Subway expansion program

Metropolitan Transportation: A Program for Action, also known as simply the Program for Action, the Grand Design, or the New Routes Program, was a proposal in the mid-1960s for a large expansion of mass transit in New York City, created under then-Mayor John Lindsay. Originally published on February 29, 1968, the Program for Action was one of the most ambitious expansion plans in the history of the New York City Subway. The plan called for 50 miles (80 km) of tracks to be constructed, and more than ​45 of the new trackage was to be built in the borough of Queens. The $2.9 billion plan also called for improvements to other modes of mass transit, such as the present-day Long Island Rail Road and Metro-North Railroad commuter rail systems, and further integration between mass transit and the New York City-area airport system.

The Archer Avenue lines are two rapid transit lines of the New York City Subway, mostly running under Archer Avenue in the Jamaica neighborhood of Queens. The two lines are built on separate levels: trains from the IND Queens Boulevard Line serve the upper level, and trains from the BMT Jamaica Line serve the lower.

Construction

Construction on the project began on November 24, 1969. [9] [10] :17 (PDF p. 20) Four 38-foot-square (12 m) prefabricated sections of the 63rd Street Tunnel were constructed at Port Deposit, Maryland, then towed to New York and sunk under the East River. [11] The first of the tunnel segments was delivered in May 1971 [12] and was lowered into place on August 29, 1971; [11] the last section was lowered on March 14, 1972. [13] The double-deck, 3,140-foot (960 m) [14] tunnel under the East River was "holed through" on October 10, 1972, with the separate sections of tunnels being connected. [15] The estimated cost of the project was $341 million, and the MTA applied for $227 million in federal funds. [16]

Port Deposit, Maryland Town in Maryland, United States

Port Deposit is a town in Cecil County, Maryland, United States. It is located on the east bank of the Susquehanna River near its discharge into the Chesapeake Bay. The population was 653 at the 2010 census.

One section of the tunnel was controversial because it called for 1,500 feet (460 m) of cut-and-cover tunneling, which would require digging an open trench through Central Park in Manhattan. [17] In June 1970, Mayor John Lindsay told city engineers to write a report that studied ways to reduce the project's impact. [17] The results of the report, released in January 1971, called for using tunnel boring machines underneath Central Park to reduce disruption. [18] The following month, the NYCTA published advertisements in newspapers, seeking construction bids for the tunnels under Central Park, but withdrew them after objections from community and conservation groups. [19] The NYCTA agreed to halve the width of the proposed 75-foot (23 m)-wide cut, which resulted in a proportionate decrease in the area of affected parkland. The NYCTA also agreed to reduce disruption to the Heckscher Playground, located above the proposed subway tunnel's path, by cutting construction time from three years to two years and by constructing a temporary playground nearby. [20] The sections that connected to the existing Broadway and Sixth Avenue Lines were holed through on October 11, 1973. [21] Construction on the section between 5th Avenue and Park Avenue began in August 1974. The project involved digging a 45-foot (14 m)-high cavern underneath the street. [22]

On March 20, 1975, New York mayor Abraham Beame announced significant cutbacks to the plan. Construction of the Southeastern Queens extension was deferred until 1981, and the Long Island Rail Road extension through the lower level of the 63rd Street tunnel was canceled for the foreseeable future. [23] The tunnel was 95% complete by January 1976, [24] but later that year, the NYCTA announced that "it will take an extra five or six years—until 1987 or 1988—to complete the new Manhattan–Queens trunk subway line from Central Park to Jamaica via the new 63rd Street tunnel." The main cause of the delay was a proposed 5.8-mile "super express" bypass in Queens. [25] The upper level was completed in 1976, but due to the 1975 New York City fiscal crisis, there was no funding to extend the tunnel in Queens east of the 21st Street–Queensbridge station. [26]

