Current density | |
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Common symbols | j → |

In SI base units | A m^{−2} |

Dimension | IL^{−2} |

Articles about |

Electromagnetism |
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In electromagnetism, **current density** is the amount of charge per unit time that flows through a unit area of a chosen cross section.^{ [1] } The **current density vector** is defined as a vector whose magnitude is the electric current per cross-sectional area at a given point in space, its direction being that of the motion of the positive charges at this point. In SI base units, the electric current density is measured in amperes per square metre.^{ [2] }

Assume that *A* (SI unit: m ^{2}) is a small surface centred at a given point *M* and orthogonal to the motion of the charges at *M*. If *I*_{A} (SI unit: A) is the electric current flowing through *A*, then **electric current density***j* at *M* is given by the limit:^{ [3] }

with surface *A* remaining centered at *M* and orthogonal to the motion of the charges during the limit process.

The **current density vector****j** is the vector whose magnitude is the electric current density, and whose direction is the same as the motion of the positive charges at *M*.

At a given time *t*, if **v** is the velocity of the charges at *M*, and *dA* is an infinitesimal surface centred at *M* and orthogonal to **v**, then during an amount of time *dt*, only the charge contained in the volume formed by *dA* and *I* = *dq* / *dt* will flow through *dA*. This charge is equal to *ρ* ||*v*|| d*t* d*A*, where *ρ* is the charge density at *M*, and the electric current at *M* is *I* = *ρ* ||*v*|| *dA*. It follows that the current density vector can be expressed as:

The surface integral of **j** over a surface *S*, followed by an integral over the time duration *t*_{1} to *t*_{2}, gives the total amount of charge flowing through the surface in that time (*t*_{2} − *t*_{1}):

More concisely, this is the integral of the flux of **j** across *S* between *t*_{1} and *t*_{2}.

The area required to calculate the flux is real or imaginary, flat or curved, either as a cross-sectional area or a surface. For example, for charge carriers passing through an electrical conductor, the area is the cross-section of the conductor, at the section considered.

The vector area is a combination of the magnitude of the area through which the charge carriers pass, *A*, and a unit vector normal to the area, . The relation is .

The differential vector area similarly follows from the definition given above: .

If the current density **j** passes through the area at an angle *θ* to the area normal , then

where **⋅** is the dot product of the unit vectors. That is, the component of current density passing through the surface (i.e. normal to it) is *j* cos *θ*, while the component of current density passing tangential to the area is *j* sin *θ*, but there is *no* current density actually passing *through* the area in the tangential direction. The *only* component of current density passing normal to the area is the cosine component.

Current density is important to the design of electrical and electronic systems.

Circuit performance depends strongly upon the designed current level, and the current density then is determined by the dimensions of the conducting elements. For example, as integrated circuits are reduced in size, despite the lower current demanded by smaller devices, there is a trend toward higher current densities to achieve higher device numbers in ever smaller chip areas. See Moore's law.

At high frequencies, the conducting region in a wire becomes confined near its surface which increases the current density in this region. This is known as the skin effect.

High current densities have undesirable consequences. Most electrical conductors have a finite, positive resistance, making them dissipate power in the form of heat. The current density must be kept sufficiently low to prevent the conductor from melting or burning up, the insulating material failing, or the desired electrical properties changing. At high current densities the material forming the interconnections actually moves, a phenomenon called * electromigration *. In superconductors excessive current density may generate a strong enough magnetic field to cause spontaneous loss of the superconductive property.

The analysis and observation of current density also is used to probe the physics underlying the nature of solids, including not only metals, but also semiconductors and insulators. An elaborate theoretical formalism has developed to explain many fundamental observations.^{ [4] }^{ [5] }

The current density is an important parameter in Ampère's circuital law (one of Maxwell's equations), which relates current density to magnetic field.

In special relativity theory, charge and current are combined into a 4-vector.

Charge carriers which are free to move constitute a free current density, which are given by expressions such as those in this section.

Electric current is a coarse, average quantity that tells what is happening in an entire wire. At position **r** at time *t*, the *distribution* of charge flowing is described by the current density:^{ [6] }

where **j**(**r**, *t*) is the current density vector, **v**_{d}(**r**, *t*) is the particles' average drift velocity (SI unit: m∙s ^{−1}), and

is the charge density (SI unit: coulombs per cubic metre), in which *n*(**r**, *t*) is the number of particles per unit volume ("number density") (SI unit: m^{−3}), *q* is the charge of the individual particles with density *n* (SI unit: coulombs).

