**Electromagnetic** or **magnetic induction** is the production of an electromotive force (emf) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

- History
- Theory
- Faraday's law of induction and Lenz's law
- Maxwell–Faraday equation
- Faraday's law and relativity
- Applications
- Electrical generator
- Electrical transformer
- Magnetic flow meter
- Eddy currents
- Electromagnet laminations
- Parasitic induction within conductors
- See also
- References
- Notes
- References 2
- Further reading
- External links

Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell mathematically described it as Faraday's law of induction. Lenz's law describes the direction of the induced field. Faraday's law was later generalized to become the Maxwell–Faraday equation, one of the four Maxwell equations in his theory of electromagnetism.

Electromagnetic induction has found many applications, including electrical components such as inductors and transformers, and devices such as electric motors and generators.

Electromagnetic induction was discovered by Michael Faraday, published in 1831.^{ [3] }^{ [4] } It was discovered independently by Joseph Henry in 1832.^{ [5] }^{ [6] }

In Faraday's first experimental demonstration (August 29, 1831), he wrapped two wires around opposite sides of an iron ring or "torus" (an arrangement similar to a modern toroidal transformer).^{[ citation needed ]} Based on his understanding of electromagnets, he expected that, when current started to flow in one wire, a sort of wave would travel through the ring and cause some electrical effect on the opposite side. He plugged one wire into a galvanometer, and watched it as he connected the other wire to a battery. He saw a transient current, which he called a "wave of electricity", when he connected the wire to the battery and another when he disconnected it.^{ [7] } This induction was due to the change in magnetic flux that occurred when the battery was connected and disconnected.^{ [2] } Within two months, Faraday found several other manifestations of electromagnetic induction. For example, he saw transient currents when he quickly slid a bar magnet in and out of a coil of wires, and he generated a steady (DC) current by rotating a copper disk near the bar magnet with a sliding electrical lead ("Faraday's disk").^{ [8] }

Faraday explained electromagnetic induction using a concept he called lines of force. However, scientists at the time widely rejected his theoretical ideas, mainly because they were not formulated mathematically.^{ [9] } An exception was James Clerk Maxwell, who used Faraday's ideas as the basis of his quantitative electromagnetic theory.^{ [9] }^{ [10] }^{ [11] } In Maxwell's model, the time varying aspect of electromagnetic induction is expressed as a differential equation, which Oliver Heaviside referred to as Faraday's law even though it is slightly different from Faraday's original formulation and does not describe motional emf. Heaviside's version (see Maxwell–Faraday equation below) is the form recognized today in the group of equations known as Maxwell's equations.

In 1834 Heinrich Lenz formulated the law named after him to describe the "flux through the circuit". Lenz's law gives the direction of the induced emf and current resulting from electromagnetic induction.

Faraday's law of induction makes use of the magnetic flux Φ_{B} through a region of space enclosed by a wire loop. The magnetic flux is defined by a surface integral:^{ [12] }

where *d***A** is an element of the surface Σ enclosed by the wire loop, **B** is the magnetic field. The dot product **B**·*d***A** corresponds to an infinitesimal amount of magnetic flux. In more visual terms, the magnetic flux through the wire loop is proportional to the number of magnetic field lines that pass through the loop.

When the flux through the surface changes, Faraday's law of induction says that the wire loop acquires an electromotive force (emf).^{ [note 1] } The most widespread version of this law states that the induced electromotive force in any closed circuit is equal to the rate of change of the magnetic flux enclosed by the circuit:^{ [16] }^{ [17] }

where is the emf and Φ_{B} is the magnetic flux. The direction of the electromotive force is given by Lenz's law which states that an induced current will flow in the direction that will oppose the change which produced it.^{ [18] } This is due to the negative sign in the previous equation. To increase the generated emf, a common approach is to exploit flux linkage by creating a tightly wound coil of wire, composed of *N* identical turns, each with the same magnetic flux going through them. The resulting emf is then *N* times that of one single wire.^{ [19] }^{ [20] }

Generating an emf through a variation of the magnetic flux through the surface of a wire loop can be achieved in several ways:

- the magnetic field
**B**changes (e.g. an alternating magnetic field, or moving a wire loop towards a bar magnet where the B field is stronger), - the wire loop is deformed and the surface Σ changes,
- the orientation of the surface
*d***A**changes (e.g. spinning a wire loop into a fixed magnetic field), - any combination of the above

In general, the relation between the emf in a wire loop encircling a surface Σ, and the electric field **E** in the wire is given by

where *d***ℓ** is an element of contour of the surface Σ, combining this with the definition of flux

we can write the integral form of the Maxwell–Faraday equation

It is one of the four Maxwell's equations, and therefore plays a fundamental role in the theory of classical electromagnetism.