The New York Times reported that the lower level of the 63rd Street Tunnel was still under construction by 1976, even though it would remain unused indefinitely. [27] Richard Ravitch, the MTA chairman, said that to stop the work was "so costly as to make it impractical subsequent to the construction of the subway portion." [27] In reality, the lower level of the 63rd Street Tunnel was completed along with the upper subway level, but could not be used due to its lack of connections on either side. [10] :17 (PDF p. 20) [27] In 1979, the MTA started studying four options for making the upper level of the tunnel more useful. [28] [29] [30] The ultimately agreed-on plan was to connect the tunnel to the local tracks of the IND Queens Boulevard Line in Queens, at a cost of $222 million, and a timetable of at least eight years. [31]

By June 1985, the project was again delayed indefinitely after it was found that the tunnel had been flooded with 6 feet (1.8 m) of water, and several girders and electrical equipment had also deteriorated. [32] Two contractors were hired to assess the structural integrity of the tunnel, and the delay was estimated at two years. [33] By February 1987, the MTA's contractors had concluded that the tunnel was structurally sound, although federal funding had not yet been released. The MTA approved a new plan to have the tunnel open to 21st Street/Queensbridge by October 1989. [34]

Opening of upper level

The Roosevelt Island station NYC Roosevelt Island station.jpg
The Roosevelt Island station

The IND 63rd Street Line went into service on October 29, 1989, twenty years after construction began, with new stations at Lexington Avenue, Roosevelt Island, and 21st Street/41st Avenue in Queens. The line was served by Q trains on weekdays and B trains on weekends. The 1,500-foot (460 m) connector to the Queens Boulevard Line had not yet started construction. [35] It was nicknamed the "tunnel to nowhere" due to its lack of connections in Queens. [36] [37]

Planning for the connection to the IND Queens Boulevard Line began in December 1990, with the final design contract awarded in December 1992. Two build alternatives were evaluated: a connection to the local tracks of the Queens Boulevard Line, and a connection to the local and express tracks. The goal of the project was to increase capacity on Queens Boulevard by 33% and to eliminate the dead-end terminal at 21st Street–Queensbridge. Bellmouths were constructed to allow for a future bypass line through Sunnyside Yard. [38] The remaining section from 21st Street to the Queens Boulevard Line, which cost $645 million, began construction on September 22, 1994. The construction project involved a number of other elements, such as extending the lower level LIRR tunnel and widening the Queens Boulevard Line tunnel above. [38] [39] [40] [41] In December 2000, the 63rd Street Connector was opened for construction reroutes. [42]

The connector was open for off-peak reroutes on January 13, 2001, [43] while signal work was performed in the 53rd Street Tunnel. [44] [45] Regular service was expected to begin by August or September of that year, [46] but the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks delayed the commencement of regular service. The connector came into regular use on December 16, 2001, with the start of V service in the 53rd Street Tunnel and the rerouting of F service at all times to 63rd Street. [47] [48]

Completion of lower level

Plans were made in 1995 to bring LIRR service to East Midtown, and had resurfaced by the turn of the century. [49] :3 By that time, the LIRR was the busiest commuter railroad in the United States, with an average of 269,400 passengers each weekday in 1999. [10] :4 (PDF p.7) Penn Station, located on the West Side, was operating at capacity due to a complex track interlocking and limited capacity in the East River Tunnels. [10] :8 (PDF p.11) In 1999, the MTA proposed a $17 billion five-year capital budget, which included a $1.6 billion LIRR connection to a new station under Grand Central Terminal, to be built as part of a project called East Side Access. [50] The project's final environmental impact assessment (FEIS) was released in March 2001. [51] :1 [lower-alpha 1] Two months later, the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) gave a favorable "Record of Decision", a mark of approval, to East Side Access after reviewing the project's FEIS. [49] :3 [51] The September 11 attacks underscored the need to bring LIRR service to Grand Central. As LIRR president Kenneth J. Bauer stated, "If something happened at the East River tunnel, you wouldn't be able to run trains to Penn Station." [52] In 2002, Congress passed a bill that allocated $132 million for infrastructure projects in New York State, of which $14.7 million was to go toward funding East Side Access. [53] Approval of a final design for East Side Access was granted in 2002, and the first properties for East Side Access were acquired in 2003. [49] :4

A tunnel cavern deep under Park Avenue, which will house a switch to the north of the new LIRR station East Side Access Progress- May 21, 2014 (14390036692).jpg
A tunnel cavern deep under Park Avenue, which will house a switch to the north of the new LIRR station

