Electromotive force

Last updated

Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted and measured in volts), [1] is the electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator. [2] A device that converts other forms of energy into electrical energy (a "transducer") provides an emf as its output. [3] (The word "force" in this case is not used to mean mechanical force, as may be measured in pounds or newtons.)

Electric generator device that converts other energy to electrical energy

In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power into electrical power for use in an external circuit. Sources of mechanical energy include steam turbines, gas turbines, water turbines, internal combustion engines and even hand cranks. The first electromagnetic generator, the Faraday disk, was invented in 1831 by British scientist Michael Faraday. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids.

A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another. Usually a transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another.

Force Any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity, i.e., to accelerate. Force can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. It is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F.

Contents

In electromagnetic induction, emf can be defined around a closed loop of conductor as the electromagnetic work that would be done on an electric charge (an electron in this instance) if it travels once around the loop. [4] For a time-varying magnetic flux linking a loop, the electric potential scalar field is not defined due to a circulating electric vector field, but an emf nevertheless does work that can be measured as a virtual electric potential around the loop. [5] (While electrical charges travel around the loop, their energy is typically converted into thermal energy due to the resistance of the conductor comprising the loop.)

Electrical conductor object or material which permits the flow of electricity

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions. Materials made of metal are common electrical conductors. Electrical current is generated by the flow of negatively charged electrons, positively charged holes, and positive or negative ions in some cases.

Work (physics) process or amount (and direction) of energy transfer to an object via the application of forces on it through a displacement

In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force. For example, when a ball is held above the ground and then dropped, the work done on the ball as it falls is equal to the weight of the ball multiplied by the distance to the ground. When the force is constant and the angle between the force and the displacement is θ, then the work done is given by W = Fs cos θ.

Electric charge physical property that quantifies an objects interaction with electric fields

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charges; positive and negative. Like charges repel and unlike attract. An object with an absence of net charge is referred to as neutral. Early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics, and is still accurate for problems that do not require consideration of quantum effects.

In the case of a two-terminal device (such as an electrochemical cell) which is modeled as a Thévenin's equivalent circuit, the equivalent emf can be measured as the open-circuit potential difference or "voltage" between the two terminals. This potential difference can drive an electric current if an external circuit is attached to the terminals.

Electrochemical cell device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or facilitating chemical reactions through the introduction of electrical energy

An electrochemical cell is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions. The electrochemical cells which generate an electric current are called voltaic cells or galvanic cells and those that generate chemical reactions, via electrolysis for example, are called electrolytic cells. A common example of a galvanic cell is a standard 1.5 volt cell meant for consumer use. A battery consists of one or more cells, connected either in parallel, series or series-and-parallel pattern. A cell is a device which can convert chemical energy into electrical energy. A simple cell does this by using a combination of two metals (electrodes) and an electrolyte solution . Metals can conduct electricity due to metallic bonding. Metallic bonds are the electrostatic force of attraction between negatively charged delocalised electrons and the positively charged metal ions. Metal atoms are surrounded by a “sea” of delocalised electrons. This means they are free to move within the structure- this gives metals its conducting abilities as an electric current can flow through it. A reaction between metals where electrons are gained is a reduction, while a reaction where electrons are lost is an oxidation. A reaction where both reduction and oxidation occur is a redox reaction. A redox reaction occurs when electrons are transferred from a substance that is oxidized to one that is being reduced.

Thévenins theorem Theorem in [[circuit analysis]]

As originally stated in terms of DC resistive circuits only, Thévenin's theorem holds that:

Electric current flow of electric charge

An electric current is a flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by electrons moving through a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionized gas (plasma).

Overview

Devices that can provide emf include electrochemical cells, thermoelectric devices, solar cells, photodiodes, electrical generators, transformers and even Van de Graaff generators. [5] [6] In nature, emf is generated whenever magnetic field fluctuations occur through a surface. The shifting of the Earth's magnetic field during a geomagnetic storm induces currents in the electrical grid as the lines of the magnetic field are shifted about and cut across the conductors.

Thermoelectric effect direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa

The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa via a thermocouple. A thermoelectric device creates voltage when there is a different temperature on each side. Conversely, when a voltage is applied to it, heat is transferred from one side to the other, creating a temperature difference. At the atomic scale, an applied temperature gradient causes charge carriers in the material to diffuse from the hot side to the cold side.

Photodiode type of photodetector based on a p-n-junction

A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current. The current is generated when photons are absorbed in the photodiode. Photodiodes may contain optical filters, built-in lenses, and may have large or small surface areas. Photodiodes usually have a slower response time as their surface area increases. The common, traditional solar cell used to generate electric solar power is a large area photodiode.

