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In physics (specifically in electromagnetism) the **Lorentz force** (or **electromagnetic force**) is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. A particle of charge *q* moving with a velocity **v** in an electric field **E** and a magnetic field **B** experiences a force of

**Physics** is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves.

**Electromagnetism** is a branch of physics involving the study of the **electromagnetic force**, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electric fields and magnetic fields, is responsible for electromagnetic radiation such as light, and is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature. The other three fundamental interactions are the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and gravitation. At high energy the weak force and electromagnetic force are unified as a single electroweak force.

In physics, a **force** is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity, i.e., to accelerate. Force can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. It is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol **F**.

- Equation
- Charged particle
- Continuous charge distribution
- Equation in cgs units
- History
- Trajectories of particles due to the Lorentz force
- Significance of the Lorentz force
- Lorentz force law as the definition of E and B
- Force on a current-carrying wire
- EMF
- Lorentz force and Faraday's law of induction
- Lorentz force in terms of potentials
- Lorentz force and analytical mechanics
- Relativistic form of the Lorentz force
- Covariant form of the Lorentz force
- Lorentz force in spacetime algebra (STA)
- Lorentz force in general relativity
- Applications
- See also
- Footnotes
- References
- External links

(in SI units ^{ [1] }^{ [2] }). Variations on this basic formula describe the magnetic force on a current-carrying wire (sometimes called Laplace force), the electromotive force in a wire loop moving through a magnetic field (an aspect of Faraday's law of induction), and the force on a charged particle which might be traveling near the speed of light (relativistic form of the Lorentz force).

The **International System of Units** is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units, which are the second, metre, kilogram, ampere, kelvin, mole, candela, and a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system also specifies names for 22 derived units, such as lumen and watt, for other common physical quantities.

**Electromotive force**, abbreviated **emf**, is the electrical action produced by a non-electrical source. A device that converts other forms of energy into electrical energy, such as a battery or generator, provides an emf as its output. Sometimes an analogy to water "pressure" is used to describe electromotive force.

**Faraday's law of induction** is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction. It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids.

Historians suggest that the law is implicit in a paper by James Clerk Maxwell, published in 1865.^{ [3] } Hendrik Lorentz arrived in a complete derivation in 1895,^{ [4] } identifying the contribution of the electric force a few years after Oliver Heaviside correctly identified the contribution of the magnetic force.^{ [5] }

**James Clerk Maxwell** was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics. His most notable achievement was to formulate the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation, bringing together for the first time electricity, magnetism, and light as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics" after the first one realised by Isaac Newton.

**Hendrik Antoon Lorentz** was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect. He also derived the transformation equations underpinning Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity.

**Oliver Heaviside** FRS was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations, reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis. Although at odds with the scientific establishment for most of his life, Heaviside changed the face of telecommunications, mathematics, and science for years to come.

The force **F** acting on a particle of electric charge *q* with instantaneous velocity **v**, due to an external electric field **E** and magnetic field **B**, is given by (in SI units ^{ [1] }):^{ [6] }

**Electric charge** is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charge: *positive* and *negative*. Like charges repel and unlike attract. An object with an absence of net charge is referred to as *neutral*. Early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics, and is still accurate for problems that do not require consideration of quantum effects.

where × is the vector cross product (all boldface quantities are vectors). In terms of cartesian components, we have:

In general, the electric and magnetic fields are functions of the position and time. Therefore, explicitly, the Lorentz force can be written as:

in which **r** is the position vector of the charged particle, *t* is time, and the overdot is a time derivative.

A positively charged particle will be accelerated in the *same* linear orientation as the **E** field, but will curve perpendicularly to both the instantaneous velocity vector **v** and the **B** field according to the right-hand rule (in detail, if the fingers of the right hand are extended to point in the direction of **v** and are then curled to point in the direction of **B**, then the extended thumb will point in the direction of **F**).

In mathematics and physics, the **right-hand rule** is a common mnemonic for understanding orientation of axes in three-dimensional space.

The term *q***E** is called the **electric force**, while the term *q*(**v**×**B**) is called the **magnetic force**.^{ [7] } According to some definitions, the term "Lorentz force" refers specifically to the formula for the magnetic force,^{ [8] } with the *total* electromagnetic force (including the electric force) given some other (nonstandard) name. This article will *not* follow this nomenclature: In what follows, the term "Lorentz force" will refer to the expression for the total force.

The magnetic force component of the Lorentz force manifests itself as the force that acts on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field. In that context, it is also called the Laplace force.