The construction contract for a 1-mile (1.6 km) tunnel in Manhattan westward and southward from the dormant lower level of the 63rd Street Tunnel to the new 100-foot-deep (30 m) station beneath Grand Central Terminal was awarded in July 2006. [54] [55] :10 The first tunnel boring machine was launched westbound then southbound from the 63rd Street Tunnel in September 2007, and it reached Grand Central Terminal in July 2008. [56] The second machine began boring a parallel tunnel in December 2007 and had completed its tunnel at 37th Street on September 30, 2008. [57] [58]

On the Queens side, work included extending the tunnel under Northern Boulevard and boring four tunnels under Sunnyside Yard. This was a particularly delicate and expensive task due to the existence of the elevated BMT Astoria Line and the underground IND Queens Boulevard Line directly above. [59] [60] A temporary narrow-gauge railway and a conveyor belt system were constructed behind the tunnel boring machines and through the 63rd Street Tunnels to the Queens bell mouth. [37] [61] An $83 million cut structure was built, which extends the tracks under Northern Boulevard into the Sunnyside Yard, and then was covered with a deck. [62] In September 2009, the MTA awarded Granite-Traylor-Frontiere Joint Venture a $659.2 million contract to employ two 500-ton slurry tunnel boring machines to create the tunnels connecting the LIRR Main Line and the Port Washington Branch to the 63rd Street Tunnel under 41st Avenue. [55] :23 [63] The four tunnels, with precast concrete liners, total 2 miles (3.2 km) in length. [64] The two tunnel boring machines began digging on the Queens side in April 2011. [65] On December 22, 2011, breakthrough was achieved in Tunnel "A" of the four Queens tunnel drives from the 63rd Street Tunnel bellmouth. [60] By July 25, 2012, all four Queens tunnel drives were complete. [66]

Lower level tracks Direct Fixation Fastener track installed in the 63rd Street tunnel. (CM007, 1-22-2018) (39204149984).jpg
Lower level tracks

On January 27, 2016, the final major contract for the construction of East Side Access was awarded for the construction of four railroad platforms and eight tracks for the new Grand Central Terminal. [67] The project was initially scheduled to be completed by 2009, [68] but as of August 2017, the opening date of East Side Access was tentatively projected to be December 2023 [69] or late 2023. [70] By April 2018, the MTA was looking to start passenger service in December 2022, at an estimated cost of $11.1 billion. [71] [72] [73] :36

Construction methods

Unlike other underwater rail tunnels in New York City, which were bored under the riverbed, the 63rd Street Tunnel's river portions were built using the immersed tube method. [74] Trenches were dug in the river bed, and four 375-foot (114 m) long prefabricated concrete sections of tunnel fabricated in Port Deposit, Maryland were floated into position and then sunk into the trenches. [2] [75] [76] Two tubes were placed on each side of Roosevelt Island, [77] each of which were 38-foot-square (12 m) prefabricated sections. [12] The tubes extended 3,140 feet (960 m) under the water, from 63rd Street and FDR Drive on the Manhattan waterfront to 41st Avenue and Vernon Boulevard on the Queens waterfront. [1] The construction shafts at Queensbridge Park in Queens, as well as on Roosevelt Island, were turned into ventilation shafts after the conclusion of construction. [78] :74

Other portions of the tunnel were built using cut-and-cover construction or rock tunneling. [78] :45 Waste material from the 63rd Street Tunnel's construction was deposited at the tip of Roosevelt Island, as well as off the coast of Astoria, Queens. Over 500,000 cubic yards (380,000 m3) of spoil had to be extracted. [78] :74

Usage

The tunnel has two levels. The two tracks on the upper level, connecting the IND Queens Boulevard Line in Queens to the IND Sixth Avenue Line in Manhattan via the IND 63rd Street Line, are used by the F and <F> trains. There are also track connections to and from the BMT 63rd Street Line, west of the Lexington Avenue–63rd Street station. [79] The tunnel west of 21st Street/Queensbridge was placed into service in 1989, [36] [37] The final section of the 63rd Street Tunnel, connecting the 21st Street station to the Queens Boulevard Line, officially opened on December 17, 2001. [47]