Van de Graaff generator

A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate electric charge on a hollow metal globe on the top of an insulated column, creating very high electric potentials. It produces very high voltage direct current (DC) electricity at low current levels. It was invented by American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929. The potential difference achieved by modern Van de Graaff generators can be as much as 5 megavolts. A tabletop version can produce on the order of 100,000 volts and can store enough energy to produce a visible spark. Small Van de Graaff machines are produced for entertainment, and for physics education to teach electrostatics; larger ones are displayed in some science museums.

In the case of a battery, the charge separation that gives rise to a voltage difference between the terminals is accomplished by chemical reactions at the electrodes that convert chemical potential energy into electromagnetic potential energy. [7] [8] A voltaic cell can be thought of as having a "charge pump" of atomic dimensions at each electrode, that is: [9]

A source of emf can be thought of as a kind of charge pump that acts to move positive charge from a point of low potential through its interior to a point of high potential. … By chemical, mechanical or other means, the source of emf performs work dW on that charge to move it to the high potential terminal. The emf of the source is defined as the work dW done per charge dq: = dW/dq.

In the case of an electrical generator, a time-varying magnetic field inside the generator creates an electric field via electromagnetic induction, which in turn creates a voltage difference between the generator terminals. Charge separation takes place within the generator, with electrons flowing away from one terminal and toward the other, until, in the open-circuit case, sufficient electric field builds up to make further charge separation impossible. Again, the emf is countered by the electrical voltage due to charge separation. If a load is attached, this voltage can drive a current. The general principle governing the emf in such electrical machines is Faraday's law of induction.

Electromagnetic induction production of voltage by a varying magnetic field

Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

Faradays law of induction

Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction. It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids.

History

Around 1830, Michael Faraday established that the reactions at each of the two electrode–electrolyte interfaces provide the "seat of emf" for the voltaic cell, that is, these reactions drive the current and are not an endless source of energy as was initially thought. [10] In the open-circuit case, charge separation continues until the electrical field from the separated charges is sufficient to arrest the reactions. Years earlier, Alessandro Volta, who had measured a contact potential difference at the metal–metal (electrode–electrode) interface of his cells, had held the incorrect opinion that contact alone (without taking into account a chemical reaction) was the origin of the emf.

Notation and units of measurement

Electromotive force is often denoted by or (script capital E, Unicode U+2130).

In a device without internal resistance, if an electric charge Q passes through that device, and gains an energy W, the net emf for that device is the energy gained per unit charge, or W/Q. Like other measures of energy per charge, emf uses the SI unit volt, which is equivalent to a joule per coulomb. [11]

Electromotive force in electrostatic units is the statvolt (in the centimeter gram second system of units equal in amount to an erg per electrostatic unit of charge).

Formal definitions

Inside a source of emf that is open-circuited, the conservative electrostatic field created by separation of charge exactly cancels the forces producing the emf. Thus, the emf has the same value but opposite sign as the integral of the electric field aligned with an internal path between two terminals A and B of a source of emf in open-circuit condition (the path is taken from the negative terminal to the positive terminal to yield a positive emf, indicating work done on the electrons moving in the circuit). [12] Mathematically:

where Ecs is the conservative electrostatic field created by the charge separation associated with the emf, d is an element of the path from terminal A to terminal B, and ‘·’ denotes the vector dot product. [13] This equation applies only to locations A and B that are terminals, and does not apply to paths between points A and B with portions outside the source of emf. This equation involves the electrostatic electric field due to charge separation Ecs and does not involve (for example) any non-conservative component of electric field due to Faraday's law of induction.

In the case of a closed path in the presence of a varying magnetic field, the integral of the electric field around a closed loop may be nonzero; one common application of the concept of emf, known as "induced emf" is the voltage induced in such a loop. [14] The "induced emf" around a stationary closed path C is:

where now E is the entire electric field, conservative and non-conservative, and the integral is around an arbitrary but stationary closed curve C through which there is a varying magnetic field. The electrostatic field does not contribute to the net emf around a circuit because the electrostatic portion of the electric field is conservative (that is, the work done against the field around a closed path is zero).

This definition can be extended to arbitrary sources of emf and moving paths C: [15]

which is a conceptual equation mainly, because the determination of the "effective forces" is difficult.

In (electrochemical) thermodynamics

When multiplied by an amount of charge dQ the emf ℰ yields a thermodynamic work term ℰdQ that is used in the formalism for the change in Gibbs energy when charge is passed in a battery:

where G is the Gibb's free energy, S is the entropy, V is the system volume, P is its pressure and T is its absolute temperature.