The Lorentz force is a force exerted by the electromagnetic field on the charged particle, that is, it is the rate at which linear momentum is transferred from the electromagnetic field to the particle. Associated with it is the power which is the rate at which energy is transferred from the electromagnetic field to the particle. That power is

- .

Notice that the magnetic field does not contribute to the power because the magnetic force is always perpendicular to the velocity of the particle.

For a continuous charge distribution in motion, the Lorentz force equation becomes:

where *d***F** is the force on a small piece of the charge distribution with charge *dq*. If both sides of this equation are divided by the volume of this small piece of the charge distribution *dV*, the result is:

where **f** is the *force density* (force per unit volume) and *ρ* is the charge density (charge per unit volume). Next, the current density corresponding to the motion of the charge continuum is

so the continuous analogue to the equation is^{ [9] }

The total force is the volume integral over the charge distribution:

By eliminating ρ and **J**, using Maxwell's equations, and manipulating using the theorems of vector calculus, this form of the equation can be used to derive the Maxwell stress tensor **σ**, in turn this can be combined with the Poynting vector **S** to obtain the electromagnetic stress–energy tensor **T** used in general relativity.^{ [9] }

In terms of **σ** and **S**, another way to write the Lorentz force (per unit volume) is^{ [9] }

where *c* is the speed of light and ∇· denotes the divergence of a tensor field. Rather than the amount of charge and its velocity in electric and magnetic fields, this equation relates the energy flux (flow of *energy* per unit time per unit distance) in the fields to the force exerted on a charge distribution. See Covariant formulation of classical electromagnetism for more details.

The density of power associated with the Lorentz force in a material medium is

- .

If we separate the total charge and total current into their free and bound parts, we get that the density of the Lorentz force is

- .

where: ρ_{f} is the density of free charge; *P* is the polarization density; *J*_{f} is the density of free current; and *M* is the magnetization density. In this way, the Lorentz force can explain the torque applied to a permanent magnet by the magnetic field. The density of the associated power is

- .

The above-mentioned formulae use SI units which are the most common among experimentalists, technicians, and engineers. In cgs-Gaussian units, which are somewhat more common among theoretical physicists as well as condensed matter experimentalists, one has instead

where *c* is the speed of light. Although this equation looks slightly different, it is completely equivalent, since one has the following relations:^{ [1] }

where ε_{0} is the vacuum permittivity and μ_{0} the vacuum permeability. In practice, the subscripts "cgs" and "SI" are always omitted, and the unit system has to be assessed from context.

Early attempts to quantitatively describe the electromagnetic force were made in the mid-18th century. It was proposed that the force on magnetic poles, by Johann Tobias Mayer and others in 1760,^{ [10] } and electrically charged objects, by Henry Cavendish in 1762,^{ [11] } obeyed an inverse-square law. However, in both cases the experimental proof was neither complete nor conclusive. It was not until 1784 when Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, using a torsion balance, was able to definitively show through experiment that this was true.^{ [12] } Soon after the discovery in 1820 by H. C. Ørsted that a magnetic needle is acted on by a voltaic current, André-Marie Ampère that same year was able to devise through experimentation the formula for the angular dependence of the force between two current elements.^{ [13] }^{ [14] } In all these descriptions, the force was always given in terms of the properties of the objects involved and the distances between them rather than in terms of electric and magnetic fields.^{ [15] }

The modern concept of electric and magnetic fields first arose in the theories of Michael Faraday, particularly his idea of lines of force, later to be given full mathematical description by Lord Kelvin and James Clerk Maxwell.^{ [16] } From a modern perspective it is possible to identify in Maxwell's 1865 formulation of his field equations a form of the Lorentz force equation in relation to electric currents,^{ [3] } however, in the time of Maxwell it was not evident how his equations related to the forces on moving charged objects. J. J. Thomson was the first to attempt to derive from Maxwell's field equations the electromagnetic forces on a moving charged object in terms of the object's properties and external fields. Interested in determining the electromagnetic behavior of the charged particles in cathode rays, Thomson published a paper in 1881 wherein he gave the force on the particles due to an external magnetic field as^{ [5] }

Thomson derived the correct basic form of the formula, but, because of some miscalculations and an incomplete description of the displacement current, included an incorrect scale-factor of a half in front of the formula. Oliver Heaviside invented the modern vector notation and applied it to Maxwell's field equations; he also (in 1885 and 1889) had fixed the mistakes of Thomson's derivation and arrived at the correct form of the magnetic force on a moving charged object.^{ [5] }^{ [17] }^{ [18] } Finally, in 1895,^{ [4] }^{ [19] } Hendrik Lorentz derived the modern form of the formula for the electromagnetic force which includes the contributions to the total force from both the electric and the magnetic fields. Lorentz began by abandoning the Maxwellian descriptions of the ether and conduction. Instead, Lorentz made a distinction between matter and the luminiferous aether and sought to apply the Maxwell equations at a microscopic scale. Using Heaviside's version of the Maxwell equations for a stationary ether and applying Lagrangian mechanics (see below), Lorentz arrived at the correct and complete form of the force law that now bears his name.^{ [20] }^{ [21] }