Faraday's law describes two different phenomena: the *motional emf* generated by a magnetic force on a moving wire (see Lorentz force), and the *transformer emf* this is generated by an electric force due to a changing magnetic field (due to the differential form of the Maxwell–Faraday equation). James Clerk Maxwell drew attention to the separate physical phenomena in 1861.^{ [21] }^{ [22] } This is believed to be a unique example in physics of where such a fundamental law is invoked to explain two such different phenomena.^{ [23] }

Albert Einstein noticed that the two situations both corresponded to a relative movement between a conductor and a magnet, and the outcome was unaffected by which one was moving. This was one of the principal paths that led him to develop special relativity.^{ [24] }

The principles of electromagnetic induction are applied in many devices and systems, including:

- Current clamp
- Electric generators
- Electromagnetic forming
- Graphics tablet
- Hall effect sensors
- Induction cooking
- Induction motors
- Induction sealing
- Induction welding
- Inductive charging
- Inductors
- Magnetic flow meters
- Mechanically powered flashlight
- Near-field communications
- Pickups
- Rowland ring
- Transcranial magnetic stimulation
- Transformers
- Wireless energy transfer

The emf generated by Faraday's law of induction due to relative movement of a circuit and a magnetic field is the phenomenon underlying electrical generators. When a permanent magnet is moved relative to a conductor, or vice versa, an electromotive force is created. If the wire is connected through an electrical load, current will flow, and thus electrical energy is generated, converting the mechanical energy of motion to electrical energy. For example, the *drum generator* is based upon the figure to the bottom-right. A different implementation of this idea is the Faraday's disc, shown in simplified form on the right.

In the Faraday's disc example, the disc is rotated in a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the disc, causing a current to flow in the radial arm due to the Lorentz force. Mechanical work is necessary to drive this current. When the generated current flows through the conducting rim, a magnetic field is generated by this current through Ampère's circuital law (labelled "induced B" in the figure). The rim thus becomes an electromagnet that resists rotation of the disc (an example of Lenz's law). On the far side of the figure, the return current flows from the rotating arm through the far side of the rim to the bottom brush. The B-field induced by this return current opposes the applied B-field, tending to *decrease* the flux through that side of the circuit, opposing the *increase* in flux due to rotation. On the near side of the figure, the return current flows from the rotating arm through the near side of the rim to the bottom brush. The induced B-field *increases* the flux on this side of the circuit, opposing the *decrease* in flux due to r the rotation. The energy required to keep the disc moving, despite this reactive force, is exactly equal to the electrical energy generated (plus energy wasted due to friction, Joule heating, and other inefficiencies). This behavior is common to all generators converting mechanical energy to electrical energy.

When the electric current in a loop of wire changes, the changing current creates a changing magnetic field. A second wire in reach of this magnetic field will experience this change in magnetic field as a change in its coupled magnetic flux, . Therefore, an electromotive force is set up in the second loop called the induced emf or transformer emf. If the two ends of this loop are connected through an electrical load, current will flow.

A current clamp is a type of transformer with a split core which can be spread apart and clipped onto a wire or coil to either measure the current in it or, in reverse, to induce a voltage. Unlike conventional instruments the clamp does not make electrical contact with the conductor or require it to be disconnected during attachment of the clamp.

Faraday's law is used for measuring the flow of electrically conductive liquids and slurries. Such instruments are called magnetic flow meters. The induced voltage ε generated in the magnetic field *B* due to a conductive liquid moving at velocity *v* is thus given by:

where ℓ is the distance between electrodes in the magnetic flow meter.

Electrical conductors moving through a steady magnetic field, or stationary conductors within a changing magnetic field, will have circular currents induced within them by induction, called eddy currents. Eddy currents flow in closed loops in planes perpendicular to the magnetic field. They have useful applications in eddy current brakes and induction heating systems. However eddy currents induced in the metal magnetic cores of transformers and AC motors and generators are undesirable since they dissipate energy (called core losses) as heat in the resistance of the metal. Cores for these devices use a number of methods to reduce eddy currents:

- Cores of low frequency alternating current electromagnets and transformers, instead of being solid metal, are often made of stacks of metal sheets, called
*laminations*, separated by nonconductive coatings. These thin plates reduce the undesirable parasitic eddy currents, as described below. - Inductors and transformers used at higher frequencies often have magnetic cores made of nonconductive magnetic materials such as ferrite or iron powder held together with a resin binder.