The combination ( ℰ, Q ) is an example of a conjugate pair of variables. At constant pressure the above relationship produces a Maxwell relation that links the change in open cell voltage with temperature T (a measurable quantity) to the change in entropy S when charge is passed isothermally and isobarically. The latter is closely related to the reaction entropy of the electrochemical reaction that lends the battery its power. This Maxwell relation is: [16]

If a mole of ions goes into solution (for example, in a Daniell cell, as discussed below) the charge through the external circuit is:

where n0 is the number of electrons/ion, and F0 is the Faraday constant and the minus sign indicates discharge of the cell. Assuming constant pressure and volume, the thermodynamic properties of the cell are related strictly to the behavior of its emf by: [16]

where ΔH is the enthalpy of reaction. The quantities on the right are all directly measurable.

Voltage difference

An electrical voltage difference is sometimes called an emf. [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] The points below illustrate the more formal usage, in terms of the distinction between emf and the voltage it generates:

  1. For a circuit as a whole, such as one containing a resistor in series with a voltaic cell, electrical voltage does not contribute to the overall emf, because the voltage difference on going around a circuit is zero. (The ohmic IR voltage drop plus the applied electrical voltage sum to zero. See Kirchhoff's Law). The emf is due solely to the chemistry in the battery that causes charge separation, which in turn creates an electrical voltage that drives the current.
  2. For a circuit consisting of an electrical generator that drives current through a resistor, the emf is due solely to a time-varying magnetic field within the generator that generates an electrical voltage that in turn drives the current. (The ohmic IR drop plus the applied electrical voltage again is zero. See Kirchhoff's Law)
  3. A transformer coupling two circuits may be considered a source of emf for one of the circuits, just as if it were caused by an electrical generator; this example illustrates the origin of the term "transformer emf".
  4. A photodiode or solar cell may be considered as a source of emf, similar to a battery, resulting in an electrical voltage generated by charge separation driven by light rather than chemical reaction. [22]
  5. Other devices that produce emf are fuel cells, thermocouples, and thermopiles. [23]

In the case of an open circuit, the electric charge that has been separated by the mechanism generating the emf creates an electric field opposing the separation mechanism. For example, the chemical reaction in a voltaic cell stops when the opposing electric field at each electrode is strong enough to arrest the reactions. A larger opposing field can reverse the reactions in what are called reversible cells. [24] [25]

The electric charge that has been separated creates an electric potential difference that can be measured with a voltmeter between the terminals of the device. The magnitude of the emf for the battery (or other source) is the value of this 'open circuit' voltage. When the battery is charging or discharging, the emf itself cannot be measured directly using the external voltage because some voltage is lost inside the source. [18] It can, however, be inferred from a measurement of the current I and voltage difference V, provided that the internal resistance r already has been measured:  = V + Ir.

Generation

Chemical sources

A typical reaction path requires the initial reactants to cross an energy barrier, enter an intermediate state and finally emerge in a lower energy configuration. If charge separation is involved, this energy difference can result in an emf. See Bergmann et al. and Transition state. Reaction path.JPG
A typical reaction path requires the initial reactants to cross an energy barrier, enter an intermediate state and finally emerge in a lower energy configuration. If charge separation is involved, this energy difference can result in an emf. See Bergmann et al. and Transition state.
Galvanic cell using a salt bridge Galvanic cell labeled.svg
Galvanic cell using a salt bridge

The question of how batteries (galvanic cells) generate an emf is one that occupied scientists for most of the 19th century. The "seat of the electromotive force" was eventually determined by Walther Nernst to be primarily at the interfaces between the electrodes and the electrolyte. [10]

Molecules are groups of atoms held together by chemical bonds, and these bonds consist of electrical forces between electrons (negative) and protons (positive). The molecule in isolation is a stable entity, but when different molecules are brought together, some types of molecules are able to steal electrons from others, resulting in charge separation. This redistribution of charge is accompanied by a change in energy of the system, and a reconfiguration of the atoms in the molecules. [27] The gain of an electron is termed "reduction" and the loss of an electron is termed "oxidation". Reactions in which such electron exchange occurs (which are the basis for batteries) are called reduction-oxidation reactions or redox reactions. In a battery, one electrode is composed of material that gains electrons from the solute, and the other electrode loses electrons, because of these fundamental molecular attributes. The same behavior can be seen in atoms themselves, and their ability to steal electrons is referred to as their electronegativity. [28]

As an example, a Daniell cell consists of a zinc anode (an electron collector), is oxidized as it dissolves into a zinc sulfate solution, the dissolving zinc leaving behind its electrons in the electrode according to the oxidation reaction (s = solid electrode; aq = aqueous solution):

The zinc sulfate is the electrolyte in that half cell. It is a solution which contains zinc cations , and sulfate anions with charges that balance to zero.