A common approximation to the current density assumes the current simply is proportional to the electric field, as expressed by:

where **E** is the electric field and *σ* is the electrical conductivity.

Conductivity *σ* is the reciprocal (inverse) of electrical resistivity and has the SI units of siemens per metre (S⋅m^{−1}), and **E** has the SI units of newtons per coulomb (N⋅C^{−1}) or, equivalently, volts per metre (V⋅m^{−1}).

A more fundamental approach to calculation of current density is based upon:

indicating the lag in response by the time dependence of *σ*, and the non-local nature of response to the field by the spatial dependence of *σ*, both calculated in principle from an underlying microscopic analysis, for example, in the case of small enough fields, the linear response function for the conductive behaviour in the material. See, for example, Giuliani & Vignale (2005)^{ [7] } or Rammer (2007).^{ [8] } The integral extends over the entire past history up to the present time.

The above conductivity and its associated current density reflect the fundamental mechanisms underlying charge transport in the medium, both in time and over distance.

A Fourier transform in space and time then results in:

where *σ*(**k**, *ω*) is now a complex function.

In many materials, for example, in crystalline materials, the conductivity is a tensor, and the current is not necessarily in the same direction as the applied field. Aside from the material properties themselves, the application of magnetic fields can alter conductive behaviour.

Currents arise in materials when there is a non-uniform distribution of charge.^{ [9] }

In dielectric materials, there is a current density corresponding to the net movement of electric dipole moments per unit volume, i.e. the polarization **P**:

Similarly with magnetic materials, circulations of the magnetic dipole moments per unit volume, i.e. the magnetization **M,** lead to magnetization currents:^{ [10] }

Together, these terms add up to form the bound current density in the material (resultant current due to movements of electric and magnetic dipole moments per unit volume):

The total current is simply the sum of the free and bound currents:

There is also a displacement current corresponding to the time-varying electric displacement field **D**:^{ [11] }^{ [12] }

which is an important term in Ampere's circuital law, one of Maxwell's equations, since absence of this term would not predict electromagnetic waves to propagate, or the time evolution of electric fields in general.

Since charge is conserved, current density must satisfy a continuity equation. Here is a derivation from first principles.^{ [9] }

The net flow out of some volume *V* (which can have an arbitrary shape but fixed for the calculation) must equal the net change in charge held inside the volume:

where *ρ* is the charge density, and d**A** is a surface element of the surface *S* enclosing the volume *V*. The surface integral on the left expresses the current *outflow* from the volume, and the negatively signed volume integral on the right expresses the *decrease* in the total charge inside the volume. From the divergence theorem:

Hence:

This relation is valid for any volume, independent of size or location, which implies that:

and this relation is called the continuity equation.^{ [13] }^{ [14] }

In electrical wiring, the maximum current density (for a given temperature rating) can vary from 4 A⋅mm^{−2} for a wire with no air circulation around it, to over 6 A⋅mm^{−2} for a wire in free air. Regulations for building wiring list the maximum allowed current of each size of cable in differing conditions. For compact designs, such as windings of SMPS transformers, the value might be as low as 2 A⋅mm^{−2}.^{ [15] } If the wire is carrying high-frequency alternating currents, the skin effect may affect the distribution of the current across the section by concentrating the current on the surface of the conductor. In transformers designed for high frequencies, loss is reduced if Litz wire is used for the windings. This is made of multiple isolated wires in parallel with a diameter twice the skin depth. The isolated strands are twisted together to increase the total skin area and to reduce the resistance due to skin effects.

For the top and bottom layers of printed circuit boards, the maximum current density can be as high as 35 A⋅mm^{−2} with a copper thickness of 35 μm. Inner layers cannot dissipate as much heat as outer layers; designers of circuit boards avoid putting high-current traces on inner layers.

In the semiconductors field, the maximum current densities for different elements are given by the manufacturer. Exceeding those limits raises the following problems:

- The Joule effect which increases the temperature of the component.
- The electromigration effect which will erode the interconnection and eventually cause an open circuit.
- The slow diffusion effect which, if exposed to high temperatures continuously, will move metallic ions and dopants away from where they should be. This effect is also synonym to ageing.