Eddy currents occur when a solid metallic mass is rotated in a magnetic field, because the outer portion of the metal cuts more magnetic lines of force than the inner portion; hence the induced electromotive force is not uniform; this tends to cause electric currents between the points of greatest and least potential. Eddy currents consume a considerable amount of energy and often cause a harmful rise in temperature.^{ [25] }

Only five laminations or plates are shown in this example, so as to show the subdivision of the eddy currents. In practical use, the number of laminations or punchings ranges from 40 to 66 per inch (16 to 26 per centimetre), and brings the eddy current loss down to about one percent. While the plates can be separated by insulation, the voltage is so low that the natural rust/oxide coating of the plates is enough to prevent current flow across the laminations.^{ [25] }

This is a rotor approximately 20 mm in diameter from a DC motor used in a CD player. Note the laminations of the electromagnet pole pieces, used to limit parasitic inductive losses.

In this illustration, a solid copper bar conductor on a rotating armature is just passing under the tip of the pole piece N of the field magnet. Note the uneven distribution of the lines of force across the copper bar. The magnetic field is more concentrated and thus stronger on the left edge of the copper bar (a,b) while the field is weaker on the right edge (c,d). Since the two edges of the bar move with the same velocity, this difference in field strength across the bar creates whorls or current eddies within the copper bar.^{ [25] }

High current power-frequency devices, such as electric motors, generators and transformers, use multiple small conductors in parallel to break up the eddy flows that can form within large solid conductors. The same principle is applied to transformers used at higher than power frequency, for example, those used in switch-mode power supplies and the intermediate frequency coupling transformers of radio receivers.

Articles about |

Electromagnetism |
---|

An **electromagnetic field** is a classical field produced by accelerating electric charges. It is the field described by classical electrodynamics and is the classical counterpart to the quantized electromagnetic field tensor in quantum electrodynamics. The electromagnetic field propagates at the speed of light and interacts with charges and currents. Its quantum counterpart is one of the four fundamental forces of nature

An **inductor**, also called a **coil**, **choke**, or **reactor**, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it. An inductor typically consists of an insulated wire wound into a coil.

In physics the **Lorentz force** is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. A particle of charge q moving with a velocity **v** in an electric field **E** and a magnetic field **B** experiences a force of

**Maxwell's equations**, or **Maxwell–Heaviside equations**, are a set of coupled partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits. The equations provide a mathematical model for electric, optical, and radio technologies, such as power generation, electric motors, wireless communication, lenses, radar etc. They describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated by charges, currents, and changes of the fields. The equations are named after the physicist and mathematician James Clerk Maxwell, who, in 1861 and 1862, published an early form of the equations that included the Lorentz force law. Maxwell first used the equations to propose that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon. The modern form of the equations in their most common formulation is credited to Oliver Heaviside.

A **transformer** is a passive component that transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to another circuit, or multiple circuits. A varying current in any coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core, which induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) across any other coils wound around the same core. Electrical energy can be transferred between separate coils without a metallic (conductive) connection between the two circuits. Faraday's law of induction, discovered in 1831, describes the induced voltage effect in any coil due to a changing magnetic flux encircled by the coil.

**Voltage**, also known as **electric pressure**, **electric tension**, or **(electric) potential difference**, is the difference in electric potential between two points. In a static electric field, it corresponds to the work needed per unit of charge to move a test charge between the two points. In the International System of Units, the derived unit for voltage is named *volt*. In SI units, work per unit charge is expressed as joules per coulomb, where 1 volt = 1 joule per 1 coulomb. The old SI definition for *volt* used power and current; starting in 1990, the quantum Hall and Josephson effect were used, and recently (2019) fundamental physical constants have been introduced for the definition of all SI units and derived units. Voltage difference is denoted symbolically by , simplified *V*, especially in English-speaking countries, or by *U* internationally, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws.

A **magnetic field** is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence on moving electric charges, electric currents, and magnetic materials. A moving charge in a magnetic field experiences a force perpendicular to its own velocity and to the magnetic field. A permanent magnet's magnetic field pulls on ferromagnetic materials such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets. In addition, a magnetic field that varies with location will exert a force on a range of non-magnetic materials by affecting the motion of their outer atomic electrons. Magnetic fields surround magnetized materials, and are created by electric currents such as those used in electromagnets, and by electric fields varying in time. Since both strength and direction of a magnetic field may vary with location, it is described mathematically by a function assigning a vector to each point of space, called a vector field.