In many cases of practical interest, the motion in a magnetic field of an electrically charged particle (such as an electron or ion in a plasma) can be treated as the superposition of a relatively fast circular motion around a point called the **guiding center** and a relatively slow **drift** of this point. The drift speeds may differ for various species depending on their charge states, masses, or temperatures, possibly resulting in electric currents or chemical separation.

While the modern Maxwell's equations describe how electrically charged particles and currents or moving charged particles give rise to electric and magnetic fields, the Lorentz force law completes that picture by describing the force acting on a moving point charge *q* in the presence of electromagnetic fields.^{ [6] }^{ [22] } The Lorentz force law describes the effect of **E** and **B** upon a point charge, but such electromagnetic forces are not the entire picture. Charged particles are possibly coupled to other forces, notably gravity and nuclear forces. Thus, Maxwell's equations do not stand separate from other physical laws, but are coupled to them via the charge and current densities. The response of a point charge to the Lorentz law is one aspect; the generation of **E** and **B** by currents and charges is another.

In real materials the Lorentz force is inadequate to describe the collective behavior of charged particles, both in principle and as a matter of computation. The charged particles in a material medium not only respond to the **E** and **B** fields but also generate these fields. Complex transport equations must be solved to determine the time and spatial response of charges, for example, the Boltzmann equation or the Fokker–Planck equation or the Navier–Stokes equations. For example, see magnetohydrodynamics, fluid dynamics, electrohydrodynamics, superconductivity, stellar evolution. An entire physical apparatus for dealing with these matters has developed. See for example, Green–Kubo relations and Green's function (many-body theory).

In many textbook treatments of classical electromagnetism, the Lorentz force Law is used as the *definition* of the electric and magnetic fields **E** and **B**.^{ [23] }^{ [24] }^{ [25] } To be specific, the Lorentz force is understood to be the following empirical statement:

*The electromagnetic force*q**F**on a test charge at a given point and time is a certain function of its charge*and velocity*:**v**, which can be parameterized by exactly two vectors**E**and**B**, in the functional form

This is valid, even for particles approaching the speed of light (that is, magnitude of **v** = |**v**| ≈ *c*).^{ [26] } So the two vector fields **E** and **B** are thereby defined throughout space and time, and these are called the "electric field" and "magnetic field". The fields are defined everywhere in space and time with respect to what force a test charge would receive regardless of whether a charge is present to experience the force.

As a definition of **E** and **B**, the Lorentz force is only a definition in principle because a real particle (as opposed to the hypothetical "test charge" of infinitesimally-small mass and charge) would generate its own finite **E** and **B** fields, which would alter the electromagnetic force that it experiences. In addition, if the charge experiences acceleration, as if forced into a curved trajectory by some external agency, it emits radiation that causes braking of its motion. See for example Bremsstrahlung and synchrotron light. These effects occur through both a direct effect (called the radiation reaction force) and indirectly (by affecting the motion of nearby charges and currents). Moreover, net force must include gravity, electroweak, and any other forces aside from electromagnetic force.

When a wire carrying an electric current is placed in a magnetic field, each of the moving charges, which comprise the current, experiences the Lorentz force, and together they can create a macroscopic force on the wire (sometimes called the **Laplace force**). By combining the Lorentz force law above with the definition of electric current, the following equation results, in the case of a straight, stationary wire:^{ [27] }

where **ℓ** is a vector whose magnitude is the length of wire, and whose direction is along the wire, aligned with the direction of conventional current charge flow *I*.

If the wire is not straight but curved, the force on it can be computed by applying this formula to each infinitesimal segment of wire *d***ℓ**, then adding up all these forces by integration. Formally, the net force on a stationary, rigid wire carrying a steady current *I* is

This is the net force. In addition, there will usually be torque, plus other effects if the wire is not perfectly rigid.

One application of this is Ampère's force law, which describes how two current-carrying wires can attract or repel each other, since each experiences a Lorentz force from the other's magnetic field. For more information, see the article: Ampère's force law.