The following table gives an idea of the maximum current density for various materials.

Material | Temperature | Maximum current density |
---|---|---|

Copper interconnections (180 nm technology) | 25 °C | 1000 μA⋅μm^{−2} (1000 A⋅mm^{−2}) |

50 °C | 700 μA⋅μm^{−2} (700 A⋅mm^{−2}) | |

85 °C | 400 μA⋅μm^{−2} (400 A⋅mm^{−2}) | |

125 °C | 100 μA⋅μm^{−2} (100 A⋅mm^{−2}) | |

Graphene nanoribbons ^{ [16] } | 25 °C | 0.1–10 × 10^{8} A⋅cm^{−2} (0.1–10 × 10^{6} A⋅mm^{−2}) |

Even if manufacturers add some margin to their numbers, it is recommended to, at least, double the calculated section to improve the reliability, especially for high-quality electronics. One can also notice the importance of keeping electronic devices cool to avoid exposing them to electromigration and slow diffusion.

In biological organisms, ion channels regulate the flow of ions (for example, sodium, calcium, potassium) across the membrane in all cells. The membrane of a cell is assumed to act like a capacitor.^{ [17] } Current densities are usually expressed in pA⋅pF^{−1} (pico amperes per pico farad) (i.e., current divided by capacitance). Techniques exist to empirically measure capacitance and surface area of cells, which enables calculation of current densities for different cells. This enables researchers to compare ionic currents in cells of different sizes.^{ [18] }

In gas discharge lamps, such as flashlamps, current density plays an important role in the output spectrum produced. Low current densities produce spectral line emission and tend to favour longer wavelengths. High current densities produce continuum emission and tend to favour shorter wavelengths.^{ [19] } Low current densities for flash lamps are generally around 10 A⋅mm^{−2}. High current densities can be more than 40 A⋅mm^{−2}.

**Continuum mechanics** is a branch of mechanics that deals with the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles. The French mathematician Augustin-Louis Cauchy was the first to formulate such models in the 19th century.

In physics the **Lorentz force** is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. A particle of charge q moving with a velocity **v** in an electric field **E** and a magnetic field **B** experiences a force of

**Maxwell's equations**, or **Maxwell-Heaviside equations**, are a set of coupled partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits. The equations provide a mathematical model for electric, optical, and radio technologies, such as power generation, electric motors, wireless communication, lenses, radar etc. They describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated by charges, currents, and changes of the fields. The equations are named after the physicist and mathematician James Clerk Maxwell, who, in 1861 and 1862, published an early form of the equations that included the Lorentz force law. Maxwell first used the equations to propose that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon. The modern form of the equations in their most common formulation is credited to Oliver Heaviside.

In physics, the **Navier–Stokes equations** are certain partial differential equations which describe the motion of viscous fluid substances, named after French engineer and physicist Claude-Louis Navier and Anglo-Irish physicist and mathematician George Gabriel Stokes. They were developed over several decades of progressively building the theories, from 1822 (Navier) to 1842–1850 (Stokes).

The **electric potential** is defined as the amount of work energy needed to move a unit of electric charge from a reference point to the specific point in an electric field. More precisely, it is the energy per unit charge for a test charge that is so small that the disturbance of the field under consideration is negligible. Furthermore, the motion across the field is supposed to proceed with negligible acceleration, so as to avoid the test charge acquiring kinetic energy or producing radiation. By definition, the electric potential at the reference point is zero units. Typically, the reference point is earth or a point at infinity, although any point can be used.

In physics and electromagnetism, **Gauss's law**, also known as **Gauss's flux theorem**, is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field. In its integral form, it states that the flux of the electric field out of an arbitrary closed surface is proportional to the electric charge enclosed by the surface, irrespective of how that charge is distributed. Even though the law alone is insufficient to determine the electric field across a surface enclosing any charge distribution, this may be possible in cases where symmetry mandates uniformity of the field. Where no such symmetry exists, Gauss's law can be used in its differential form, which states that the divergence of the electric field is proportional to the local density of charge.

