volt | |
---|---|

General information | |

Unit system | SI |

Unit of | electric potential, electromotive force |

Symbol | V |

Named after | Alessandro Volta |

SI base units | kg⋅m ^{2}⋅s ^{−3}⋅A ^{−1} |

The **volt** (symbol: **V**) is the unit of electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force in the International System of Units (SI).^{ [1] } It is the standard unit used to measure how strongly an electrical current is sent around an electrical system.^{ [2] } It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827), inventor of the voltaic pile—the forerunner of today's household battery.^{ [3] }

One volt is defined as the electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points.^{ [4] } Equivalently, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it. It can be expressed in terms of SI base units (m, kg, s, and A) as

It can also be expressed as amperes times ohms (current times resistance, Ohm's law), webers per second (magnetic flux per time), watts per ampere (power per current), or joules per coulomb (energy per charge), which is also equivalent to electronvolts per elementary charge:

The volt is named after Alessandro Volta . As with every SI unit named for a person, its symbol starts with an upper case letter (V), but when written in full, it follows the rules for capitalisation of a common noun ; i.e., "*volt*" becomes capitalised at the beginning of a sentence and in titles but is otherwise in lower case.

Historically the "conventional" volt, *V*_{90}, defined in 1987 by the 18th General Conference on Weights and Measures ^{ [5] } and in use from 1990 to 2019, was implemented using the Josephson effect for exact frequency-to-voltage conversion, combined with the caesium frequency standard. Though the Josephson effect is still used to realize a volt, the constant used has changed slightly.

For the Josephson constant, *K*_{J} = 2*e*/*h* (where *e* is the elementary charge and *h* is the Planck constant), a "conventional" value *K*_{J-90} = 0.4835979 GHz/μV was used for the purpose of defining the volt. As a consequence of the 2019 redefinition of SI base units, as of 2019 the Josephson constant has an exact value of *K*_{J} = 483597.84841698... GHz/V, which replaced the conventional value *K*_{J-90}.

This standard is typically realized using a series-connected array of several thousand or tens of thousands of junctions, excited by microwave signals between 10 and 80 GHz (depending on the array design).^{ [6] } Empirically, several experiments have shown that the method is independent of device design, material, measurement setup, etc., and no correction terms are required in a practical implementation.^{ [7] }

In the * water-flow analogy *, sometimes used to explain electric circuits by comparing them with water-filled pipes, voltage (difference in electric potential) is likened to difference in water pressure, while current is proportional to the amount of water flowing. A resistor would be a reduced diameter somewhere in the piping or something akin to a radiator offering resistance to flow.

The relationship between voltage and current is defined (in ohmic devices like resistors) by Ohm's law. Ohm's Law is analogous to the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, as both are linear models relating flux and potential in their respective systems.

The voltage produced by each electrochemical cell in a battery is determined by the chemistry of that cell (see Galvanic cell § Cell voltage). Cells can be combined in series for multiples of that voltage, or additional circuitry added to adjust the voltage to a different level. Mechanical generators can usually be constructed to any voltage in a range of feasibility.

Nominal voltages of familiar sources:

- Nerve cell resting potential: ~75 mV
^{ [8] } - Single-cell, rechargeable NiMH
^{ [9] }or NiCd battery: 1.2 V - Single-cell, non-rechargeable (e.g., AAA, AA, C and D cells): alkaline battery: 1.5 V;
^{ [10] }zinc–carbon battery: 1.56 V if fresh and unused - Logic voltage levels: 1.2 V, 1.5 V, 1.8 V, 2.5 V, 3.3 V, 5.0 V
- LiFePO
_{4}rechargeable battery: 3.3 V (sometimes labeled "3V3" in circuit designs) - Cobalt-based lithium polymer rechargeable battery: 3.75 V (see Comparison of commercial battery types)
- Transistor–transistor logic/CMOS (TTL) power supply: 5 V
- USB: 5 V DC
- PP3 battery: 9 V
- Automobile battery systems are 2.1 volts per cell; a "12 V" battery is 6 cells, or 12.6 V; a "24 V" battery is 12 cells, or 25.2 V. Some antique vehicles use "6 V" 3-cell batteries, or 6.3 volts.
- Household mains electricity AC: (see List of countries with mains power plugs, voltages and frequencies)
- 100 V in Japan,
- 120 V in North America,
- 230 V in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia

- Rapid transit third rail: 600–750 V (see List of railway electrification systems)
- High-speed train overhead power lines: 25 kV at 50 Hz, but see the List of railway electrification systems and 25 kV at 60 Hz for exceptions.
- High-voltage electric power transmission lines: 110 kV and up (1.15 MV is the record; the highest active voltage is 1.10 MV
^{ [11] }) - Lightning: a maximum of around 150 MV.
^{ [12] }

In 1800, as the result of a professional disagreement over the galvanic response advocated by Luigi Galvani, Alessandro Volta developed the so-called voltaic pile, a forerunner of the battery, which produced a steady electric current. Volta had determined that the most effective pair of dissimilar metals to produce electricity was zinc and silver. In 1861, Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright coined the name "volt" for the unit of resistance.^{ [13] } By 1873, the British Association for the Advancement of Science had defined the volt, ohm, and farad.^{ [14] } In 1881, the International Electrical Congress, now the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), approved the volt as the unit for electromotive force.^{ [15] } They made the volt equal to 10^{8} cgs units of voltage, the cgs system at the time being the customary system of units in science. They chose such a ratio because the cgs unit of voltage is inconveniently small and one volt in this definition is approximately the emf of a Daniell cell, the standard source of voltage in the telegraph systems of the day.^{ [16] } At that time, the volt was defined as the potential difference [i.e., what is nowadays called the "voltage (difference)"] across a conductor when a current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power.

The "international volt" was defined in 1893 as 1/1.434 of the emf of a Clark cell. This definition was abandoned in 1908 in favor of a definition based on the international ohm and international ampere until the entire set of "reproducible units" was abandoned in 1948.^{ [17] }

A redefinition of SI base units, including defining the value of the elementary charge, took effect on 20 May 2019.^{ [18] }

The **ampere** ( *AM-pair*, *AM-peer*; symbol: **A**), often shortened to **amp**, is the unit of electric current in the International System of Units (SI). One ampere is equal to 1 coulomb moving past a point in 1 second, or 6.241509074×10^{18} elementary charge moving past a point in 1 second. It is named after French mathematician and physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836), considered the father of electromagnetism along with Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted.

An **electric current** is a flow of charged particles, such as electrons or ions, moving through an electrical conductor or space. It is defined as the net rate of flow of electric charge through a surface. The moving particles are called charge carriers, which may be one of several types of particles, depending on the conductor. In electric circuits the charge carriers are often electrons moving through a wire. In semiconductors they can be electrons or holes. In an electrolyte the charge carriers are ions, while in plasma, an ionized gas, they are ions and electrons.

The **centimetre–gram–second system of units** is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time. All CGS mechanical units are unambiguously derived from these three base units, but there are several different ways in which the CGS system was extended to cover electromagnetism.

**Voltage**, also known as **electric pressure**, **electric tension**, or **(electric) potential difference**, is the difference in electric potential between two points. In a static electric field, it corresponds to the work needed per unit of charge to move a test charge between the two points. In the International System of Units (SI), the derived unit for voltage is *volt (V)*.

The **coulomb** (symbol: **C**) is the unit of electric charge in the International System of Units (SI). In the present version of the SI it is equal to the electric charge delivered by a 1 ampere constant current in 1 second and to 5×10^{27}/801088317 elementary charges, `e`, (about 6.241509×10^{18}`e`).

**Ohm's law** states that the electric current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points. Introducing the constant of proportionality, the resistance, one arrives at the three mathematical equations used to describe this relationship:

In electromagnetism and electronics, **electromotive force** is an energy transfer to an electric circuit per unit of electric charge, measured in volts. Devices called electrical *transducers* provide an emf by converting other forms of energy into electrical energy. Other electrical equipment also produce an emf, such as batteries, which convert chemical energy, and generators, which convert mechanical energy. This energy conversion is achieved by physical forces applying physical work on electric charges. However, electromotive force itself is not a physical force, and ISO/IEC standards have deprecated the term in favor of **source voltage** or **source tension** instead.

The **henry** is the unit of electrical inductance in the International System of Units (SI). If a current of 1 ampere flowing through a coil produces flux linkage of 1 weber turn, that coil has a self inductance of 1 henry. The unit is named after Joseph Henry (1797–1878), the American scientist who discovered electromagnetic induction independently of and at about the same time as Michael Faraday (1791–1867) in England.