The two trackways on the lower level were unused when the tunnel construction project was halted in the 1970s. [36] They are planned to be used by the Long Island Rail Road's East Side Access project, which will bring LIRR commuter trains to Grand Central Terminal. During construction of the East Side Access project, the lower level of the 63rd Street Tunnel was used to transport equipment. [37] The laying of permanent tracks started in September 2017. [80] Due to low vertical clearances in the lower level, bilevel rail cars, such as the LIRR's C3 fleet, would not be able to serve Grand Central when the tunnel is complete. [81] :10–11

During the tunnel's construction, an alignment underneath Central and Queensbridge Parks was decided as the only feasible route for the tunnel. [78] :43 Because the 63rd Street Tunnel is at such a deep level, there are several ventilation shafts along its route. In Central Park, near the Central Park Zoo, there are several ventilation grates that are at the same level as the ground, covering about 1,400 square feet (130 m2) of surface area. [78] :5859 A ventilation building was deemed to be architecturally unacceptable, hence the inclusion of several grates. [78] :6364 On the other hand, gratings at Queensbridge Park were declared to be unfeasible due to the park's small usable area. Therefore, a ventilation building stands in Queensbridge Park, measuring 60 by 90 feet (18 by 27 m). [78] :6871 Additional ventilation shafts are located at Second Avenue and 63rd Street in Manhattan, [78] :30 and on the western shore of Roosevelt Island. [78] :72 When the 63rd Street Connector was constructed in the 1990s, additional ventilation structures were built at 29th and 39th Streets in Queens. [38]

Awards

The 63rd Street Tunnel and the 63rd Street Tunnel Connector received the Construction Achievement Project of the Year Award from the Metropolitan Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1973 and 2000, respectively. [82] The 63rd Street Tunnel Connector was also selected as the Transit Project of the Year in 1999 by New York Construction News. [83]

Notes

  1. For the full FEIS, see:
    • "East Side Access Final Environmental Impact Statement: Overview". mta.info . Metropolitan Transportation Authority. March 6, 2001. Retrieved February 2, 2018..

Related Research Articles

Q (New York City Subway service) New York City Subway service

The Q Second Avenue/Broadway Express/Brighton Local is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored yellow since it uses the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan.

The IRT Flushing Line is a rapid transit route of the New York City Subway system, named for its eastern terminal in Flushing, Queens. It is operated as part of the A Division. The Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT), a private operator, had constructed the section of the line from Flushing, Queens, to Times Square, Manhattan between 1915 and 1928. A western extension was opened to Hudson Yards in western Manhattan in 2015, and the line now stretches from Flushing to Chelsea, Manhattan. It carries trains of the 7 local service, as well as the express <7> during rush hours in the peak direction. It is the only currently-operational A Division line to serve Queens.

The IND Eighth Avenue Line is a rapid transit line in New York City, United States, and is part of the B Division of the New York City Subway. Opened in 1932, it was the first line of the Independent Subway System (IND), and the Eighth Avenue Subway name was also applied by New Yorkers to the entire IND system.

The BMT Broadway Line is a rapid transit line of the B Division of the New York City Subway in Manhattan, New York City, United States. As of November 2016, it is served by four services, all colored yellow: the N and ​Q trains on the express tracks and the R and ​W trains on the local tracks during weekdays. The line is often referred to as the "N and R", since those were the only services on the line from 1988 to 2001, when the Manhattan Bridge's southern tracks were closed for rebuilding. The Broadway Line was built to give the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company access to Midtown Manhattan.

The IND Sixth Avenue Line is a rapid transit line of the B Division of the New York City Subway in the United States. It runs mainly under Sixth Avenue in Manhattan, and continues south to Brooklyn. The B, D, F, and M trains, which use the Sixth Avenue Line through Midtown Manhattan, are colored orange. The B and D trains use the express tracks, while the F, <F> and M trains use the local tracks.

