|Edited by||Stefan Hildebrandt|
|ISO 4||Ann. Phys. (Berl.)|
|ISSN|| 0003-3804 (print)|
Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799. The journal publishes original, peer-reviewed papers in the areas of experimental, theoretical, applied, and mathematical physics and related areas. The current editor-in-chief is Stefan Hildebrandt.Prior to 2008, its ISO 4 abbreviation was Ann. Phys. (Leipzig), and after 2008 Ann. Phys. (Berl.).
The journal is the successor to Journal der Physik published from 1790 until 1794, and Neues Journal der Physik published from 1795 until 1797.The journal has been published under a variety of names (Annalen der Physik, Annalen der Physik und der physikalischen Chemie, Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Wiedemann's Annalen der Physik und Chemie) during its history.
Originally, Annalen der Physik was published in German, then a leading scientific language. From the 1950s to the 1980s, the journal published in both German and English. Initially, only foreign authors contributed articles in English but from the 1970s German-speaking authors increasingly wrote in English in order to reach an international audience. After the German reunification in 1990, English became the only language of the journal.
The importance of Annalen der Physik unquestionably peaked in 1905 with Albert Einstein's Annus Mirabilis papers. In the 1920s, the journal lost ground to the concurrent Zeitschrift für Physik . With the 1933 emigration wave, German-language journals lost many of their best authors. During Nazi Germany, it was considered to represent "the more conservative elements within the German physics community", alongside Physikalische Zeitschrift .From 1944–1946 publication was interrupted because of World War II, but resumed in 1947 under Soviet occupation rule. While Zeitschrift für Physik moved to Western Germany, Annalen der Physik served physicists in East Germany. After the German reunification, the journal was acquired by Wiley-VCH.
A relaunch of the journal with new editor and new contents was announced for 2012.As a result of the 2012 relaunch, Annalen der Physik now features a refocused scope, an updated editorial board, and new, more modern cover designs.
The early editors-in-chief were:
With each editor, the numbering of volumes restarted from 1 (co-existent with a continuous numbering, a perpetual source of confusion).The journal was often referred to by the editor's name: Gilberts Annalen, Poggendorfs Annalen, Wiedemann's Annalen and so on, or for short Pogg. Ann., Wied. Ann.
After Drude, the work was divided between two editors: experimentalists Wilhelm Wien (1907–1928) and Eduard Grüneisen (1929–1949) and theoretician Max Planck (1907–1943, had been associate editor from 1895).
In these times, peer-review was not yet standard. Einstein, for example, just sent his manuscripts to Planck who then subsequently published them.
Some of the most famous papers published in Annalen der Physik were:
The journal is abstracted and indexed in:
According to the Journal Citation Reports , the journal has a 2015 impact factor of 3.443, ranking it 11th out of 79 journals in the category 'Physics Multidisciplinary'.
Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to deduce Wien's displacement law, which calculates the emission of a blackbody at any temperature from the emission at any one reference temperature.
Thermionic emission is the liberation of electrons from an electrode by virtue of its temperature. This occurs because the thermal energy given to the carrier overcomes the work function of the material. The charge carriers can be electrons or ions, and in older literature are sometimes referred to as thermions. After emission, a charge that is equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the total charge emitted is initially left behind in the emitting region. But if the emitter is connected to a battery, the charge left behind is neutralized by charge supplied by the battery as the emitted charge carriers move away from the emitter, and finally the emitter will be in the same state as it was before emission.
The year 1905 in science and technology involved some significant events, particularly in physics, listed below.
Heinrich Gustav Magnus was a notable German experimental scientist. His training was mostly in chemistry but his later research was mostly in physics. He spent the great bulk of his career at the University of Berlin, where he is remembered for his laboratory teaching as much as for his original research. He did not use his first given name, and was known throughout his life as Gustav Magnus.
Friedrich Wilhelm Georg Kohlrausch was a German physicist who investigated the conductive properties of electrolytes and contributed to knowledge of their behaviour. He also investigated elasticity, thermoelasticity, and thermal conduction as well as magnetic and electrical precision measurements.