In the other half cell, the copper cations in a copper sulfate electrolyte are drawn to the copper cathode to which they attach themselves as they adopt electrons from the copper electrode by the reduction reaction:

in effect leaving a deficit of electrons on the copper cathode. The difference of excess electrons on the anode and deficit of electrons on the cathode creates an electrical potential between the two electrodes. (A detailed discussion of the microscopic process of electron transfer between an electrode and the ions in an electrolyte may be found in Conway.) [29]

If the cathode and anode are connected by an external conductor, electrons would pass through that external circuit (light bulb in figure), while the ions pass through the salt bridge to maintain charge balance until such a time as the anode and cathode reach electrical equilibrium of zero volts as chemical equilibrium is reached in the cell. In the process the zinc anode is dissolved while the copper electrode is plated with copper. [30] The so-called "salt bridge" is not made of salt but could be made of material able to wick the cations and anions (salts) in the solutions, where the flow of positively charged cations along the "bridge" amounts to the same number of negative charges flowing in the opposite direction.

If the light bulb is removed (open circuit) the emf between the electrodes is opposed by the electric field due to charge separation, and the reactions stop.

For this particular cell chemistry, at 298 K (room temperature), the emf = 1.0934 V, with a temperature coefficient of d/dT = −4.53×10−4 V/K. [16]

Voltaic cells

Volta developed the voltaic cell about 1792, and presented his work March 20, 1800. [31] Volta correctly identified the role of dissimilar electrodes in producing the voltage, but incorrectly dismissed any role for the electrolyte. [32] Volta ordered the metals in a 'tension series', “that is to say in an order such that any one in the list becomes positive when in contact with any one that succeeds, but negative by contact with any one that precedes it.” [33] A typical symbolic convention in a schematic of this circuit ( –||– ) would have a long electrode 1 and a short electrode 2, to indicate that electrode 1 dominates. Volta's law about opposing electrode emfs implies that, given ten electrodes (for example, zinc and nine other materials), 45 unique combinations of voltaic cells (10 × 9/2) can be created.

Typical values

The electromotive force produced by primary (single-use) and secondary (rechargeable) cells is usually of the order of a few volts. The figures quoted below are nominal, because emf varies according to the size of the load and the state of exhaustion of the cell.

EMFCell chemistryCommon name
AnodeSolvent, electrolyteCathode
1.2 VCadmiumWater, potassium hydroxideNiO(OH) nickel-cadmium
1.2 V Mischmetal (hydrogen absorbing)Water, potassium hydroxideNickel nickel–metal hydride
1.5 VZincWater, ammonium or zinc chlorideCarbon, manganese dioxide Zinc carbon
2.1 VLeadWater, sulfuric acidLead dioxide Lead–acid
3.6 V to 3.7 VGraphiteOrganic solvent, Li saltsLiCoO2 Lithium-ion
1.35 VZincWater, sodium or potassium hydroxideHgO Mercury cell

Electromagnetic induction

The principle of electromagnetic induction, noted above, states that a time-dependent magnetic field produces a circulating electric field. A time-dependent magnetic field can be produced either by motion of a magnet relative to a circuit, by motion of a circuit relative to another circuit (at least one of these must be carrying a current), or by changing the current in a fixed circuit. The effect on the circuit itself, of changing the current, is known as self-induction; the effect on another circuit is known as mutual induction.

For a given circuit, the electromagnetically induced emf is determined purely by the rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit according to Faraday's law of induction.

An emf is induced in a coil or conductor whenever there is change in the flux linkages. Depending on the way in which the changes are brought about, there are two types: When the conductor is moved in a stationary magnetic field to procure a change in the flux linkage, the emf is statically induced. The electromotive force generated by motion is often referred to as motional emf. When the change in flux linkage arises from a change in the magnetic field around the stationary conductor, the emf is dynamically induced. The electromotive force generated by a time-varying magnetic field is often referred to as transformer emf.