The **farad** (symbol: **F**) is the unit of electrical capacitance, the ability of a body to store an electrical charge, in the International System of Units (SI), equivalent to 1 coulomb per volt (C/V). It is named after the English physicist Michael Faraday (1791–1867). In SI base units 1 F = 1 kg^{−1}⋅m^{−2}⋅s^{4}⋅A^{2}.

Two-terminal components and electrical networks can be connected in **series** or **parallel**. The resulting electrical network will have two terminals, and itself can participate in a series or parallel topology. Whether a two-terminal "object" is an electrical component or an electrical network is a matter of perspective. This article will use "component" to refer to a two-terminal "object" that participate in the series/parallel networks.

The magnetic flux, represented by the symbol **Φ**, threading some contour or loop is defined as the magnetic field **B** multiplied by the loop area **S**, i.e. **Φ** = **B** ⋅ **S**. Both **B** and **S** can be arbitrary, meaning **Φ** can be as well. However, if one deals with the superconducting loop or a hole in a bulk superconductor, the magnetic flux threading such a hole/loop is quantized. The (superconducting) **magnetic flux quantum**Φ_{0} = *h*/(2*e*) ≈ 2.067833848...×10^{−15} Wb is a combination of fundamental physical constants: the Planck constant *h* and the electron charge *e*. Its value is, therefore, the same for any superconductor. The phenomenon of flux quantization was discovered experimentally by B. S. Deaver and W. M. Fairbank and, independently, by R. Doll and M. Näbauer, in 1961. The quantization of magnetic flux is closely related to the Little–Parks effect, but was predicted earlier by Fritz London in 1948 using a phenomenological model.

In physics, the **weber** is the unit of magnetic flux in the International System of Units (SI), whose units are **volt-second**. A magnetic flux density of one Wb/m^{2} is one tesla.

A **magnetic circuit** is made up of one or more closed loop paths containing a magnetic flux. The flux is usually generated by permanent magnets or electromagnets and confined to the path by magnetic cores consisting of ferromagnetic materials like iron, although there may be air gaps or other materials in the path. Magnetic circuits are employed to efficiently channel magnetic fields in many devices such as electric motors, generators, transformers, relays, lifting electromagnets, SQUIDs, galvanometers, and magnetic recording heads.

The **volt-ampere** is the unit of measurement for apparent power in an electrical circuit. It is the product of the root mean square voltage and the root mean square current. Volt-amperes are usually used for analyzing alternating current (AC) circuits. In direct current (DC) circuits, this product is equal to the real power, measured in watts. The volt-ampere is dimensionally equivalent to the watt: in SI units, 1 V⋅A = 1 W. VA rating is most used for generators and transformers, and other power handling equipment, where loads may be reactive.

**Electric power** is the rate at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second. Standard prefixes apply to watts as with other SI units: thousands, millions and billions of watts are called kilowatts, megawatts and gigawatts respectively.

An **ampere-hour** or **amp-hour** is a unit of electric charge, having dimensions of electric current multiplied by time, equal to the charge transferred by a steady current of one ampere flowing for one hour, or 3,600 coulombs.

The **ohm** is the unit of electrical resistance in the International System of Units (SI). It is named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm. Various empirically derived standard units for electrical resistance were developed in connection with early telegraphy practice, and the British Association for the Advancement of Science proposed a unit derived from existing units of mass, length and time, and of a convenient scale for practical work as early as 1861.

A **conventional electrical unit** is a unit of measurement in the field of electricity which is based on the so-called "conventional values" of the Josephson constant, the von Klitzing constant agreed by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) in 1988, as well as Δ*ν*_{Cs} used to define the second. These units are very similar in scale to their corresponding SI units, but are not identical because of the different values used for the constants. They are distinguished from the corresponding SI units by setting the symbol in italic typeface and adding a subscript "90" – e.g., the conventional volt has the symbol *V*_{90} – as they came into international use on 1 January 1990.

The **International System of Electrical and Magnetic Units** is an obsolete system of units used for measuring electrical and magnetic quantities. It was proposed as a system of practical **international units** by unanimous recommendation at the International Electrical Congress, discussed at other Congresses, and finally adopted at the International Conference on Electric Units and Standards in London in 1908. It was rendered obsolete by the inclusion of electromagnetic units in the International System of Units (SI) at the 9th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1948.