The magnetic force (*q***v** × **B**) component of the Lorentz force is responsible for *motional* electromotive force (or *motional EMF*), the phenomenon underlying many electrical generators. When a conductor is moved through a magnetic field, the magnetic field exerts opposite forces on electrons and nuclei in the wire, and this creates the EMF. The term "motional EMF" is applied to this phenomenon, since the EMF is due to the *motion* of the wire.

In other electrical generators, the magnets move, while the conductors do not. In this case, the EMF is due to the electric force (*q***E**) term in the Lorentz Force equation. The electric field in question is created by the changing magnetic field, resulting in an *induced* EMF, as described by the Maxwell–Faraday equation (one of the four modern Maxwell's equations).^{ [28] }

Both of these EMFs, despite their apparently distinct origins, are described by the same equation, namely, the EMF is the rate of change of magnetic flux through the wire. (This is Faraday's law of induction, see below.) Einstein's special theory of relativity was partially motivated by the desire to better understand this link between the two effects.^{ [28] } In fact, the electric and magnetic fields are different facets of the same electromagnetic field, and in moving from one inertial frame to another, the solenoidal vector field portion of the *E*-field can change in whole or in part to a *B*-field or *vice versa*.^{ [29] }

Given a loop of wire in a magnetic field, Faraday's law of induction states the induced electromotive force (EMF) in the wire is:

where

is the magnetic flux through the loop, **B** is the magnetic field, Σ(*t*) is a surface bounded by the closed contour ∂Σ(*t*), at all at time *t*, d**A** is an infinitesimal vector area element of Σ(*t*) (magnitude is the area of an infinitesimal patch of surface, direction is orthogonal to that surface patch).

The *sign* of the EMF is determined by Lenz's law. Note that this is valid for not only a *stationary* wire –but also for a *moving* wire.

From Faraday's law of induction (that is valid for a moving wire, for instance in a motor) and the Maxwell Equations, the Lorentz Force can be deduced. The reverse is also true, the Lorentz force and the Maxwell Equations can be used to derive the Faraday Law.

Let Σ(*t*) be the moving wire, moving together without rotation and with constant velocity **v** and Σ(*t*) be the internal surface of the wire. The EMF around the closed path ∂Σ(*t*) is given by:^{ [30] }

where

is the electric field and d**ℓ** is an infinitesimal vector element of the contour ∂Σ(*t*).

NB: Both d**ℓ** and d**A** have a sign ambiguity; to get the correct sign, the right-hand rule is used, as explained in the article Kelvin–Stokes theorem.

The above result can be compared with the version of Faraday's law of induction that appears in the modern Maxwell's equations, called here the *Maxwell–Faraday equation*:

The Maxwell–Faraday equation also can be written in an *integral form* using the Kelvin–Stokes theorem.^{ [31] }

So we have, the Maxwell Faraday equation:

and the Faraday Law,

The two are equivalent if the wire is not moving. Using the Leibniz integral rule and that *div***B** = 0, results in,

and using the Maxwell Faraday equation,

since this is valid for any wire position it implies that,

Faraday's law of induction holds whether the loop of wire is rigid and stationary, or in motion or in process of deformation, and it holds whether the magnetic field is constant in time or changing. However, there are cases where Faraday's law is either inadequate or difficult to use, and application of the underlying Lorentz force law is necessary. See inapplicability of Faraday's law.

If the magnetic field is fixed in time and the conducting loop moves through the field, the magnetic flux Φ_{B} linking the loop can change in several ways. For example, if the **B**-field varies with position, and the loop moves to a location with different **B**-field, Φ_{B} will change. Alternatively, if the loop changes orientation with respect to the **B**-field, the **B**⋅ d**A** differential element will change because of the different angle between **B** and d**A**, also changing Φ_{B}. As a third example, if a portion of the circuit is swept through a uniform, time-independent **B**-field, and another portion of the circuit is held stationary, the flux linking the entire closed circuit can change due to the shift in relative position of the circuit's component parts with time (surface ∂Σ(*t*) time-dependent). In all three cases, Faraday's law of induction then predicts the EMF generated by the change in Φ_{B}.

Note that the Maxwell Faraday's equation implies that the Electric Field **E** is non conservative when the Magnetic Field **B** varies in time, and is not expressible as the gradient of a scalar field, and not subject to the gradient theorem since its rotational is not zero.^{ [30] }^{ [32] }

The **E** and **B** fields can be replaced by the magnetic vector potential **A** and (scalar) electrostatic potential *ϕ* by

where ∇ is the gradient, ∇⋅ is the divergence, ∇× is the curl.

The force becomes

and using an identity for the triple product simplifies to

(**v** has no dependence on position, so there's no need to use Feynman's subscript notation). Using the chain rule, the total derivative of **A** is:

so the above expression can be rewritten as:

- .