Max Abraham was a German physicist. Abraham was born in Danzig, Imperial Germany to a family of Jewish merchants. His father was Moritz Abraham and his mother was Selma Moritzsohn. Attending the University of Berlin, he studied under Max Planck. He graduated in 1897. For the next three years, Abraham worked as Planck's assistant..
The history of special relativity consists of many theoretical results and empirical findings obtained by Albert A. Michelson, Hendrik Lorentz, Henri Poincaré and others. It culminated in the theory of special relativity proposed by Albert Einstein and subsequent work of Max Planck, Hermann Minkowski and others.
The Annus mirabilis papers are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik scientific journal in 1905. These four articles contributed substantially to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space, time, mass, and energy. The annus mirabilis is often called the "miracle year" in English or Wunderjahr in German.
"Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen" is the 1905 journal article, by Albert Einstein, that proved the reality of atoms, which were first proposed in 1808 by John Dalton. It is one of the four groundbreaking papers Einstein published in 1905, in Annalen der Physik, in his miracle year.
The Kaufmann–Bucherer–Neumann experiments measured the dependence of the inertial mass of an object on its velocity. The historical importance of this series of experiments performed by various physicists between 1901 and 1915 is due to the results being used to test the predictions of special relativity. The developing precision and data analysis of these experiments and the resulting influence on theoretical physics during those years is still a topic of active historical discussion, since the early experimental results at first contradicted Einstein's then newly published theory, but later versions of this experiment confirmed it. For modern experiments of that kind, see Tests of relativistic energy and momentum, for general information see Tests of special relativity.
Emil Georg Cohn, was a German physicist.
Kurd Friedrich Rudolf von Mosengeil, also Curd Friedrich Rudolf von Mosengeil, was a German physicist.
Jakob Johann Laub was a physicist from Austria-Hungary, who is best known for his work with Albert Einstein in the early period of special relativity.
Alfred Heinrich Bucherer was a German physicist, who is known for his experiments on relativistic mass. He also was the first who used the phrase "theory of relativity" for Einstein's theory of special relativity.
Paul Gerber was a German physics teacher. He studied in Berlin from 1872-1875. In 1877 he became a teacher at the Realgymnasium in Stargard in Pommern. Gerber is known for his controversial work on the speed of gravity and the perihelion shift of Mercury's orbit.
Vladimir Sergeyevitch Ignatowski, or Waldemar Sergius von Ignatowsky and similar names in other publications, was a Russian physicist.
In physics, a quantum is the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction. The fundamental notion that a physical property can be "quantized" is referred to as "the hypothesis of quantization". This means that the magnitude of the physical property can take on only discrete values consisting of integer multiples of one quantum.
Friedrich Kottler was an Austrian theoretical physicist. He was a Privatdozent before he got a professorship in 1923 at the University of Vienna.
Criticism of the theory of relativity of Albert Einstein was mainly expressed in the early years after its publication in the early twentieth century, on scientific, pseudoscientific, philosophical, or ideological bases. Though some of these criticisms had the support of reputable scientists, Einstein's theory of relativity is now accepted by the scientific community.
Father of quantum mechanics is a moniker applied to several individuals. Strictly speaking, Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrödinger have equal claim and recognition. Max Planck unwittingly originated the vast field of quantum theory with his famous Planck Equation and is regarded as the 'true but reluctant father' of the modern concept of 'quantum of energy' that underlies all quantum phenomena. However, according to acclaimed science historian Thomas Kuhn, head of applied physics Douglas A. Stone, cognitive scientist Douglas Hofstadter and many others, including Planck himself, it was Albert Einstein who quantized the radiation field by arguing that light itself was quantized - as opposed to Planck's much more ambiguous argument that quantization only occurred at the sites of emission and absorption. Kuhn, Stone and Hofstadter all argue that it was Einstein, not Planck, who quantized the radiation field. For this reason, and his many other seminal contributions to quantum theory, Einstein is regarded by many science historians as the father of quantum theory.