In electrical engineering, two conductors are said to be **inductively coupled** or **magnetically coupled** when they are configured in a way such that change in current through one wire induces a voltage across the ends of the other wire through electromagnetic induction. A changing current through the first wire creates a changing magnetic field around it by Ampere's circuital law. The changing magnetic field induces an electromotive force in the second wire by Faraday's law of induction. The amount of inductive coupling between two conductors is measured by their mutual inductance.

**Flux** describes any effect that appears to pass or travel through a surface or substance. Flux is a concept in applied mathematics and vector calculus which has many applications to physics. For transport phenomena, flux is a vector quantity, describing the magnitude and direction of the flow of a substance or property. In vector calculus flux is a scalar quantity, defined as the surface integral of the perpendicular component of a vector field over a surface.

In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the **magnetic flux** through a surface is the surface integral of the normal component of the magnetic field **B** over that surface. It is usually denoted Φ or Φ_{B}. The SI unit of magnetic flux is the weber, and the CGS unit is the maxwell. Magnetic flux is usually measured with a fluxmeter, which contains measuring coils and electronics, that evaluates the change of voltage in the measuring coils to calculate the measurement of magnetic flux.

In electromagnetism and electronics, **electromotive force** is an energy transfer to an electric circuit per unit of electric charge, measured in volts. Devices called electrical *transducers* provide an emf by converting other forms of energy into electrical energy. Other electrical equipment also produce an emf, such as batteries, which convert chemical energy, and generators, which convert mechanical energy. This energy conversion is achieved by physical forces applying physical work on electric charges. However, electromotive force itself is not a physical force.

**Inductance** is the tendency of an electrical conductor to oppose a change in the electric current flowing through it. The flow of electric current creates a magnetic field around the conductor. The field strength depends on the magnitude of the current, and follows any changes in current. From Faraday's law of induction, any change in magnetic field through a circuit induces an electromotive force (EMF) (voltage) in the conductors, a process known as electromagnetic induction. This induced voltage created by the changing current has the effect of opposing the change in current. This is stated by Lenz's law, and the voltage is called *back EMF*.

**Lenz's law** states that the direction of the electric current induced in a conductor by a changing magnetic field is such that the magnetic field created by the induced current opposes changes in the initial magnetic field. It is named after physicist Emil Lenz, who formulated it in 1834.

**Eddy currents** are loops of electrical current induced within conductors by a changing magnetic field in the conductor according to Faraday's law of induction or by the relative motion of a conductor in a magnetic field. Eddy currents flow in closed loops within conductors, in planes perpendicular to the magnetic field. They can be induced within nearby stationary conductors by a time-varying magnetic field created by an AC electromagnet or transformer, for example, or by relative motion between a magnet and a nearby conductor. The magnitude of the current in a given loop is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field, the area of the loop, and the rate of change of flux, and inversely proportional to the resistivity of the material. When graphed, these circular currents within a piece of metal look vaguely like eddies or whirlpools in a liquid.

**Electrodynamic suspension** (**EDS**) is a form of magnetic levitation in which there are conductors which are exposed to time-varying magnetic fields. This induces eddy currents in the conductors that creates a repulsive magnetic field which holds the two objects apart.

"**A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field**" is a paper by James Clerk Maxwell on electromagnetism, published in 1865. In the paper, Maxwell derives an electromagnetic wave equation with a velocity for light in close agreement with measurements made by experiment, and deduces that light is an electromagnetic wave.

**Faraday's law of induction** is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (emf)—a phenomenon known as electromagnetic induction. It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids.

A **magnetic circuit** is made up of one or more closed loop paths containing a magnetic flux. The flux is usually generated by permanent magnets or electromagnets and confined to the path by magnetic cores consisting of ferromagnetic materials like iron, although there may be air gaps or other materials in the path. Magnetic circuits are employed to efficiently channel magnetic fields in many devices such as electric motors, generators, transformers, relays, lifting electromagnets, SQUIDs, galvanometers, and magnetic recording heads.

The **Faraday paradox** or **Faraday's paradox** is any experiment in which Michael Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction appears to predict an incorrect result. The paradoxes fall into two classes:

**Blondel's experiments** are a series of experiments performed by physicist André Blondel in 1914 in order to determine what was the most general law of electromagnetic induction. In fact, noted Blondel, "*Significant discussions have been raised repeatedly on the question of what is the most general law of induction: we should consider the electromotive force* (*e.m.f.*) *as the product of any variation of magnetic flux**surrounding a conductor or of the fact that the conductor sweeps part of this flux?"*.