Forest Hills–71st Avenue station New York City Subway station in Queens

Forest Hills–71st Avenue is an express station on the IND Queens Boulevard Line of the New York City Subway, located on Queens Boulevard at 71st (Continental) Avenue in Forest Hills, Queens. It is served by the E and F trains at all times, the R train at all times except late nights, the M train on weekdays except late nights, and the <F> train during rush hours in the peak direction. It serves as the terminus for the latter two services.

East Side Access is a public works project under construction by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) in New York City, which will extend the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) from its Main Line in Queens into a new station under Grand Central Terminal on Manhattan's East Side. The new station and tunnels are tentatively scheduled to start service in December 2022, some 15 years behind schedule. The project's estimated construction cost has risen nearly threefold from the planned $3.5 billion to $11.1 billion as of April 2018, making it one of the world's most expensive underground rail-construction projects.

East River Tunnels

The East River Tunnels are 4 single-track railroad tunnels that extend from the eastern end of Pennsylvania Station under 32nd and 33rd Streets in Manhattan and cross the East River to Long Island City in Queens. The tracks carry Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) and Amtrak trains travelling to and from Penn Station and points to the north and east. The tracks also carry New Jersey Transit trains deadheading to Sunnyside Yard. They are part of Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, used by trains traveling between New York City and New England via the Hell Gate Bridge.

Kew Gardens–Union Turnpike station New York City Subway station in Queens

Kew Gardens–Union Turnpike is an express station on the IND Queens Boulevard Line of the New York City Subway. Located at Union Turnpike and Queens Boulevard on the border of Kew Gardens and Forest Hills, Queens, it is served by the E and F trains at all times, and the <F> train during rush hours in the peak direction. Despite the station's name, Union Turnpike forms the border between Kew Gardens and Forest Hills, and the station straddles that border, with multiple entrances located in each neighborhood.

Roosevelt Island station New York City Subway station in Manhattan

Roosevelt Island is a station on the IND 63rd Street Line of the New York City Subway. Located in Manhattan on Roosevelt Island in the East River, it is served by the F train at all times and the <F> train during rush hours in the peak direction.

21st Street–Queensbridge station New York City Subway station in Queens

21st Street–Queensbridge is a station on the IND 63rd Street Line of the New York City Subway. Located at the intersection of 21st Street and 41st Avenue in the Queens neighborhood of Queensbridge, it is served by the F train at all times and the <F> train during rush hours in the peak direction.

Lexington Avenue–63rd Street station New York City Subway station in Manhattan

Lexington Avenue–63rd Street is a New York City Subway station in Lenox Hill, Manhattan, shared by the IND and BMT 63rd Street Lines. Located at the intersection of Lexington Avenue and 63rd Street, it is served by the:

63rd Drive–Rego Park station New York City Subway station in Queens

63rd Drive–Rego Park is a local station on the IND Queens Boulevard Line of the New York City Subway, consisting of four tracks. Located at 63rd Drive and Queens Boulevard in the Rego Park neighborhood of Queens, it is served by the M train on weekdays, the R train at all times except nights, and the E train at night.

Woodhaven Boulevard station (IND Queens Boulevard Line) New York City Subway station in Queens

Woodhaven Boulevard is a local station on the IND Queens Boulevard Line of the New York City Subway, consisting of four tracks. Located in Elmhurst, Queens, it is served by the M train on weekdays, the R train at all times except nights, and the E train at night. The station serves the adjacent Queens Center Mall, as well as numerous bus lines.

Queens Plaza station New York City Subway station in Queens

Queens Plaza is an express station on the IND Queens Boulevard Line of the New York City Subway. Located under the eastern edge of Queens Plaza at the large Queens Plaza interchange, it is served by the E train at all times, by the R train at all times except late nights, and by the M train on weekdays except late nights.

Brooklyn Manor station LIRR station

Brooklyn Manor was a station on the Long Island Rail Road's Rockaway Beach Branch located on the south side of Jamaica Avenue at 100th Street, straddling the border between Richmond Hill and Woodhaven in Queens, New York City. The station name referred to the nearby Brooklyn Manor section of Woodhaven, originally a 603-lot development bounded by Woodhaven Boulevard to the west, 96th/98th Streets to the east, Forest Park to the north, and Jamaica Avenue to the south. The station opened in January 1911, and was constructed as a replacement for the Brooklyn Hills station, which was located 3,000 feet (910 m) to the north. This station closed along with the rest of the Rockaway Beach Branch in 1962, and was subsequently demolished.