Contact potentials

When solids of two different materials are in contact, thermodynamic equilibrium requires that one of the solids assume a higher electrical potential than the other. This is called the contact potential. [34] Dissimilar metals in contact produce what is known also as a contact electromotive force or Galvani potential. The magnitude of this potential difference is often expressed as a difference in Fermi levels in the two solids when they are at charge neutrality, where the Fermi level (a name for the chemical potential of an electron system [35] [36] ) describes the energy necessary to remove an electron from the body to some common point (such as ground). [37] If there is an energy advantage in taking an electron from one body to the other, such a transfer will occur. The transfer causes a charge separation, with one body gaining electrons and the other losing electrons. This charge transfer causes a potential difference between the bodies, which partly cancels the potential originating from the contact, and eventually equilibrium is reached. At thermodynamic equilibrium, the Fermi levels are equal (the electron removal energy is identical) and there is now a built-in electrostatic potential between the bodies. The original difference in Fermi levels, before contact, is referred to as the emf. [38] The contact potential cannot drive steady current through a load attached to its terminals because that current would involve a charge transfer. No mechanism exists to continue such transfer and, hence, maintain a current, once equilibrium is attained.

One might inquire why the contact potential does not appear in Kirchhoff's law of voltages as one contribution to the sum of potential drops. The customary answer is that any circuit involves not only a particular diode or junction, but also all the contact potentials due to wiring and so forth around the entire circuit. The sum of all the contact potentials is zero, and so they may be ignored in Kirchhoff's law. [39] [40]

Solar cell

The equivalent circuit of a solar cell; parasitic resistances are ignored in the discussion of the text. Solar cell equivalent circuit.svg
The equivalent circuit of a solar cell; parasitic resistances are ignored in the discussion of the text.
Solar cell voltage as a function of solar cell current delivered to a load for two light-induced currents IL; currents as a ratio with reverse saturation current I0. Compare with Fig. 1.4 in Nelson. Solar cell characterisitcs.JPG
Solar cell voltage as a function of solar cell current delivered to a load for two light-induced currents IL; currents as a ratio with reverse saturation current I0. Compare with Fig. 1.4 in Nelson.

Operation of a solar cell can be understood from the equivalent circuit at right. Light, of sufficient energy (greater than the bandgap of the material), creates mobile electron–hole pairs in a semiconductor. Charge separation occurs because of a pre-existing electric field associated with the p-n junction in thermal equilibrium (a contact potential creates the field). This charge separation between positive holes and negative electrons across a p-n junction (a diode) yields a forward voltage, the photo voltage, between the illuminated diode terminals. [42] As has been noted earlier in the terminology section, the photo voltage is sometimes referred to as the photo emf, distinguishing between the effect and the cause. The charge separation causes a photo voltage that drives current through any attached load.

The current available to the external circuit is limited by internal losses I0=ISH + I D:

Losses limit the current available to the external circuit. The light-induced charge separation eventually creates a current (called a forward current) ISH through the cell's junction in the direction opposite that the light is driving the current. In addition, the induced voltage tends to forward bias the junction. At high enough levels, this forward bias of the junction will cause a forward current, I D in the diode opposite that induced by the light. Consequently, the greatest current is obtained under short-circuit conditions, and is denoted as IL (for light-induced current) in the equivalent circuit. [43] Approximately, this same current is obtained for forward voltages up to the point where the diode conduction becomes significant.

The current delivered by the illuminated diode, to the external circuit is:

where I0 is the reverse saturation current. Where the two parameters that depend on the solar cell construction and to some degree upon the voltage itself are m, the ideality factor, and kT/q the thermal voltage (about 0.026 V at room temperature). [43] This relation is plotted in the figure using a fixed value m = 2. [44] Under open-circuit conditions (that is, as I = 0), the open-circuit voltage is the voltage at which forward bias of the junction is enough that the forward current completely balances the photocurrent. Solving the above for the voltage V and designating it the open-circuit voltage of the I–V equation as:

which is useful in indicating a logarithmic dependence of Voc upon the light-induced current. Typically, the open-circuit voltage is not more than about 0.5 V. [45]

When driving a load, the photo voltage is variable. As shown in the figure, for a load resistance RL, the cell develops a voltage that is between the short-circuit value V = 0, I = IL and the open-circuit value Voc, I = 0, a value given by Ohm's law V = I RL, where the current I is the difference between the short-circuit current and current due to forward bias of the junction, as indicated by the equivalent circuit (neglecting the parasitic resistances). [41]

In contrast to the battery, at current levels delivered to the external circuit near IL, the solar cell acts more like a current source rather than a voltage source( near vertical part of the two illustrated curves). [41] The current drawn is nearly fixed over a range of load voltages, to one electron per converted photon. The quantum efficiency, or probability of getting an electron of photocurrent per incident photon, depends not only upon the solar cell itself, but upon the spectrum of the light.

The diode possesses a "built-in potential" due to the contact potential difference between the two different materials on either side of the junction. This built-in potential is established when the junction is manufactured and that voltage a by-product of thermodynamic equilibrium within the cell. Once established, this potential difference cannot drive a current, however, as connecting a load does not upset this equilibrium.[ clarification needed ] In contrast, the accumulation of excess electrons in one region and of excess holes in another, due to illumination, results in a photo voltage that does drive a current when a load is attached to the illuminated diode. As noted above, this photo voltage also forward biases the junction, and so reduces the pre-existing field in the depletion region.