- ↑ The EMF is the voltage that would be measured by cutting the wire to create an open circuit, and attaching a voltmeter to the leads. Mathematically, is defined as the energy available from a unit charge that has traveled once around the wire loop.
^{ [13] }^{ [14] }^{ [15] }

- ↑ Poyser, A. W. (1892).
*Magnetism and Electricity: A Manual for Students in Advanced Classes*. London and New York: Longmans, Green, & Co. p. 285. - 1 2 Giancoli, Douglas C. (1998).
*Physics: Principles with Applications*(Fifth ed.). pp. 623–624. - ↑ Ulaby, Fawwaz (2007).
*Fundamentals of applied electromagnetics*(5th ed.). Pearson:Prentice Hall. p. 255. ISBN 978-0-13-241326-8. - ↑ "Joseph Henry".
*Distinguished Members Gallery, National Academy of Sciences*. Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2006-11-30. - ↑ Errede, Steven (2007). "A Brief History of The Development of Classical Electrodynamics" (PDF).
- ↑ "Electromagnetism".
*Smithsonian Institution Archives*. - ↑
*Michael Faraday*, by L. Pearce Williams, p. 182–3 - ↑
*Michael Faraday*, by L. Pearce Williams, p. 191–5 - 1 2
*Michael Faraday*, by L. Pearce Williams, p. 510 - ↑ Maxwell, James Clerk (1904),
*A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism*, Vol. II, Third Edition. Oxford University Press, pp. 178–9 and 189. - ↑ "Archives Biographies: Michael Faraday", The Institution of Engineering and Technology.
- ↑ Good, R. H. (1999).
*Classical Electromagnetism*. Saunders College Publishing. p. 107. ISBN 0-03-022353-9. - ↑ Feynman, R. P.; Leighton, R. B.; Sands, M. L. (2006).
*The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Volume 2*. Pearson/Addison-Wesley. p. 17-2. ISBN 0-8053-9049-9. - ↑ Griffiths, D. J. (1999).
*Introduction to Electrodynamics*(3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. pp. 301–303. ISBN 0-13-805326-X. - ↑ Tipler, P. A.; Mosca, G. (2003).
*Physics for Scientists and Engineers*(5th ed.). W.H. Freeman. p. 795. ISBN 978-0716708100. - ↑ Jordan, E.; Balmain, K. G. (1968).
*Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems*(2nd ed.). Prentice-Hall. p. 100. ISBN 9780132499958. - ↑ Hayt, W. (1989).
*Engineering Electromagnetics*(5th ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 312. ISBN 0-07-027406-1. - ↑ Schmitt, R. (2002).
*Electromagnetics Explained*. Newnes. p. 75. ISBN 9780750674034. - ↑ Whelan, P. M.; Hodgeson, M. J. (1978).
*Essential Principles of Physics*(2nd ed.). John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-3382-1. - ↑ Nave, C. R. "Faraday's Law".
*HyperPhysics*. Georgia State University . Retrieved 2011-08-29. - ↑ Maxwell, J. C. (1861). "On physical lines of force".
*Philosophical Magazine*.**90**(139): 11–23. doi:10.1080/14786446108643033. - ↑ Griffiths, D. J. (1999).
*Introduction to Electrodynamics*(3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. pp. 301–303. ISBN 0-13-805326-X. Note that the law relating flux to EMF, which this article calls "Faraday's law", is referred to by Griffiths as the "universal flux rule". He uses the term "Faraday's law" to refer to what this article calls the "Maxwell–Faraday equation". - ↑ "The flux rule" is the terminology that Feynman uses to refer to the law relating magnetic flux to EMF. Feynman, R. P.; Leighton, R. B.; Sands, M. L. (2006).
*The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Volume II*. Pearson/Addison-Wesley. p. 17-2. ISBN 0-8053-9049-9. - ↑ Einstein, A. (1905). "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" (PDF).
*Annalen der Physik*.**17**(10): 891–921. Bibcode:1905AnP...322..891E. doi: 10.1002/andp.19053221004 .- Translated in Einstein, A. (1923). "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" (PDF).
*The Principle of Relativity*. Jeffery, G.B.; Perret, W. (transl.). London: Methuen and Company.

- Translated in Einstein, A. (1923). "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" (PDF).
- 1 2 3 Images and reference text are from the public domain book:
*Hawkins Electrical Guide*, Volume 1, Chapter 19: Theory of the Armature, pp. 270–273, Copyright 1917 by Theo. Audel & Co., Printed in the United States

- Maxwell, James Clerk (1881),
*A treatise on electricity and magnetism, Vol. II*, Chapter III, §530, p. 178. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-486-60637-6.

- Media related to Electromagnetic induction at Wikimedia Commons
- Tankersley and Mosca:
*Introducing Faraday's law* - A free java simulation on motional EMF

This page is based on this Wikipedia article

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.