The **siemens** is the unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance, and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI). Conductance, susceptance, and admittance are the reciprocals of resistance, reactance, and impedance respectively; hence one siemens is redundantly equal to the reciprocal of one ohm and is also referred to as the *mho*. The siemens was adopted by the IEC in 1935, and the 14th General Conference on Weights and Measures approved the addition of the siemens as a derived unit in 1971.

- ↑ "SI Brochure, Table 3 (Section 2.2.2)". BIPM. 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-06-18. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- ↑ "Volt".
*dictionary.cambridge.org*. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2023-11-28. - ↑ "What is voltage?".
*fluke.com*. - ↑ BIPM SI Brochure: Appendix 1, p. 144.
- ↑ "Resolutions of the CGPM: 18th meeting (12–15 October 1987)".
- ↑ Burroughs, Charles J.; Bent, Samuel P.; Harvey, Todd E.; Hamilton, Clark A. (1999-06-01), "1 Volt DC Programmable Josephson Voltage Standard",
*IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity*, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE),**9**(3): 4145–4149, Bibcode:1999ITAS....9.4145B, doi:10.1109/77.783938, ISSN 1051-8223, S2CID 12970127 - ↑ Keller, Mark W. (2008-01-18), "Current status of the quantum metrology triangle" (PDF),
*Metrologia*,**45**(1): 102–109, Bibcode:2008Metro..45..102K, doi:10.1088/0026-1394/45/1/014, ISSN 0026-1394, S2CID 122008182, archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-05-27, retrieved 2010-04-11,Theoretically, there are no current predictions for any correction terms. Empirically, several experiments have shown that

*K*_{J}and*R*_{K}are independent of device design, material, measurement setup, etc. This demonstration of universality is consistent with the exactness of the relations, but does not prove it outright. - ↑ Bullock, Orkand, and Grinnell, pp. 150–151; Junge, pp. 89–90; Schmidt-Nielsen, p. 484.
- ↑ Hill, Paul Horowitz; Winfield; Winfield, Hill (2015).
*The Art of Electronics*(3. ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 689. ISBN 978-0-521-809269.`{{cite book}}`

: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) - ↑ SK Loo and Keith Keller (Aug 2004). "Single-cell Battery Discharge Characteristics Using the TPS61070 Boost Converter" (PDF). Texas Instruments.
- ↑ "World's Biggest Ultra-High Voltage Line Powers Up Across China".
*www.bloomberg.com*. 1 January 2019. Retrieved 7 January 2020. - ↑ Paul H. Risk (26 Jun 2013). "Lightning – High-Voltage Nature".
*RiskVA*. - ↑ As names for units of various electrical quantities, Bright and Clark suggested "ohma" for voltage, "farad" for charge, "galvat" for current, and "volt" for resistance. See:
- Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright (1861) "On the formation of standards of electrical quantity and resistance",
*Report of the Thirty-first Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science*(Manchester, England: September 1861), section: Mathematics and Physics, pp. 37-38. - Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright (November 9, 1861) "Measurement of electrical quantities and resistance",
*The Electrician*,**1**(1) : 3–4.

- Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright (1861) "On the formation of standards of electrical quantity and resistance",
- ↑ Sir W. Thomson, et al. (1873) "First report of the Committee for the Selection and Nomenclature of Dynamical and Electrical Units",
*Report of the 43rd Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science*(Bradford, September 1873), pp. 222-225. From p. 223: "The "ohm," as represented by the original standard coil, is approximately 10^{9}C.G.S. units of resistance ; the "volt" is approximately 10^{8}C.G.S. units of electromotive force ; and the "farad" is approximately 1/10^{9}of the C.G.S. unit of capacity." - ↑ (Anon.) (September 24, 1881) "The Electrical Congress",
*The Electrician*,**7**: 297. - ↑ Hamer, Walter J. (January 15, 1965).
*Standard Cells: Their Construction, Maintenance, and Characteristics*(PDF). National Bureau of Standards Monograph #84. US National Bureau of Standards. - ↑ "Revised Values for Electrical Units" (PDF).
*Bell Laboratories Record*.**XXV**(12): 441. December 1947. - ↑
*Draft Resolution A "On the revision of the International System of units (SI)" to be submitted to the CGPM at its 26th meeting (2018)*(PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-04-29, retrieved 2018-11-02

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