With **v** = **ẋ**, we can put the equation into the convenient Euler–Lagrange form

where

and

.

The Lagrangian for a charged particle of mass *m* and charge *q* in an electromagnetic field equivalently describes the dynamics of the particle in terms of its *energy*, rather than the force exerted on it. The classical expression is given by:^{ [33] }

where **A** and *ϕ* are the potential fields as above. Using Lagrange's equations, the equation for the Lorentz force can be obtained.

Derivation of Lorentz force from classical Lagrangian (SI units) For an **A**field, a particle moving with velocity**v**=**ṙ**has potential momentum , so its potential energy is . For a*ϕ*field, the particle's potential energy is .The total potential energy is then:

and the kinetic energy is:

hence the Lagrangian:

Lagrange's equations are

(same for

*y*and*z*). So calculating the partial derivatives:equating and simplifying:

and similarly for the

*y*and*z*directions. Hence the force equation is:

The potential energy depends on the velocity of the particle, so the force is velocity dependent, so it is not conservative.

The relativistic Lagrangian is

The action is the relativistic arclength of the path of the particle in space time, minus the potential energy contribution, plus an extra contribution which quantum mechanically is an extra phase a charged particle gets when it is moving along a vector potential.

Derivation of Lorentz force from relativistic Lagrangian (SI units) The equations of motion derived by extremizing the action (see matrix calculus for the notation):

are the same as Hamilton's equations of motion:

both are equivalent to the noncanonical form:

This formula is the Lorentz force, representing the rate at which the EM field adds relativistic momentum to the particle.

Using the metric signature (1, −1, −1, −1), the Lorentz force for a charge *q* can be written in^{ [34] } covariant form:

where *p ^{α}* is the four-momentum, defined as

*τ* the proper time of the particle, *F ^{αβ}* the contravariant electromagnetic tensor

and *U* is the covariant 4-velocity of the particle, defined as:

in which

is the Lorentz factor.

The fields are transformed to a frame moving with constant relative velocity by:

where Λ* ^{μ}_{α}* is the Lorentz transformation tensor.

The *α* = 1 component (*x*-component) of the force is

Substituting the components of the covariant electromagnetic tensor *F* yields

Using the components of covariant four-velocity yields

The calculation for *α* = 2, 3 (force components in the *y* and *z* directions) yields similar results, so collecting the 3 equations into one:

and since differentials in coordinate time *dt* and proper time *dτ* are related by the Lorentz factor,

so we arrive at

This is precisely the Lorentz force law, however, it is important to note that **p** is the relativistic expression,

The electric and magnetic fields are dependent on the velocity of an observer, so the relativistic form of the Lorentz force law can best be exhibited starting from a coordinate-independent expression for the electromagnetic and magnetic fields , and an arbitrary time-direction, . This can be settled through Space-Time Algebra (or the geometric algebra of space-time), a type of Clifford's Algebra defined on a pseudo-Euclidean space,^{ [35] } as

and

is a space-time bivector (an oriented plane segment, just like a vector is an oriented line segment), which has six degrees of freedom corresponding to boosts (rotations in space-time planes) and rotations (rotations in space-space planes). The dot product with the vector pulls a vector (in the space algebra) from the translational part, while the wedge-product creates a trivector (in the space algebra) who is dual to a vector which is the usual magnetic field vector. The relativistic velocity is given by the (time-like) changes in a time-position vector , where

(which shows our choice for the metric) and the velocity is

The proper (invariant is an inadequate term because no transformation has been defined) form of the Lorentz force law is simply

Note that the order is important because between a bivector and a vector the dot product is anti-symmetric. Upon a space time split like one can obtain the velocity, and fields as above yielding the usual expression.

In the general theory of relativity the equation of motion for a particle with mass and charge , moving in a space with metric tensor and electromagnetic field , is given as

where ( is taken along the trajectory), , and .

The equation can also be written as

where is the Christoffel symbol (of the torsion-free metric connection in general relativity), or as

where is the covariant differential in general relativity (metric, torsion-free).