**Poisson's equation** is an elliptic partial differential equation of broad utility in theoretical physics. For example, the solution to Poisson's equation is the potential field caused by a given electric charge or mass density distribution; with the potential field known, one can then calculate electrostatic or gravitational (force) field. It is a generalization of Laplace's equation, which is also frequently seen in physics. The equation is named after French mathematician and physicist Siméon Denis Poisson.

A **continuity equation** or **transport equation** is an equation that describes the transport of some quantity. It is particularly simple and powerful when applied to a conserved quantity, but it can be generalized to apply to any extensive quantity. Since mass, energy, momentum, electric charge and other natural quantities are conserved under their respective appropriate conditions, a variety of physical phenomena may be described using continuity equations.

**Classical electromagnetism** or **classical electrodynamics** is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model. The theory provides a description of electromagnetic phenomena whenever the relevant length scales and field strengths are large enough that quantum mechanical effects are negligible. For small distances and low field strengths, such interactions are better described by quantum electrodynamics.

In electromagnetism, **displacement current density** is the quantity ∂**D**/∂*t* appearing in Maxwell's equations that is defined in terms of the rate of change of **D**, the electric displacement field. Displacement current density has the same units as electric current density, and it is a source of the magnetic field just as actual current is. However it is not an electric current of moving charges, but a time-varying electric field. In physical materials, there is also a contribution from the slight motion of charges bound in atoms, called dielectric polarization.

In classical electromagnetism, **polarization density** is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a dielectric material. When a dielectric is placed in an external electric field, its molecules gain electric dipole moment and the dielectric is said to be polarized. The electric dipole moment induced per unit volume of the dielectric material is called the electric polarization of the dielectric.

In physics, **circulation** is the line integral of a vector field around a closed curve. In fluid dynamics, the field is the fluid velocity field. In electrodynamics, it can be the electric or the magnetic field.

In classical electromagnetism, **magnetic vector potential** is the vector quantity defined so that its curl is equal to the magnetic field: . Together with the electric potential *φ*, the magnetic vector potential can be used to specify the electric field **E** as well. Therefore, many equations of electromagnetism can be written either in terms of the fields **E** and **B**, or equivalently in terms of the potentials *φ* and **A**. In more advanced theories such as quantum mechanics, most equations use potentials rather than fields.

A **classical field theory** is a physical theory that predicts how one or more physical fields interact with matter through **field equations**, without considering effects of quantization; theories that incorporate quantum mechanics are called quantum field theories. In most contexts, 'classical field theory' is specifically meant to describe electromagnetism and gravitation, two of the fundamental forces of nature.

In electromagnetism, **charge density** is the amount of electric charge per unit length, surface area, or volume. **Volume charge density** is the quantity of charge per unit volume, measured in the SI system in coulombs per cubic meter (C⋅m^{−3}), at any point in a volume. **Surface charge density** (σ) is the quantity of charge per unit area, measured in coulombs per square meter (C⋅m^{−2}), at any point on a surface charge distribution on a two dimensional surface. **Linear charge density** (λ) is the quantity of charge per unit length, measured in coulombs per meter (C⋅m^{−1}), at any point on a line charge distribution. Charge density can be either positive or negative, since electric charge can be either positive or negative.

The **method of image charges** is a basic problem-solving tool in electrostatics. The name originates from the replacement of certain elements in the original layout with imaginary charges, which replicates the boundary conditions of the problem.

**Ewald summation**, named after Paul Peter Ewald, is a method for computing long-range interactions in periodic systems. It was first developed as the method for calculating electrostatic energies of ionic crystals, and is now commonly used for calculating long-range interactions in computational chemistry. Ewald summation is a special case of the Poisson summation formula, replacing the summation of interaction energies in real space with an equivalent summation in Fourier space. In this method, the long-range interaction is divided into two parts: a short-range contribution, and a long-range contribution which does not have a singularity. The short-range contribution is calculated in real space, whereas the long-range contribution is calculated using a Fourier transform. The advantage of this method is the rapid convergence of the energy compared with that of a direct summation. This means that the method has high accuracy and reasonable speed when computing long-range interactions, and it is thus the de facto standard method for calculating long-range interactions in periodic systems. The method requires charge neutrality of the molecular system in order to accurately calculate the total Coulombic interaction. A study of the truncation errors introduced in the energy and force calculations of disordered point-charge systems is provided by Kolafa and Perram.