See also

Related Research Articles

Electrochemistry branch of chemistry

Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa. These reactions involve electric charges moving between electrodes and an electrolyte. Thus electrochemistry deals with the interaction between electrical energy and chemical change.

Inductor passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in its magnetic field

An inductor, also called a coil, choke, or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it. An inductor typically consists of an insulated wire wound into a coil around a core.

Lorentz force mutual force exerted by two punctual charges in relative motion

In physics the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. A particle of charge q moving with a velocity v in an electric field E and a magnetic field B experiences a force of

Voltage difference in the electric potential between two points in space

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension is the difference in electric potential between two points. The difference in electric potential between two points in a static electric field is defined as the work needed per unit of charge to move a test charge between the two points. In the International System of Units, the derived unit for voltage is named volt. In SI units, work per unit charge is expressed as joules per coulomb, where 1 volt = 1 joule per 1 coulomb. The official SI definition for volt uses power and current, where 1 volt = 1 watt per 1 ampere. This definition is equivalent to the more commonly used 'joules per coulomb'. Voltage or electric potential difference is denoted symbolically by V, but more often simply as V, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws.

Voltaic pile first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit

The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit. It was invented by Italian physicist Alessandro Volta, who published his experiments in 1799. The voltaic pile then enabled a rapid series of other discoveries including the electrical decomposition (electrolysis) of water into oxygen and hydrogen by William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle (1800) and the discovery or isolation of the chemical elements sodium (1807), potassium (1807), calcium (1808), boron (1808), barium (1808), strontium (1808), and magnesium (1808) by Humphry Davy.

Electric field spatial distribution of vectors representing the force applied to a charged test particle

An electric field surrounds an electric charge, and exerts force on other charges in the field, attracting or repelling them. Electric field is sometimes abbreviated as E-field. Mathematically the electric field is a vector field that associates to each point in space the force, called the Coulomb force, that would be experienced per unit of charge by an infinitesimal test charge at rest at that point. The SI unit for electric field strength is volt per meter (V/m). Newtons per coulomb (N/C) is also used as a unit of electric field strengh. Electric fields are created by electric charges, or by time-varying magnetic fields. Electric fields are important in many areas of physics, and are exploited practically in electrical technology. On an atomic scale, the electric field is responsible for the attractive force between the atomic nucleus and electrons that holds atoms together, and the forces between atoms that cause chemical bonding. Electric fields and magnetic fields are both manifestations of the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature.

An electric potential is the amount of work needed to move a unit of positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing an acceleration. Typically, the reference point is the Earth or a point at infinity, although any point beyond the influence of the electric field charge can be used.

Magnetic flux physical quantity

In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux through a surface is the surface integral of the normal component of the magnetic field B passing through that surface. The SI unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb), and the CGS unit is the maxwell. Magnetic flux is usually measured with a fluxmeter, which contains measuring coils and electronics, that evaluates the change of voltage in the measuring coils to calculate the magnetic flux.

In electrochemistry, the Nernst equation is an equation that relates the reduction potential of an electrochemical reaction to the standard electrode potential, temperature, and activities of the chemical species undergoing reduction and oxidation. It was named after Walther Nernst, a German physical chemist who formulated the equation.

Capacitance ability of a body to store an electrical charge

Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential. There are two closely related notions of capacitance: self capacitance and mutual capacitance. Any object that can be electrically charged exhibits self capacitance. A material with a large self capacitance holds more electric charge at a given voltage than one with low capacitance. The notion of mutual capacitance is particularly important for understanding the operations of the capacitor, one of the three elementary linear electronic components.

Galvanic cell device for spontaneous conversion of chemical into electrical energy

A galvanic cell or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani or Alessandro Volta, respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell. It generally consists of two different metals immersed in an electrolyte, or of individual half-cells with different metals and their ions in solution connected by a salt bridge or separated by a porous membrane.

Displacement current Physical quantity in electromagnetism

In electromagnetism, displacement current density is the quantity D/∂t appearing in Maxwell's equations that is defined in terms of the rate of change of D, the electric displacement field. Displacement current density has the same units as electric current density, and it is a source of the magnetic field just as actual current is. However it is not an electric current of moving charges, but a time-varying electric field. In physical materials, there is also a contribution from the slight motion of charges bound in atoms, called dielectric polarization.