The Lorentz force occurs in many devices, including:

- Cyclotrons and other circular path particle accelerators
- Mass spectrometers
- Velocity Filters
- Magnetrons
- Lorentz force velocimetry

In its manifestation as the Laplace force on an electric current in a conductor, this force occurs in many devices including:

- Hall effect
- Electromagnetism
- Gravitomagnetism
- Ampère's force law
- Hendrik Lorentz
- Maxwell's equations
- Formulation of Maxwell's equations in special relativity
- Moving magnet and conductor problem
- Abraham–Lorentz force
- Larmor formula
- Cyclotron radiation
- Magnetic potential
- Magnetoresistance
- Scalar potential
- Helmholtz decomposition
- Guiding center
- Field line
- Coulomb's law
- Electromagnetic buoyancy

- 1 2 3 In SI units,
**B**is measured in teslas (symbol: T). In Gaussian-cgs units,**B**is measured in gauss (symbol: G). See e.g. "Geomagnetism Frequently Asked Questions". National Geophysical Data Center. Retrieved 21 October 2013.) - ↑ The
**H**-field is measured in amperes per metre (A/m) in SI units, and in oersteds (Oe) in cgs units. "International system of units (SI)".*NIST reference on constants, units, and uncertainty*. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 9 May 2012. - 1 2 Huray, Paul G. (2010).
*Maxwell's Equations*. Wiley-IEEE. p. 22. ISBN 0-470-54276-4. - 1 2 Per F. Dahl,
*Flash of the Cathode Rays: A History of J J Thomson's Electron*, CRC Press, 1997, p. 10. - 1 2 3 Paul J. Nahin,
*Oliver Heaviside*, JHU Press, 2002. - 1 2 See Jackson, page 2. The book lists the four modern Maxwell's equations, and then states, "Also essential for consideration of charged particle motion is the Lorentz force equation,
**F**=*q*(**E**+**v × B**), which gives the force acting on a point charge*q*in the presence of electromagnetic fields." - ↑ See Griffiths, page 204.
- ↑ For example, see the website of the Lorentz Institute or Griffiths.
- 1 2 3 Griffiths, David J. (1999).
*Introduction to electrodynamics*. reprint. with corr. (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey [u.a.]: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-805326-0. - ↑ Delon, Michel (2001).
*Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment*. Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 538. ISBN 157958246X. - ↑ Goodwin, Elliot H. (1965).
*The New Cambridge Modern History Volume 8: The American and French Revolutions, 1763–93*. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 130. ISBN 9780521045469. - ↑ Meyer, Herbert W. (1972).
*A History of Electricity and Magnetism*. Norwalk, Connecticut: Burndy Library. pp. 30–31. ISBN 0-262-13070-X. - ↑ Verschuur, Gerrit L. (1993).
*Hidden Attraction : The History And Mystery Of Magnetism*. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 78–79. ISBN 0-19-506488-7. - ↑ Darrigol, Olivier (2000).
*Electrodynamics from Ampère to Einstein*. Oxford, [England]: Oxford University Press. pp. 9, 25. ISBN 0-19-850593-0. - ↑ Verschuur, Gerrit L. (1993).
*Hidden Attraction : The History And Mystery Of Magnetism*. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 76. ISBN 0-19-506488-7. - ↑ Darrigol, Olivier (2000).
*Electrodynamics from Ampère to Einstein*. Oxford, [England]: Oxford University Press. pp. 126–131, 139–144. ISBN 0-19-850593-0. - ↑ Darrigol, Olivier (2000).
*Electrodynamics from Ampère to Einstein*. Oxford, [England]: Oxford University Press. pp. 200, 429–430. ISBN 0-19-850593-0. - ↑ Heaviside, Oliver (April 1889). "On the Electromagnetic Effects due to the Motion of Electrification through a Dielectric".
*Philosophical Magazine*: 324. - ↑ Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon,
*Versuch einer Theorie der electrischen und optischen Erscheinungen in bewegten Körpern*, 1895. - ↑ Darrigol, Olivier (2000).
*Electrodynamics from Ampère to Einstein*. Oxford, [England]: Oxford University Press. p. 327. ISBN 0-19-850593-0. - ↑ Whittaker, E. T. (1910).
*A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity: From the Age of Descartes to the Close of the Nineteenth Century*. Longmans, Green and Co. pp. 420–423. ISBN 1-143-01208-9. - ↑ See Griffiths, page 326, which states that Maxwell's equations, "together with the [Lorentz] force law...summarize the entire theoretical content of classical electrodynamics".
- ↑ See, for example, Jackson, pp. 777–8.
- ↑ J.A. Wheeler; C. Misner; K.S. Thorne (1973).
*Gravitation*. W.H. Freeman & Co. pp. 72–73. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0.. These authors use the Lorentz force in tensor form as definer of the electromagnetic tensor*F*, in turn the fields**E**and**B**. - ↑ I.S. Grant; W.R. Phillips; Manchester Physics (1990).
*Electromagnetism*(2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-471-92712-9. - ↑ I.S. Grant; W.R. Phillips; Manchester Physics (1990).
*Electromagnetism (2nd Edition)*. John Wiley & Sons. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-471-92712-9. - ↑ "Physics Experiments".
*www.physicsexperiment.co.uk*. Retrieved 2018-08-14. - 1 2 See Griffiths, pages 301–3.
- ↑ Tai L. Chow (2006).
*Electromagnetic theory*. Sudbury MA: Jones and Bartlett. p. 395. ISBN 0-7637-3827-1. - 1 2 Landau, L. D., Lifshitz, E. M., & Pitaevskiĭ, L. P. (1984).
*Electrodynamics of continuous media; Volume 8*Course of Theoretical Physics*(Second ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. p. §63 (§49 pp. 205–207 in 1960 edition). ISBN 0-7506-2634-8.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)* - ↑ Roger F Harrington (2003).
*Introduction to electromagnetic engineering*. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications. p. 56. ISBN 0-486-43241-6. - ↑ M N O Sadiku (2007).
*Elements of electromagnetics*(Fourth ed.). NY/Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 391. ISBN 0-19-530048-3. - ↑ Classical Mechanics (2nd Edition), T.W.B. Kibble, European Physics Series, McGraw Hill (UK), 1973, ISBN 0-07-084018-0.
- ↑ Jackson, J.D. Chapter 11
- ↑ Hestenes, David. "SpaceTime Calculus".