There are various **mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field** that are used in the study of electromagnetism, one of the four fundamental interactions of nature. In this article, several approaches are discussed, although the equations are in terms of electric and magnetic fields, potentials, and charges with currents, generally speaking.

The **Cauchy momentum equation** is a vector partial differential equation put forth by Cauchy that describes the non-relativistic momentum transport in any continuum.

**Lagrangian field theory** is a formalism in classical field theory. It is the field-theoretic analogue of Lagrangian mechanics. Lagrangian mechanics is used to analyze the motion of a system of discrete particles each with a finite number of degrees of freedom. Lagrangian field theory applies to continua and fields, which have an infinite number of degrees of freedom.

- ↑ Walker, Jearl; Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert (2014).
*Fundamentals of physics*(10th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. p. 749. ISBN 9781118230732. OCLC 950235056. - ↑ Encyclopaedia of Physics (2nd Edition), R.G. Lerner, G.L. Trigg, VHC publishers, 1991, ISBN (Verlagsgesellschaft) 3-527-26954-1, ISBN (VHC Inc.) 0-89573-752-3
- ↑ Essential Principles of Physics, P.M. Whelan, M.J. Hodgeson, 2nd Edition, 1978, John Murray, ISBN 0-7195-3382-1
- ↑ Richard P Martin (2004).
*Electronic Structure:Basic theory and practical methods*. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78285-6. - ↑ Alexander Altland & Ben Simons (2006).
*Condensed Matter Field Theory*. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84508-3. - ↑ Woan, G. (2010).
*The Cambridge Handbook of Physics Formulas*. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-57507-2. - ↑ Giuliani, Gabriele; Vignale, Giovanni (2005).
*Quantum Theory of the Electron Liquid*. Cambridge University Press. p. 111. ISBN 0-521-82112-6.linear response theory capacitance OR conductance.

- ↑ Rammer, Jørgen (2007).
*Quantum Field Theory of Non-equilibrium States*. Cambridge University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-521-87499-1. - 1 2 Electromagnetism (2nd Edition), I.S. Grant, W.R. Phillips, Manchester Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2008, ISBN 978-0-471-92712-9
- ↑ Herczynski, Andrzej (2013). "Bound charges and currents" (PDF).
*American Journal of Physics*. the American Association of Physics Teachers.**81**(3): 202–205. Bibcode:2013AmJPh..81..202H. doi:10.1119/1.4773441. - ↑ Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd Edition), D.J. Griffiths, Pearson Education, Dorling Kindersley, 2007, ISBN 81-7758-293-3
- ↑ Physics for Scientists and Engineers - with Modern Physics (6th Edition), P. A. Tipler, G. Mosca, Freeman, 2008, ISBN 0-7167-8964-7
- ↑ Tai L Chow (2006).
*Introduction to Electromagnetic Theory: A modern perspective*. Jones & Bartlett. pp. 130–131. ISBN 0-7637-3827-1. - ↑ Griffiths, D.J. (1999).
*Introduction to Electrodynamics*(3rd ed.). Pearson/Addison-Wesley. p. 213. ISBN 0-13-805326-X. - ↑ A. Pressman; et al. (2009).
*Switching power supply design*(3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-07-148272-1. - ↑ Murali, Raghunath; Yang, Yinxiao; Brenner, Kevin; Beck, Thomas; Meindl, James D. (2009). "Breakdown current density of graphene nanoribbons".
*Applied Physics Letters*.**94**(24): 243114. arXiv: 0906.4156 . Bibcode:2009ApPhL..94x3114M. doi:10.1063/1.3147183. ISSN 0003-6951. S2CID 55785299. - ↑ Fall, C. P.; Marland, E. S.; Wagner, J. M.; Tyson, J. J., eds. (2002).
*Computational Cell Biology*. New York: Springer. p. 28. ISBN 9780387224596. - ↑ Weir, E. K.; Hume, J. R.; Reeves, J. T., eds. (1993). "The electrophysiology of smooth muscle cells and techniques for studying ion channels".
*Ion flux in pulmonary vascular control*. New York: Springer Science. p. 29. ISBN 9780387224596. - ↑ Xenon lamp photocathodes

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