History of the Second Avenue Subway

The Second Avenue Subway, a New York City Subway line that runs under Second Avenue on the East Side of Manhattan, has been proposed since 1920. The first phase of the line, consisting of three stations on the Upper East Side, started construction in 2007 and opened in 2017, ninety-seven years after the route was first proposed. Up until the 1960s, many distinct plans for the Second Avenue subway line were never carried out, though small segments were built in the 1970s. The complex reasons for these delays are why the line is sometimes called "the line that time forgot".

References

  1. 1 2 3 Guide to Civil Engineering Projects In and Around New York City (2nd ed.). Metropolitan Section, American Society of Civil Engineers. 2009. pp. 62–63.
  2. 1 2 "63rd Street Tunnel" (PDF). International Tunneling and Underground Space Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 26, 2012. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  3. Bennett, Charles G. (May 25, 1963). "61st St. Tunnel to Queens Sped" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 1. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  4. Bennett, Charles G. (October 18, 1963). "Subway Tunnel to Queens Voted" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 1. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  5. Annual Report 1964–1965. New York City Transit Authority. 1965.
  6. "L.I.R.R. Will Run In Queens Tunnel – 3d Track in 63d St. Tube to Provide East Side Outlet" (PDF). The New York Times. April 28, 1966. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  7. "Tunnel From Queens to 63d St. To Have 4 Tracks Instead of 3" (PDF). The New York Times. August 12, 1966. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  8. Witkin, Richard (February 29, 1968). "$2.9-Billion Transit Plan for New York Area Links Subways, Rails, Airport" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 1. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  9. Burks, Edward C. (November 25, 1969). "Mayor and Governor Unite to Start Transit Tube". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 13, 2010.
  10. 1 2 3 4 "Chapter 1: Purpose and Need". East Side Access Environmental Impact Statement (PDF). mta.info . MTA Capital Construction. March 2001. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  11. 1 2 Prial, Frank J. (August 30, 1971). "First Section of 63d St. Tunnel Lowered to Bottom of East River". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved December 25, 2016.
  12. 1 2 "Harbor Welcome Is Given Tube for Queens Subway". The New York Times. May 19, 1971. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  13. Prial, Frank J. (March 14, 1972). "City's First Subway Tunnel in 40 Years Cut Through". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  14. "To Break Ground For 63rd St., East River Tunnel" (PDF). New York Leader-Observer. November 20, 1969. p. 8. Retrieved July 29, 2016 via Fultonhistory.com.
  15. "Governor Rockefeller and Mayor Lindsay Attend 'Holing Through' of 63d St. Tunnel". The New York Times. October 11, 1972. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  16. Tolchin, Martin (June 7, 1973). "Grand Central Is Favored Over a 3d Ave. Terminal". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved December 25, 2016.
  17. 1 2 Burks, Edward C. (June 2, 1970). "Mayor Asks Engineers to Ease Subway Tunnel Impact in Park". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  18. Andelman, David A. (1971). "Study Suggests a Big Reduction In Central Park Subway Digging". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  19. Oelsner, Lesley (February 11, 1971). "Transit Unit Retreats on Park Tunnel". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  20. Ranzal, Edward (February 27, 1971). "Transit Authority Agrees to Modify Central Park Plan". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  21. "Subway Link Gains with Midtown Work". The New York Times. October 11, 1973. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  22. Burks, Edward C. (September 24, 1976). "Coming: Light at End of 63d St. Tunnel" (PDF). The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved September 27, 2015.
  23. Burks, Edward C. (March 21, 1975). "Beame Trims Plan For New Subway" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 1. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  24. Burks, Edward C. (1976). "More Work on New Manhattan‐Queens Subway Slated". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  25. Burks, Edward C. (July 29, 1976). "New Subway Line Delayed 5 or 6 Years" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 35. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  26. Lichtenstein, Grace (May 9, 1978). "Planned 40-Mile Queens Subway, Cut to 15, is Costly and Behind Time" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 68. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  27. 1 2 3 Andelman, David A. (October 11, 1980). "Tunnel Project, Five Years Old, Won't Be Used". The New York Times. p. 25. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  28. "Community Board Hears 'Subway Options' Plan" (PDF). Ridgewood Times. April 21, 1983. p. 8. Retrieved February 2, 2018 via Fultonhistory.com.