**Maxwell's equations** are a set of coupled partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits. The equations provide a mathematical model for electric, optical, and radio technologies, such as power generation, electric motors, wireless communication, lenses, radar etc. Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated by charges, currents, and changes of the fields. An important consequence of the equations is that they demonstrate how fluctuating electric and magnetic fields propagate at a constant speed (*c*) in a vacuum. Known as electromagnetic radiation, these waves may occur at various wavelengths to produce a spectrum of light from radio waves to γ-rays. The equations are named after the physicist and mathematician James Clerk Maxwell, who between 1861 and 1862 published an early form of the equations that included the Lorentz force law. Maxwell first used the equations to propose that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon.

**Classical electromagnetism** or **classical electrodynamics** is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model. The theory provides a description of electromagnetic phenomena whenever the relevant length scales and field strengths are large enough that quantum mechanical effects are negligible. For small distances and low field strengths, such interactions are better described by quantum electrodynamics.

In mathematics, the **Hamilton–Jacobi equation** (**HJE**) is a necessary condition describing extremal geometry in generalizations of problems from the calculus of variations, and is a special case of the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation. It is named for William Rowan Hamilton and Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi.

The **Vlasov equation** is a differential equation describing time evolution of the distribution function of plasma consisting of charged particles with long-range interaction, e.g. Coulomb. The equation was first suggested for description of plasma by Anatoly Vlasov in 1938 and later discussed by him in detail in a monograph.

**Stokes flow**, also named **creeping flow** or **creeping motion**, is a type of fluid flow where advective inertial forces are small compared with viscous forces. The Reynolds number is low, i.e. . This is a typical situation in flows where the fluid velocities are very slow, the viscosities are very large, or the length-scales of the flow are very small. Creeping flow was first studied to understand lubrication. In nature this type of flow occurs in the swimming of microorganisms and sperm and the flow of lava. In technology, it occurs in paint, MEMS devices, and in the flow of viscous polymers generally.

The **Maxwell stress tensor** is a symmetric second-order tensor used in classical electromagnetism to represent the interaction between electromagnetic forces and mechanical momentum. In simple situations, such as a point charge moving freely in a homogeneous magnetic field, it is easy to calculate the forces on the charge from the Lorentz force law. When the situation becomes more complicated, this ordinary procedure can become impossibly difficult, with equations spanning multiple lines. It is therefore convenient to collect many of these terms in the Maxwell stress tensor, and to use tensor arithmetic to find the answer to the problem at hand.

In quantum mechanics, the **probability current** is a mathematical quantity describing the flow of probability in terms of probability per unit time per unit area. Specifically, if one describes the probability density as a heterogeneous fluid, then the probability current is the rate of flow of this fluid. This is analogous to mass currents in hydrodynamics and electric currents in electromagnetism. It is a real vector, like electric current density. The concept of a probability current is a useful formalism in quantum mechanics.

**Lorentz–Heaviside units** constitute a system of units within CGS, named from Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Oliver Heaviside. They share with CGS-Gaussian units the property that the electric constant *ε*_{0} and magnetic constant *µ*_{0} do not appear, having been incorporated implicitly into the unit system and electromagnetic equations. Lorentz–Heaviside units may be regarded as normalizing *ε*_{0} = 1 and *µ*_{0} = 1, while at the same time revising Maxwell's equations to use the speed of light *c* instead.