A magnetic circuit is made up of one or more closed loop paths containing a magnetic flux. The flux is usually generated by permanent magnets or electromagnets and confined to the path by magnetic cores consisting of ferromagnetic materials like iron, although there may be air gaps or other materials in the path. Magnetic circuits are employed to efficiently channel magnetic fields in many devices such as electric motors, generators, transformers, relays, lifting electromagnets, SQUIDs, galvanometers, and magnetic recording heads.

Faraday paradox

The Faraday paradox or Faraday's paradox is any experiment in which Michael Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction appears to predict an incorrect result. The paradoxes fall into two classes:

Capacitor electrical component used to store energy for a short period of time

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electronic component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While some capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component designed to add capacitance to a circuit. The capacitor was originally known as a condenser or condensator. The original name is still widely used in many languages, but not commonly in English.

Electric battery Source of stored electrical energy consisting of one or more chemical cells

A battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars. When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode. The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that will flow through an external electric circuit to the positive terminal. When a battery is connected to an external electric load, a redox reaction converts high-energy reactants to lower-energy products, and the free-energy difference is delivered to the external circuit as electrical energy. Historically the term "battery" specifically referred to a device composed of multiple cells, however the usage has evolved to include devices composed of a single cell.

References

  1. emf. (1992). American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 3rd ed. Boston:Houghton Mifflin.
  2. Irving Langmuir (1916). "The Relation Between Contact Potentials and Electrochemical Action". Transactions of the American Electrochemical Society. The Society. 29 (14): 125–182.
  3. Tipler, Paul A. (January 1976). Physics. New York, NY: Worth Publishers, Inc. p. 803. ISBN   978-0-87901-041-6.
  4. David M. Cook (2003). The Theory of the Electromagnetic Field. Courier Dover. p. 157. ISBN   978-0-486-42567-2.
  5. 1 2 Lawrence M Lerner (1997). Physics for scientists and engineers. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 724–727. ISBN   978-0-7637-0460-5.
  6. Paul A. Tipler; Gene Mosca (2007). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6 ed.). Macmillan. p. 850. ISBN   978-1-4292-0124-7.
  7. Alvin M. Halpern; Erich Erlbach (1998). Schaum's outline of theory and problems of beginning physics II. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 138. ISBN   978-0-07-025707-8.
  8. Robert L. Lehrman (1998). Physics the easy way. Barron's Educational Series. p. 274. ISBN   978-0-7641-0236-3.
  9. Singh, Kongbam Chandramani (2009). "§3.16 EMF of a source". Basic Physics. Prentice Hall India. p. 152. ISBN   978-81-203-3708-4.
  10. 1 2 Florian Cajori (1899). A History of Physics in Its Elementary Branches: Including the Evolution of Physical Laboratories. The Macmillan Company. pp. 218–219.
  11. Van Valkenburgh (1995). Basic Electricity. Cengage Learning. pp. 1–46. ISBN   978-0-7906-1041-2.
  12. David J Griffiths (1999). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Pearson/Addison-Wesley. p. 293. ISBN   978-0-13-805326-0.
  13. Only the electric field due to the charge separation caused by the emf is counted. In a solar cell, for example, an electric field is present related to the contact potential that results from thermodynamic equilibrium (discussed later), and this electric field component is not included in the integral. Rather, only the electric field due to the particular portion of charge separation that causes the photo voltage is included.
  14. Richard P. Olenick; Tom M. Apostol; David L. Goodstein (1986). Beyond the mechanical universe: from electricity to modern physics. Cambridge University Press. p. 245. ISBN   978-0-521-30430-6.
  15. David M. Cook (2003). The Theory of the Electromagnetic Field. Courier Dover. p. 158. ISBN   978-0-486-42567-2.
  16. 1 2 3 Colin B P Finn (1992). Thermal Physics. CRC Press. p. 163. ISBN   978-0-7487-4379-7.