  29. "63rd Street Subway Tunnel: More Setbacks for a Troubled Project", The New York Times , November 1, 1984, page B1.
  30. Queens Subway Options Study, New York: Environmental Impact Statement. United States Department of Transportation, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Urban Mass Transit Administration. May 1984. pp. 83–. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
  31. Daley, Suzanne (December 15, 1984). "M.T.A. Votes to Extend 63rd St. Line". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  32. Daley, Suzanne (June 28, 1985). "63d St. Subway Tunnel Flawed; Opening Delayed". The New York Times. p. 1. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  33. Schmaltz, Jeffrey (August 18, 1985). "U.S. Holds Up Aid For Subway Work". The New York Times. p. 1. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  34. Levine, Richard (February 7, 1987). "M.T.A. Proposes Opening 63d Street Tunnel in '89". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  35. Lorch, Donatella (October 29, 1989). "The 'Subway to Nowhere' Now Goes Somewhere". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  36. 1 2 3 Lorch, Donatella (October 29, 1989). "The 'Subway to Nowhere' Now Goes Somewhere". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved July 25, 2009.
  37. 1 2 3 4 Rumsey, Spencer (April 21, 2011). "Tunnel Vision: Inside the East Side Access Project". Long Island Press. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  38. 1 2 3 Final Environmental Impact Statement for the 63rd Street Line Connection to the Queens Boulevard Line. Queens, New York City: Metropolitan Transportation Authority, United States Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration. June 1992. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  39. "About NYC Transit – History". October 19, 2002. Archived from the original on October 19, 2002. Retrieved September 18, 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  40. Silano, Louis G.; Shanbhag, Radmas (July 2000). "The Final Connection". Civil Engineering . 86 (7): 56–61.
  41. La Guardia International Airport and John F. Kennedy International Airport, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Airport Access Program, Automated Guideway Transit System (NY, New Jersey): Environmental Impact Statement. Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, United States Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, New York State Department of Transportation. June 1994. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  42. "E,F Detour in 2001, F trains via 63 St, E no trains running, take R instead". The Subway Nut. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  43. Musluoglu, Subutay (February 2001). "63rd Street Connector". New York Division Bulletin. Electric Railroaders' Association.
  44. Saulny, Susan (November 28, 2000). "Another Tunnel Offers Breathing Room for E and F Trains". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 23, 2013. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
  45. Kennedy, Randy (November 28, 2001). "New Subway Line To Start". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 26, 2010. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
  46. Saulny, Susan (November 28, 2000). "Another Tunnel Offers Breathing Room for E and F Trains". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  47. 1 2 Kershaw, Sarah (December 17, 2001). "V Train Begins Service Today, Giving Queens Commuters Another Option". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
  48. Kershaw, Sarah (December 17, 2001). "V Train Begins Service Today, Giving Queens Commuters Another Option". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  49. 1 2 3 "Appendix B: Upper Level Loop Analysis". East Side Access Modification to Environmental Impact Statement (PDF). mta.info . MTA Capital Construction. April 2006. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  50. Lueck, Thomas J. (September 26, 1999). "M.T.A. to Propose Spending Billions on Rail Expansion". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  51. 1 2 Record of Decisions (PDF). mta.info . United States Department of Transportation; Federal Transit Administration; Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 21, 2001. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  52. Ain, Stewart (December 23, 2001). "Pushing to Speed Up East Side Rail Link". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  53. Associated Press (February 4, 2002). "NY received $132 million under bin" (PDF). Salamanca Press. p. 5. Retrieved July 29, 2016 via Fultonhistory.com.
  54. Cuza, Bobby (July 12, 2006). "MTA Takes Major Step Towards Completing East Side Access Plan". NY1.