In relativistic physics, the **electromagnetic stress–energy tensor** is the contribution to the stress–energy tensor due to the electromagnetic field. The stress–energy tensor describes the flow of energy and momentum in spacetime. The electromagnetic stress–energy tensor contains the negative of the classical Maxwell stress tensor that governs the electromagnetic interactions.

The covariant formulation of classical electromagnetism refers to ways of writing the laws of classical electromagnetism in a form that is manifestly invariant under Lorentz transformations, in the formalism of special relativity using rectilinear inertial coordinate systems. These expressions both make it simple to prove that the laws of classical electromagnetism take the same form in any inertial coordinate system, and also provide a way to translate the fields and forces from one frame to another. However, this is not as general as Maxwell's equations in curved spacetime or non-rectilinear coordinate systems.

The **moving magnet and conductor problem** is a famous thought experiment, originating in the 19th century, concerning the intersection of classical electromagnetism and special relativity. In it, the current in a conductor moving with constant velocity, *v*, with respect to a magnet is calculated in the frame of reference of the magnet and in the frame of reference of the conductor. The observable quantity in the experiment, the current, is the same in either case, in accordance with the basic *principle of relativity*, which states: "Only *relative* motion is observable; there is no absolute standard of rest". However, according to Maxwell's equations, the charges in the conductor experience a **magnetic force** in the frame of the magnet and an **electric force** in the frame of the conductor. The same phenomenon would seem to have two different descriptions depending on the frame of reference of the observer.

There are various **mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field** that are used in the study of electromagnetism, one of the four fundamental interactions of nature. In this article, several approaches are discussed, although the equations are in terms of electric and magnetic fields, potentials, and charges with currents, generally speaking.

In quantum mechanics, the **Pauli equation** or **Schrödinger–Pauli equation** is the formulation of the Schrödinger equation for spin-½ particles, which takes into account the interaction of the particle's spin with an external electromagnetic field. It is the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac equation and can be used where particles are moving at speeds much less than the speed of light, so that relativistic effects can be neglected. It was formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1927.

The theory of special relativity plays an important role in the modern theory of classical electromagnetism. First of all, it gives formulas for how electromagnetic objects, in particular the electric and magnetic fields, are altered under a Lorentz transformation from one inertial frame of reference to another. Secondly, it sheds light on the relationship between electricity and magnetism, showing that frame of reference determines if an observation follows electrostatic or magnetic laws. Third, it motivates a compact and convenient notation for the laws of electromagnetism, namely the "manifestly covariant" tensor form.

**Lagrangian mechanics** is a reformulation of classical mechanics, introduced by the Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1788.

In physics, **defining equations** are equations that define new quantities in terms of base quantities. This article uses the current SI system of units, not natural or characteristic units.

The magnetic radiation reaction force is a force on an electromagnet when its magnetic moment changes. One can derive an electric **radiation reaction force** for an accelerating charged particle caused by the particle emitting electromagnetic radiation. Likewise, a magnetic radiation reaction force can be derived for an accelerating magnetic moment emitting electromagnetic radiation.

In theoretical physics, **relativistic Lagrangian mechanics** is Lagrangian mechanics applied in the context of special relativity and general relativity.

**Lagrangian field theory** is a formalism in classical field theory. It is the field-theoretic analogue of Lagrangian mechanics. Lagrangian mechanics is used for discrete particles each with a finite number of degrees of freedom. Lagrangian field theory applies to continua and fields, which have an infinite number of degrees of freedom.

The numbered references refer in part to the list immediately below.

- Feynman, Richard Phillips; Leighton, Robert B.; Sands, Matthew L. (2006).
*The Feynman lectures on physics (3 vol.)*. Pearson / Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-8053-9047-2.: volume 2. - Griffiths, David J. (1999).
*Introduction to electrodynamics*(3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, [NJ.]: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-805326-X. - Jackson, John David (1999).
*Classical electrodynamics*(3rd ed.). New York, [NY.]: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-30932-X.

- Serway, Raymond A.; Jewett, John W., Jr. (2004).
*Physics for scientists and engineers, with modern physics*. Belmont, [CA.]: Thomson Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-534-40846-X. - Srednicki, Mark A. (2007).
*Quantum field theory*. Cambridge, [England] ; New York [NY.]: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86449-7.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to . Lorentz force |

- Lorentz force (demonstration)
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- Notes from Physics and Astronomy HyperPhysics at Georgia State University; see also home page
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- The Lorentz force formula on a wall directly opposite Lorentz's home in downtown Leiden

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