  17. M. Fogiel (2002). Basic Electricity. Research & Education Association. p. 76. ISBN   978-0-87891-420-3.
  18. 1 2 David Halliday; Robert Resnick; Jearl Walker (2008). Fundamentals of Physics (6th ed.). Wiley. p. 638. ISBN   978-0-471-75801-3.
  19. Roger L Freeman (2005). Fundamentals of Telecommunications (2nd ed.). Wiley. p. 576. ISBN   978-0-471-71045-5.
  20. Terrell Croft (1917). Practical Electricity. McGraw-Hill. p. 533.
  21. Leonard B Loeb (2007). Fundamentals of Electricity and Magnetism (Reprint of Wiley 1947 3rd ed.). Read Books. p. 86. ISBN   978-1-4067-0733-5.
  22. Jenny Nelson (2003). The Physics of Solar Cells. Imperial College Press. p. 6. ISBN   978-1-86094-349-2.
  23. John S. Rigden, (editor in chief), Macmillan encyclopedia of physics. New York : Macmillan, 1996.
  24. J. R. W. Warn; A. P. H. Peters (1996). Concise Chemical Thermodynamics (2 ed.). CRC Press. p. 123. ISBN   978-0-7487-4445-9.
  25. Samuel Glasstone (2007). Thermodynamics for Chemists (Reprint of D. Van Nostrand Co (1964) ed.). Read Books. p. 301. ISBN   978-1-4067-7322-4.
  26. Nikolaus Risch (2002). "Molecules - bonds and reactions". In L Bergmann; et al. Constituents of Matter: Atoms, Molecules, Nuclei, and Particles. CRC Press. ISBN   978-0-8493-1202-1.
  27. The brave reader can find an extensive discussion for organic electrochemistry in Christian Amatore (2000). "Basic concepts". In Henning Lund; Ole Hammerich. Organic electrochemistry (4 ed.). CRC Press. ISBN   978-0-8247-0430-8.
  28. The idea of electronegativity has been extended to include the concept of electronegativity equalization, the notion that when molecules are brought together the electrons rearrange to achieve an equilibrium where there is no net force upon them. See, for example, Francis A. Carey; Richard J. Sundberg (2007). Advanced organic chemistry (5 ed.). Springer. p. 11. ISBN   978-0-387-68346-1.
  29. BE Conway (1999). "Energy factors in relation to electrode potential". Electrochemical supercapacitors. Springer. p. 37. ISBN   978-0-306-45736-4.
  30. R. J. D. Tilley (2004). Understanding Solids. Wiley. p. 267. ISBN   978-0-470-85275-0.
  31. Paul Fleury Mottelay (2008). Bibliographical History of Electricity and Magnetism (Reprint of 1892 ed.). Read Books. p. 247. ISBN   978-1-4437-2844-7.
  32. Helge Kragh (2000). "Confusion and Controversy: Nineteenth-century theories of the voltaic pile" (PDF). Nuova Voltiana:Studies on Volta and His Times. Università degli studi di Pavia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-20.
  33. Linnaus Cumming (2008). An Introduction to the Theory of Electricity (Reprint of 1885 ed.). BiblioBazaar. p. 118. ISBN   978-0-559-20742-6.
  34. George L. Trigg (1995). Landmark experiments in twentieth century physics (Reprint of Crane, Russak & Co 1975 ed.). Courier Dover. p. 138 ff. ISBN   978-0-486-28526-9.
  35. Angus Rockett (2007). "Diffusion and drift of carriers". Materials science of semiconductors. New York, NY: Springer Science. p. 74 ff. ISBN   978-0-387-25653-5.
  36. Charles Kittel (2004). "Chemical potential in external fields". Elementary Statistical Physics (Reprint of Wiley 1958 ed.). Courier Dover. p. 67. ISBN   978-0-486-43514-5.
  37. George W. Hanson (2007). Fundamentals of Nanoelectronics. Prentice Hall. p. 100. ISBN   978-0-13-195708-4.
  38. Norio Sato (1998). "Semiconductor photoelectrodes". Electrochemistry at metal and semiconductor electrodes (2nd ed.). Elsevier. p. 110 ff. ISBN   978-0-444-82806-4.
  39. Richard S. Quimby (2006). Photonics and lasers. Wiley. p. 176. ISBN   978-0-471-71974-8.
  40. Donald A. Neamen (2002). Semiconductor physics and devices (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 240. ISBN   978-0-07-232107-4.
  41. 1 2 3 Jenny Nelson (2003). Solar cells. Imperial College Press. p. 8. ISBN   978-1-86094-349-2.
  42. S M Dhir (2000). "§3.1 Solar cells". Electronic Components and Materials: Principles, Manufacture and Maintenance. Tata McGraw-Hill. ISBN   978-0-07-463082-2.
  43. 1 2 Gerardo L. Araújo (1994). "§2.5.1 Short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage". In Eduardo Lorenzo. Solar Electricity: Engineering of photovoltaic systems. Progenza for Universidad Politechnica Madrid. p. 74. ISBN   978-84-86505-55-4.
  44. In practice, at low voltages m → 2, whereas at high voltages m → 1. See Araújo, op. cit. ISBN   84-86505-55-0. page 72
  45. Robert B. Northrop (2005). "§6.3.2 Photovoltaic Cells". Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements. CRC Press. p. 176. ISBN   978-0-8493-7898-0.

Further reading