  55. 1 2 "East Side Access Quarterly Report Q3 2009" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. September 2009. p. 16. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  56. "East Side Access Tunnel Boring Machine Reaches Grand Central Terminal" (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 2, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
  57. Neuman, William (July 18, 2008). "A 640-Ton Machine Drills a Long Island Rail Road Tunnel to Grand Central". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  58. "MTA ESA Progress Map" Archived April 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine . Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved October 9, 2008.
  59. Nasri, V.; Lee, W.S.; Rice, J. (2004). "Comparison of the predicted behavior of the Manhattan TBM launch shaft with the observed data, East Side Access Project, New York". North American Tunneling. Taylor & Francis: 537–544. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  60. 1 2 Metropolitan Transportation Authority. East Side Access 1/24/2012 Update . Retrieved May 8, 2012 via YouTube.
  61. Ocean, Justin (November 4, 2015). "Inside the Massive New Rail Tunnels Beneath NYC's Grand Central". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  62. "New York's Subway System Finally Starting Major Expansion" Archived May 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . newyork.construction.com. May 2006 issue.
  63. "East Side Access - Queens Bored Tunnels & Structures". Engineering News-Record. June 1, 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  64. "Granite/Traylor/Frontier-Kemper Venture Awarded $659 Million for Queens Bored Tunnels and Structures". Construction Equipment . September 30, 2009. Archived from the original on December 25, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
  65. "MTA Officials Dedicate Tunnel-Boring Machines". NY1. March 18, 2011. Archived from the original on August 25, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
  66. "MTA Completes Tunnel Boring On East Side Access". CBS New York. July 26, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  67. "MTA OK's contract for East Side Access". TimesLedger. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  68. Donohue, Pete (January 27, 2014). "MTA walks back targets on East Side Access yet again, completion now not expected until 2023". New York Daily News . Retrieved March 5, 2014.
  69. "MTA and LIRR East Side Access cost and schedule continue to change". Metro US. August 10, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  70. "MTA starts laying track for long-awaited East Side access for LIRR commuters". Spectrum News NY1. September 25, 2017. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  71. Siff, Andrew (April 16, 2018). "MTA Megaproject to Cost Almost $1B More Than Prior Estimate". NBC New York. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  72. Castillo, Alfonso A. (April 15, 2018). "East Side Access price tag now stands at $11.2B". Newsday. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  73. "Capital Program Oversight Committee Meeting" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. April 23, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  74. Chan, Sewell (2005-07-20). "Who's Watching the Underwater Tunnels?". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-07-20. Retrieved 2019-07-13.
  75. Cudahy, Brian J. (1979). Under the Sidewalks of New York: The Story of the Greatest Subway System in the World. Brattleboro, VT: S. Greene Press. p. 145. ISBN   0-8289-0352-2.
  76. Munfah, Nasri A.; Tarhan, Yalcin M. (1990). Immersed Tunnel Techniques: Proceedings of the Conference Organized by the Institution of Civil Engineers. London: Thomas Telford. p. 327. ISBN   0-7277-1512-7. Archived from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  77. "Governor Rockefeller and Mayor Lindsay Attend 'Holing Through' of 63d St. Tunnel". The New York Times. October 11, 1972. ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  78. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 East 63rd St Line, Manhattan/Queens Boroughs, New York: Environmental Impact Statement. 1970.
  79. Dougherty, Peter (2006) [2002]. Tracks of the New York City Subway 2006 (3rd ed.). Dougherty. OCLC   49777633 via Google Books.
  80. "MTA starts laying track for long-awaited East Side access for LIRR commuters". Spectrum News NY1. September 25, 2017. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  81. "Chapter 28: Comments and Responses on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement". East Side Access Environmental Impact Statement (PDF). mta.info . MTA Capital Construction. March 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  82. "Construction Achievement Project of the Year Award". ASCE Metropolitan Section. Archived from the original on July 13, 2019. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  83. "Transit Project of the Year" (PDF). New York Construction News. December 1999. p. 47. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 25, 2012. Retrieved October 16, 2011.